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Chemical Compound Review

OptiPrep     5-[[3-[[3,5-bis(2,3- dihydroxypropylcarbamo...

Synonyms: Indixanol, Visipaque, iodixanol, Iodixanolum, Visipaque 270, ...
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Disease relevance of iodixanol

  • We have purified Moloney murine leukemia virus Gag particles by sedimentation in an iodixanol gradient and donor PMs by flotation in a sucrose gradient and compared their protein compositions at equal lipid basis [1].
  • Association between hepatitis C virus and very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL)/LDL analyzed in iodixanol density gradients [2].
  • Its association with virions was confirmed by velocity sedimentation through iodixanol, which effectively separated membrane microvesicles from virus particles [3].
  • A new nonionic dimeric contrast medium (CM), iodixanol, was intravenously administered to 40 healthy male volunteers in doses of 0.3-1.2 g of iodine per kilogram of body weight, nonionic monomeric iopamidol and iopentol were administered to 20 others, and the renal effects were studied up to 120 hours after administration [4].
  • Fractionation of hepatoma cell lysates on iodixanol gradients showed rapid depletion of cytosolic ferritin by DFO treatment but no accumulation in lysosomes [5].

Psychiatry related information on iodixanol


High impact information on iodixanol

  • Importantly, P-APP cofractionates with endosome markers and BACE1 in an iodixanol gradient and displays extensive colocalization with BACE1 in rat primary cortical neurons [7].
  • Iodixanol gradient analysis of membranes isolated from other cell types indicated that a substantial proportion of GLUT4 was targeted to peak 1 in skeletal muscle, whereas in CHO cells most of the GLUT4 was targeted to peak 2 [8].
  • A crude intracellular membrane fraction was prepared from 3T3-L1 adipocytes and subjected to iodixanol equilibrium sedimentation analysis [8].
  • Contractile vacuole bladders were isolated by subcellular fractionation in iodixanol gradients, showed a high concentration of basic amino acids and inorganic phosphate, and were able to transport protons in the presence of ATP or pyrophosphate [9].
  • Purification of the electron-dense vacuoles using iodixanol density gradients indicated a preferential localization of the H(+)-PPase and the V-H(+)-ATPase activities in addition to high concentrations of PP(i) and short and long chain polyphosphate, but lack of markers for mitochondria and chloroplasts [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of iodixanol


Biological context of iodixanol


Anatomical context of iodixanol


Associations of iodixanol with other chemical compounds


Gene context of iodixanol

  • When the CT-related reductase activity was assayed in subcellular fractions of PNS-derived membranes isolated on a 9-30% Iodixanol gradient, the activity, as measured by CT-A1 peptide formation localized to those fractions containing PDI [29].
  • Iodixanol gradient centrifugation showed VAMP7 to be isodense with ER and endosomes [30].
  • Purification of recombinant adeno-associated virus by iodixanol gradient ultracentrifugation allows rapid and reproducible preparation of vector stocks for gene transfer in the nervous system [17].
  • Following fractionation of the small membrane pellet on an iodixanol density gradient, the gene 1 proteins p28 and helicase cofractionated with dense membranes (1.12 to 1.13 g/ml) that also contained peak concentrations of N [31].
  • The lysosomal enzyme N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminidase increased more with the monomeric CM than with iodixanol [4].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of iodixanol

  • The mass-dense granules of Dictyostelium discoideum were shown to contain large amounts of phosphorus, magnesium, and calcium, as determined by x-ray microanalysis, either in situ or when purified using iodixanol gradient centrifugation [32].
  • Iodixanol in excretory urography: initial clinical experience with a nonionic, dimeric (ratio 6:1) contrast medium. Work in progress [33].
  • This report presents novel methodology for the separation of sdLDL by a combination of iodixanol density gradient centrifugation and digital photography [34].
  • At infusion rates of 0.1 and 0.3 ml/min, the low-osmolar ionic CM ioxaglate reduced both platelet and fibrin deposition on the stents by 75-80% (p <0.005), while both iohexol and iodixanol reduced platelet deposition by 30-50% (p <0.05) [35].
  • In clinical trials, iodixanol had a similar tolerability profile to other nonionic contrast media but induced fewer adverse events than ioxaglate [21].


  1. Minimal exclusion of plasma membrane proteins during retroviral envelope formation. Hammarstedt, M., Wallengren, K., Pedersen, K.W., Roos, N., Garoff, H. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2000) [Pubmed]
  2. Association between hepatitis C virus and very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL)/LDL analyzed in iodixanol density gradients. Nielsen, S.U., Bassendine, M.F., Burt, A.D., Martin, C., Pumeechockchai, W., Toms, G.L. J. Virol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  3. N-terminal cleavage fragment of glycosylated Gag is incorporated into murine oncornavirus particles. Fujisawa, R., McAtee, F.J., Favara, C., Hayes, S.F., Portis, J.L. J. Virol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  4. Evaluation of renal function with delayed CT after injection of nonionic monomeric and dimeric contrast media in healthy volunteers. Jakobsen, J.A., Lundby, B., Kristoffersen, D.T., Borch, K.W., Hald, J.K., Berg, K.J. Radiology. (1992) [Pubmed]
  5. Release of iron from ferritin requires lysosomal activity. Kidane, T.Z., Sauble, E., Linder, M.C. Am. J. Physiol., Cell Physiol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  6. Iodixanol and ioxaglate in cardioangiography: a double-blind randomized phase III study. Andersen, P.E., Bolstad, B., Berg, K.J., Justesen, P., Thayssen, P., Kloster, Y.F. Clinical radiology. (1993) [Pubmed]
  7. APP processing is regulated by cytoplasmic phosphorylation. Lee, M.S., Kao, S.C., Lemere, C.A., Xia, W., Tseng, H.C., Zhou, Y., Neve, R., Ahlijanian, M.K., Tsai, L.H. J. Cell Biol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  8. Characterization of insulin-responsive GLUT4 storage vesicles isolated from 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Hashiramoto, M., James, D.E. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  9. Acidocalcisomes and the contractile vacuole complex are involved in osmoregulation in Trypanosoma cruzi. Rohloff, P., Montalvetti, A., Docampo, R. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  10. The polyphosphate bodies of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii possess a proton-pumping pyrophosphatase and are similar to acidocalcisomes. Ruiz, F.A., Marchesini, N., Seufferheld, M., Govindjee, n.u.l.l., Docampo, R. J. Biol. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  11. Insulin-induced protein tyrosine phosphorylation cascade and signalling molecules are localized in a caveolin-enriched cell membrane domain. Smith, R.M., Harada, S., Smith, J.A., Zhang, S., Jarett, L. Cell. Signal. (1998) [Pubmed]
  12. Evaluation of renal arteries with use of gadoterate meglumine-, CO(2)-, and iodixanol-enhanced DSA measurements versus histomorphometry in renal artery restenosis in rabbits. Le Blanche, A.F., Bazot, M.J., Bonneau, M., Farres, M.T., Wassef, M., Levy, B., Bigot, J.M., Boudghene, F. Journal of vascular and interventional radiology : JVIR. (2001) [Pubmed]
  13. Angiography with nonionic X-ray contrast media in severe chronic renal failure: renal function and contrast retention. Jakobsen, J.A., Berg, K.J., Kjaersgaard, P., Kolmannskog, F., Nordal, K.P., Nossen, J.O., Rootwelt, K. Nephron (1996) [Pubmed]
  14. Contrast media-induced ventricular fibrillation: an experimental study of the effects of dimeric contrast media during wedged catheter injection in dogs. Pedersen, H.K., Jacobsen, E.A., Refsum, H. Academic radiology. (1994) [Pubmed]
  15. Adding sodium and calcium ions to iodixanol and mannitol: effects on risk of ventricular fibrillation after infusion into the left coronary artery of pigs. Almén, T., Chai, C.M., Besjakov, J., Bååth, L. Academic radiology. (2002) [Pubmed]
  16. Tip-growing cells of the moss Ceratodon purpureus Are gravitropic in high-density media. Schwuchow, J.M., Kern, V.D., Sack, F.D. Plant Physiol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  17. Purification of recombinant adeno-associated virus by iodixanol gradient ultracentrifugation allows rapid and reproducible preparation of vector stocks for gene transfer in the nervous system. Hermens, W.T., ter Brake, O., Dijkhuizen, P.A., Sonnemans, M.A., Grimm, D., Kleinschmidt, J.A., Verhaagen, J. Hum. Gene Ther. (1999) [Pubmed]
  18. Contrast medium attenuates platelet activation and platelet-leukocyte cross-talk. Ji, Q., Ghaly, M., Hjemdahl, P., Tornvall, P., Li, N. Thromb. Haemost. (2005) [Pubmed]
  19. Ionic mechanisms contributing to the vasorelaxant properties of iodinated contrast media: a comparison of iohexol and iodixanol in the rabbit isolated aorta. Pitman, M.R., Karlsson, J.O., Griffith, T.M. Br. J. Pharmacol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  20. Human pharmacokinetics of iodixanol. Svaland, M.G., Haider, T., Langseth-Manrique, K., Andrew, E., Hals, P.A. Investigative radiology. (1992) [Pubmed]
  21. Iodixanol. A review of its pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties and diagnostic use as an x-ray contrast medium. Spencer, C.M., Goa, K.L. Drugs (1996) [Pubmed]
  22. A role for smooth endoplasmic reticulum membrane cholesterol ester in determining the intracellular location and regulation of sterol-regulatory-element-binding protein-2. Iddon, C.R., Wilkinson, J., Bennett, A.J., Bennett, J., Salter, A.M., Higgins, J.A. Biochem. J. (2001) [Pubmed]
  23. Investigation of the role of lipids in the assembly of very low density lipoproteins in rabbit hepatocytes. Cartwright, I.J., Higgins, J.A., Wilkinson, J., Bellavia, S., Kendrick, J.S., Graham, J.M. J. Lipid Res. (1997) [Pubmed]
  24. Successful islet transplantation from nonheartbeating donor pancreata using modified Ricordi islet isolation method. Matsumoto, S., Okitsu, T., Iwanaga, Y., Noguchi, H., Nagata, H., Yonekawa, Y., Yamada, Y., Fukuda, K., Shibata, T., Kasai, Y., Maekawa, T., Wada, H., Nakamura, T., Tanaka, K. Transplantation (2006) [Pubmed]
  25. CT of deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolus: does iso-osmolar contrast agent improve vascular opacification? Goodman, L.R., Gulsun, M., Nagy, P., Washington, L. Radiology. (2005) [Pubmed]
  26. Lipoprotein lipase and leptin are accumulated in different secretory compartments in rat adipocytes. Roh, C., Roduit, R., Thorens, B., Fried, S., Kandror, K.V. J. Biol. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  27. Recombinant adeno-associated virus purification using novel methods improves infectious titer and yield. Zolotukhin, S., Byrne, B.J., Mason, E., Zolotukhin, I., Potter, M., Chesnut, K., Summerford, C., Samulski, R.J., Muzyczka, N. Gene Ther. (1999) [Pubmed]
  28. Distribution of liposome-encapsulated iodixanol in rat liver cells. Kjeken, R., Kindberg, G.M., Berg, T. Biochem. Pharmacol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  29. Protein-disulfide isomerase-mediated reduction of the A subunit of cholera toxin in a human intestinal cell line. Orlandi, P.A. J. Biol. Chem. (1997) [Pubmed]
  30. Vesicle-associated membrane protein 7 is expressed in intestinal ER. Siddiqi, S.A., Mahan, J., Siddiqi, S., Gorelick, F.S., Mansbach, C.M. J. Cell. Sci. (2006) [Pubmed]
  31. Mouse hepatitis virus replicase proteins associate with two distinct populations of intracellular membranes. Sims, A.C., Ostermann, J., Denison, M.R. J. Virol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  32. Acidocalcisomes are functionally linked to the contractile vacuole of Dictyostelium discoideum. Marchesini, N., Ruiz, F.A., Vieira, M., Docampo, R. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  33. Iodixanol in excretory urography: initial clinical experience with a nonionic, dimeric (ratio 6:1) contrast medium. Work in progress. Gavant, M.L., Siegle, R.L. Radiology. (1992) [Pubmed]
  34. Rapid separation of LDL subclasses by iodixanol gradient ultracentrifugation. Davies, I.G., Graham, J.M., Griffin, B.A. Clin. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  35. Antithrombotic effects of ionic and non-ionic contrast media in nonhuman primates. Markou, C.P., Chronos, N.A., Hanson, S.R. Thromb. Haemost. (2001) [Pubmed]
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