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Chemical Compound Review

Cinna     1-benzhydryl-4-cinnamyl- piperazine

Synonyms: Abitrate, Cerepar, SureCN44958, AG-E-16393, AG-E-97451, ...
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Disease relevance of cinnarizine


Psychiatry related information on cinnarizine


High impact information on cinnarizine


Chemical compound and disease context of cinnarizine


Biological context of cinnarizine


Anatomical context of cinnarizine


Associations of cinnarizine with other chemical compounds

  • Whereas ( +/- )-nitrendipine very potently displaced (+)-[3H]PN200-110 binding (IC50 = 1.3 nM) verapamil and cinnarizine displaced the binding by only 30 and 40% at 1 microM, and diltiazem increased it by 20% at 10 microM [27].
  • In addition, the increase in ACh release induced by SS-14 or SS-28 was antagonized by the calcium channel antagonists omega-conotoxin GVIA, nifedipine, and cinnarizine, implicating voltage-sensitive calcium channels in this effect [28].
  • However, whereas inhibition of superprecipitation and P-light chain phosphorylation by W-7 was equal at different Mg++ concentrations, relatively greater inhibition with perhexiline and less inhibition with cinnarizine was apparent as the free Mg++ concentration was lowered [20].
  • An oral combination of cinnarizine and lorazepam was studied for the prophylaxis of nausea and vomiting induced by strongly emetogenic cancer chemotherapy [29].
  • Ca++ antagonists, nonselective for slow Ca++ channels (flunarizine, cinnarizine, lidoflazine, prenylamine and bepridil) inhibited veratridine-induced release of LDH with IC50 values between 0.11 and 0.47 microM [30].

Gene context of cinnarizine


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of cinnarizine


  1. Cinnarizine in the prophylaxis of seasickness: laboratory vestibular evaluation and sea study. Shupak, A., Doweck, I., Gordon, C.R., Spitzer, O. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. (1994) [Pubmed]
  2. Flunarizine and cinnarizine inhibit mitochondrial complexes I and II: possible implication for parkinsonism. Veitch, K., Hue, L. Mol. Pharmacol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  3. Functional, behavioral, and histological changes induced by transient global cerebral ischemia in rats: effects of cinnarizine and flunarizine. Poignet, H., Beaughard, M., Lecoin, G., Massingham, R. J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. (1989) [Pubmed]
  4. Flunarizine. A review of its pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties and therapeutic use. Holmes, B., Brogden, R.N., Heel, R.C., Speight, T.M., Avery, G.S. Drugs (1984) [Pubmed]
  5. Cinnarizine-induced cholestasis. Colle, I., Reynaert, H., Naegels, S., Hoorens, A., Urbain, D. J. Hepatol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  6. Effect of peripheral administration of cinnarizine and verapamil on the abstinence syndrome in diazepam-dependent rats. Chugh, Y., Saha, N., Sankaranarayanan, A., Sharma, P.L. Psychopharmacology (Berl.) (1992) [Pubmed]
  7. Promethazine, scopolamine and cinnarizine: comparative time course of psychological performance effects. Parrott, A.C., Wesnes, K. Psychopharmacology (Berl.) (1987) [Pubmed]
  8. The effects of dimenhydrinate, cinnarizine and transdermal scopolamine on performance. Gordon, C.R., Gonen, A., Nachum, Z., Doweck, I., Spitzer, O., Shupak, A. J. Psychopharmacol. (Oxford) (2001) [Pubmed]
  9. A double-blind crossover study comparing betahistine and cinnarizine in the treatment of recurrent vertigo in patients in general practice. Deering, R.B., Prescott, P., Simmons, R.L., Downey, L.J. Current medical research and opinion. (1986) [Pubmed]
  10. Pre-electroconvulsive shock administration of calcium channel blockers reduces retrograde amnesia induced by ECS. Sushma, M., Sudha, S., Guido, S. Indian J. Exp. Biol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  11. Identification and characterization of voltage-sensitive calcium channels in neuronal clonal cell lines. Freedman, S.B., Dawson, G., Villereal, M.L., Miller, R.J. J. Neurosci. (1984) [Pubmed]
  12. D2 receptor blockade by flunarizine and cinnarizine explains extrapyramidal side effects. A SPECT study. Brücke, T., Wöber, C., Podreka, I., Wöber-Bingöl, C., Asenbaum, S., Aull, S., Wenger, S., Ilieva, D., Harasko-van der Meer, C., Wessely, P. J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. (1995) [Pubmed]
  13. Tissue heterogeneity of calcium channel antagonist binding sites labeled by [3H]nitrendipine. Gould, R.J., Murphy, K.M., Snyder, S.H. Mol. Pharmacol. (1984) [Pubmed]
  14. Effects of calcium entry blockers on tension development and calcium influx in rat uterus. Granger, S.E., Hollingsworth, M., Weston, A.H. Br. J. Pharmacol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  15. The role of the serotonergic system in foot shock-induced behavior in mice. Roliński, Z., Herbut, M. Psychopharmacology (Berl.) (1981) [Pubmed]
  16. Effects of cinnarizine, a calcium antagonist that produces human parkinsonism, in parkin knock out mice. Serrano, A., Menéndez, J., Casarejos, M.J., Solano, R.M., Gallego, E., Sánchez, M., Mena, M.A., García de Yebenes, J. Neuropharmacology (2005) [Pubmed]
  17. Comparison of cinnarizine, cyproheptadine, doxepin, and hydroxyzine in treatment of idiopathic cold urticaria: usefulness of doxepin. Neittaanmäki, H., Myöhänen, T., Fräki, J.E. J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. (1984) [Pubmed]
  18. Subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus associated with cinnarizine and thiethylperazine therapy. Toll, A., Campo-Pisa, P., González-Castro, J., Campo-Voegeli, A., Azón, A., Iranzo, P., Lecha, M., Herrero, C. Lupus (1998) [Pubmed]
  19. The inhibition of lipid peroxidation by cinnarizine. Possible implications to its therapeutic and side-effects. Fernandes, A.C., Filipe, P.M., Coelho, H., Manso, C.F. Biochem. Pharmacol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  20. Effects of the calcium antagonists perhexiline and cinnarizine on vascular and cardiac contractile protein function. Silver, P.J., Dachiw, J., Ambrose, J.M., Pinto, P.B. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. (1985) [Pubmed]
  21. Drug-induced parkinsonism: cinnarizine and flunarizine are potent uncouplers of the vacuolar H+-ATPase in catecholamine storage vesicles. Terland, O., Flatmark, T. Neuropharmacology (1999) [Pubmed]
  22. The effects of verapamil, prenylamine, flunarizine and cinnarizine on coronary artery occlusion-induced arrhythmias in anaesthetized rats. Fagbemi, O., Kane, K.A., McDonald, F.M., Parratt, J.R., Rothaul, A.L. Br. J. Pharmacol. (1984) [Pubmed]
  23. Cinnarizine and flunarizine as radiation sensitisers in two murine tumours. Wood, P.J., Hirst, D.G. Br. J. Cancer (1988) [Pubmed]
  24. Actions of prostaglandin F2 alpha and noradrenaline on calcium exchange and contraction in rat mesenteric arteries and their sensitivity to calcium entry blockers. Godfraind, T., Miller, R.C. Br. J. Pharmacol. (1982) [Pubmed]
  25. Oxidative metabolism of cinnarizine in rat liver microsomes. Kariya, S., Isozaki, S., Narimatsu, S., Suzuki, T. Biochem. Pharmacol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  26. Inhibition of voltage-gated calcium currents in type II vestibular hair cells by cinnarizine. Arab, S.F., Düwel, P., Jüngling, E., Westhofen, M., Lückhoff, A. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch. Pharmacol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  27. (+)-PN200-110 and ouabain binding sites in purified bovine adrenomedullary plasma membranes and chromaffin cells. Castillo, C.J., Fonteríz, R.I., López, M.G., Rosenheck, K., García, A.G. J. Neurochem. (1989) [Pubmed]
  28. Evidence that somatostatin enhances endogenous acetylcholine release in the rat hippocampus. Araujo, D.M., Lapchak, P.A., Collier, B., Quirion, R. J. Neurochem. (1990) [Pubmed]
  29. Antiemetic prophylaxis of cancer chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting with cinnarizine and lorazepam. Wilder-Smith, C.H., Senn, H.J. Oncology (1989) [Pubmed]
  30. Neurotoxic action of veratridine in rat brain neuronal cultures: mechanism of neuroprotection by Ca++ antagonists nonselective for slow Ca++ channels. Pauwels, P.J., Van Assouw, H.P., Peeters, L., Leysen, J.E. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. (1990) [Pubmed]
  31. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide causes Ca2+ release from ryanodine/caffeine stores through a novel pathway independent of both inositol trisphosphates and cyclic AMP in bovine adrenal medullary cells. Tanaka, K., Shibuya, I., Uezono, Y., Ueta, Y., Toyohira, Y., Yanagihara, N., Izumi, F., Kanno, T., Yamashita, H. J. Neurochem. (1998) [Pubmed]
  32. Oxidative metabolism of flunarizine and cinnarizine by microsomes from B-lymphoblastoid cell lines expressing human cytochrome P450 enzymes. Kariya, S., Isozaki, S., Uchino, K., Suzuki, T., Narimatsu, S. Biol. Pharm. Bull. (1996) [Pubmed]
  33. Functional overlap of IP(3)- and cADP-ribose-sensitive calcium stores in guinea pig myenteric neurons. Turner, D.J., Segura, B.J., Cowles, R.A., Zhang, W., Mulholland, M.W. Am. J. Physiol. Gastrointest. Liver Physiol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  34. beta-cyclodextrin derivatives, SBE4-beta-CD and HP-beta-CD, increase the oral bioavailability of cinnarizine in beagle dogs. Järvinen, T., Järvinen, K., Schwarting, N., Stella, V.J. Journal of pharmaceutical sciences. (1995) [Pubmed]
  35. Determination of cinnarizine in plasma by high-performance liquid chromatography. Hundt, H.K. J. Chromatogr. (1982) [Pubmed]
  36. Plasma cinnarizine levels resulting from oral administration as capsule or tablet formulation investigated by gas-liquid chromatography. Morrison, P.J., Bradbrook, I.D., Rogers, H.J. British journal of clinical pharmacology. (1979) [Pubmed]
  37. Cinnarizine has an atypical antipsychotic profile in animal models of psychosis. Dall'Igna, O.P., Tort, A.B., Souza, D.O., Lara, D.R. J. Psychopharmacol. (Oxford) (2005) [Pubmed]
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