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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review

Bed Rest

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Disease relevance of Bed Rest


Psychiatry related information on Bed Rest

  • Plasma for cortisol determination was obtained from 15 combat veterans with PTSD, 14 subjects with major depression, and 15 normal men every 30 min during a 24-hour period of bed rest [6].
  • These studies demonstrate that the limited physical activity dictated by bed rest for as little as seven days is associated with substantial resistance to insulin's effects on glucose metabolism [7].
  • Sera from a total of 31 pregnant women, including 16 of the bed-rest therapy group and 15 of the IDI therapy group, were collected at the 4th, 6th, and 8th gestational weeks and were measured for M-CSF levels, using the enzyme-linked immunoadsorbent assay (ELISA) method established by Hanamura et al [8].

High impact information on Bed Rest

  • With bed rest, the plasma hypoxanthine level returned to normal within a few hours, and the plasma urate concentration decreased from 18.6 to 10.6 mg per deciliter (1106 to 630 mumol per liter) within 48 hours [9].
  • Similarly, the urinary excretion of these purine metabolites was reduced by bed rest [9].
  • During a period of bedrest deconditioning in humans, infusions of dobutamine maintain many of the physiologic expressions of physical conditioning [10].
  • The effects of intermittent infusions of dobutamine were studied in young normal male subjects during a period of bedrest deconditioning to determine whether this synthetic catechol affects physical conditioning processes in humans [10].
  • METHODS: The knees of 97 patients with persistent arthritis despite outpatient treatment with IA GCs (n = 113 knees), were treated with either IA (90)Y plus GCs (50%) or IA placebo yttrium plus GCs (50%), followed by 3 days of bed rest in the hospital clinic, with splinting of the treated knee [11].

Chemical compound and disease context of Bed Rest


Biological context of Bed Rest

  • A 24% decrease in nonoxidative leucine disappearance was seen in subjects assigned to the lower-protein diet, who had been on bed rest, but on the higher-protein diet, leucine kinetics were unchanged by bed rest [16].
  • Ibuprofen impaired the NO response to bed rest, producing a small rise in blood pressure [17].
  • Heart rate, epinephrine, and PRA responses to upright tilt after bed rest were increased (P < 0.05), despite the fluid load [18].
  • The timing of the peak in serum cytidine deaminase concentrations after a period of morning physiotherapy, but not during the bedrest morning, suggests that exercise accounts for the circadian rhythm, probably by increasing the lymphatic clearance from inflamed joints [19].
  • After bed rest, LBNP tolerance was reduced in 11 of 13 subjects (P <.023), HR was greater (P <.002), cardiac output was unchanged, and the ability to augment MSNA at high levels of LBNP was reduced (rate of rise for 30- to 60-mmHg LBNP before bed rest 0.073 bursts x min(-1) x mmHg(-1); after bed rest 0.035 bursts x min(-1) x mmHg(-1); P < 0.016) [20].

Anatomical context of Bed Rest


Associations of Bed Rest with chemical compounds

  • Serum levels of hyaluronan, antigenic keratan sulfate, matrix metalloproteinase 3, and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 1 change predictably in rheumatoid arthritis patients who have begun activity after a night of bed rest [26].
  • Prevention of hypercalciuria and stone-forming propensity during prolonged bedrest by alendronate [27].
  • Similarly, DPD increased significantly at the onset of bed rest, remained elevated for the duration of bed rest, and returned to pre-bed rest levels upon reambulation [28].
  • In contrast to SALP, serum osteocalcin (OC) began increasing the day preceding the increase in Hyp, remained elevated for the duration of the bed rest, and returned to pre-bed rest values within 5 days of reambulation [28].
  • Pamidronate (60 mg) was administered intravenously 14 days before bed rest [2].

Gene context of Bed Rest


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Bed Rest

  • Using a model of bedrest immobilization, the ability of a potent aminobisphosphonate, alendronate, to avert hypercalciuria and stone-forming propensity was tested [27].
  • In a program of studies of disuse osteoporosis, fluoride balances were determined in healthy men during ambulation and then during bed rest for 6 to 17 wk [33].
  • After propranolol administration, tolerance to a maximal lower body negative pressure (LBNP) test after bed rest improved to at least the -70 mm Hg level; following this, there was a sharp decrease in tolerance time [34].
  • Because of a high 'placebo effect' of simple bed rest, a only small and short lasting additional effect of PMFT and high costs of a PMF-device, we cannot recommend PMFT as an additional feature of a multimodal neurological rehabilitation program in order to reduce fatigue level of MS-patients [35].
  • All patients were treated initially with bedrest, fluid resuscitation, extremity elevation, and systemic high-dose heparin therapy [36].


  1. Placebo-controlled trial of atenolol in treatment of pregnancy-associated hypertension. Rubin, P.C., Butters, L., Clark, D.M., Reynolds, B., Sumner, D.J., Steedman, D., Low, R.A., Reid, J.L. Lancet (1983) [Pubmed]
  2. Intravenous pamidronate prevents femoral bone loss and renal stone formation during 90-day bed rest. Watanabe, Y., Ohshima, H., Mizuno, K., Sekiguchi, C., Fukunaga, M., Kohri, K., Rittweger, J., Felsenberg, D., Matsumoto, T., Nakamura, T. J. Bone Miner. Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  3. Changes of cartilage and bone markers after intra-articular glucocorticoid treatment with and without postinjection rest in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Weitoft, T., Larsson, A., Saxne, T., Rönnblom, L. Ann. Rheum. Dis. (2005) [Pubmed]
  4. The importance of personality measurement in the assessment of response to treatment for ischaemic rest pain. Wong, A.L., McBain, G.C. The British journal of surgery. (1980) [Pubmed]
  5. Compression and walking versus bed rest in the treatment of proximal deep venous thrombosis with low molecular weight heparin. Partsch, H., Blättler, W. J. Vasc. Surg. (2000) [Pubmed]
  6. Cortisol regulation in posttraumatic stress disorder and major depression: a chronobiological analysis. Yehuda, R., Teicher, M.H., Trestman, R.L., Levengood, R.A., Siever, L.J. Biol. Psychiatry (1996) [Pubmed]
  7. Bed-rest-induced insulin resistance occurs primarily in muscle. Stuart, C.A., Shangraw, R.E., Prince, M.J., Peters, E.J., Wolfe, R.R. Metab. Clin. Exp. (1988) [Pubmed]
  8. Low serum M-CSF levels are associated with unexplained recurrent abortion. Katano, K., Matsumoto, Y., Ogasawara, M., Aoyama, T., Ozaki, Y., Kajiura, S., Aoki, K. Am. J. Reprod. Immunol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  9. Myogenic hyperuricemia. A common pathophysiologic feature of glycogenosis types III, V, and VII. Mineo, I., Kono, N., Hara, N., Shimizu, T., Yamada, Y., Kawachi, M., Kiyokawa, H., Wang, Y.L., Tarui, S. N. Engl. J. Med. (1987) [Pubmed]
  10. Prevention of bedrest-induced physical deconditioning by daily dobutamine infusions. Implications for drug-induced physical conditioning. Sullivan, M.J., Binkley, P.F., Unverferth, D.V., Ren, J.H., Boudoulas, H., Bashore, T.M., Merola, A.J., Leier, C.V. J. Clin. Invest. (1985) [Pubmed]
  11. Is radiation synovectomy for arthritis of the knee more effective than intraarticular treatment with glucocorticoids? Results of an eighteen-month, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial. Jahangier, Z.N., Jacobs, J.W., Lafeber, F.P., Moolenburgh, J.D., Swen, W.A., Bruyn, G.A., Griep, E.N., ter Borg, E.J., Bijlsma, J.W. Arthritis Rheum. (2005) [Pubmed]
  12. Bilateral excision of perinephric fat and fascia (Gerota's fasciectomy) in the treatment of intractable chyluria. Pool, M.O., van der Hem, K.G., Stel, H.V., Luth, W.J., Rasker, F.M., Gans, R.O. J. Urol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  13. Pyoderma gangrenosum complicating ulcerative colitis: successful treatment with methylprednisolone pulse therapy and dapsone. Galun, E., Flugelman, M.Y., Rachmilewitz, D. Am. J. Gastroenterol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  14. Prevention of amputation caused by rheumatic diseases following a novel therapy of exposing bone marrow, occlusive dressing and subsequent epidermal grafting. Yamaguchi, Y., Sumikawa, Y., Yoshida, S., Kubo, T., Yoshikawa, K., Itami, S. Br. J. Dermatol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  15. Unstable angina pectoris. Cairns, J.A., Fantus, I.G., Klassen, G.A. Am. Heart J. (1976) [Pubmed]
  16. Effect of dietary protein on bed-rest-related changes in whole-body-protein synthesis. Stuart, C.A., Shangraw, R.E., Peters, E.J., Wolfe, R.R. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (1990) [Pubmed]
  17. Down-regulation of nitric oxide production by ibuprofen in human volunteers. Vandivier, R.W., Eidsath, A., Banks, S.M., Preas, H.L., Leighton, S.B., Godin, P.J., Suffredini, A.F., Danner, R.L. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. (1999) [Pubmed]
  18. Plasma volume restoration with salt tablets and water after bed rest prevents orthostatic hypotension and changes in supine hemodynamic and endocrine variables. Waters, W.W., Platts, S.H., Mitchell, B.M., Whitson, P.A., Meck, J.V. Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  19. Circadian rhythm of serum cytidine deaminase in patients with rheumatoid arthritis during rest and exercise. Thompson, P.W., James, I.T., Wheatcroft, S., Pownall, R., Barnes, C.G. Ann. Rheum. Dis. (1989) [Pubmed]
  20. Attenuated sympathetic nerve responses after 24 hours of bed rest. Khan, M.H., Kunselman, A.R., Leuenberger, U.A., Davidson, W.R., Ray, C.A., Gray, K.S., Hogeman, C.S., Sinoway, L.I. Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  21. Human single muscle fibre function with 84 day bed-rest and resistance exercise. Trappe, S., Trappe, T., Gallagher, P., Harber, M., Alkner, B., Tesch, P. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (2004) [Pubmed]
  22. Improvement of human myocardial mitochondria after dobutamine: a quantitative ultrastructural study. Unverferth, D.V., Leier, C.V., Magorien, R.D., Croskery, R., Svirbely, J.R., Kolibash, A.J., Dick, M.R., Meacham, J.A., Baba, N. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. (1980) [Pubmed]
  23. Vascular adaptation to deconditioning and the effect of an exercise countermeasure: results of the Berlin Bed Rest study. Bleeker, M.W., De Groot, P.C., Rongen, G.A., Rittweger, J., Felsenberg, D., Smits, P., Hopman, M.T. J. Appl. Physiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  24. Resistance training affects GLUT-4 content in skeletal muscle of humans after 19 days of head-down bed rest. Tabata, I., Suzuki, Y., Fukunaga, T., Yokozeki, T., Akima, H., Funato, K. J. Appl. Physiol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  25. Use of bed rest and head-down tilt to simulate spaceflight-induce immune system changes. Schmitt, D.A., Schaffar, L., Taylor, G.R., Loftin, K.C., Schneider, V.S., Koebel, A., Abbal, M., Sonnenfeld, G., Lewis, D.E., Reuben, J.R., Ferebee, R. J. Interferon Cytokine Res. (1996) [Pubmed]
  26. Serum levels of hyaluronan, antigenic keratan sulfate, matrix metalloproteinase 3, and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 1 change predictably in rheumatoid arthritis patients who have begun activity after a night of bed rest. Manicourt, D.H., Poilvache, P., Nzeusseu, A., van Egeren, A., Devogelaer, J.P., Lenz, M.E., Thonar, E.J. Arthritis Rheum. (1999) [Pubmed]
  27. Prevention of hypercalciuria and stone-forming propensity during prolonged bedrest by alendronate. Ruml, L.A., Dubois, S.K., Roberts, M.L., Pak, C.Y. J. Bone Miner. Res. (1995) [Pubmed]
  28. Changes in markers of bone formation and resorption in a bed rest model of weightlessness. Lueken, S.A., Arnaud, S.B., Taylor, A.K., Baylink, D.J. J. Bone Miner. Res. (1993) [Pubmed]
  29. Differential expression of nitric oxide synthases (NOS 1-3) in human skeletal muscle following exercise countermeasure during 12 weeks of bed rest. Rudnick, J., Püttmann, B., Tesch, P.A., Alkner, B., Schoser, B.G., Salanova, M., Kirsch, K., Gunga, H.C., Schiffl, G., Lück, G., Blottner, D. FASEB J. (2004) [Pubmed]
  30. Short-term hypocaloric nutrition but not bed rest decrease insulin sensitivity and IGF-I bioavailability in healthy subjects: the importance of glucagon. Nygren, J., Thorell, A., Brismar, K., Karpe, F., Ljungqvist, O. Nutrition (Burbank, Los Angeles County, Calif.) (1997) [Pubmed]
  31. Altered biochemical markers of bone turnover in humans during 120 days of bed rest. Inoue, M., Tanaka, H., Moriwake, T., Oka, M., Sekiguchi, C., Seino, Y. Bone (2000) [Pubmed]
  32. Effect of 20 days' bed rest on the reverse cholesterol transport system in healthy young subjects. Yanagibori, R., Kondo, K., Suzuki, Y., Kawakubo, K., Iwamoto, T., Itakura, H., Gunji, A. J. Intern. Med. (1998) [Pubmed]
  33. Fluoride balance studies in healthy men during bed rest with and without a fluoride supplement.. Maheshwari, U.R., Schneider, V.S., McDonald, J.T., Brunetti, A.J., Leybin, L., Newbrun, E., Hodge, H. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (1982) [Pubmed]
  34. Beta blockade in the compensation for bed-rest cardiovascular deconditioning: physiologic and pharmacologic observations. Sandler, H., Goldwater, D.J., Popp, R.L., Spaccavento, L., Harrison, D.C. Am. J. Cardiol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  35. Effect of pulsed magnetic field therapy on the level of fatigue in patients with multiple sclerosis--a randomized controlled trial. Mostert, S., Kesselring, J. Mult. Scler. (2005) [Pubmed]
  36. Advances in the treatment of phlegmasia cerulea dolens. Hood, D.B., Weaver, F.A., Modrall, J.G., Yellin, A.E. Am. J. Surg. (1993) [Pubmed]
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