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MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Thymectomy


Psychiatry related information on Thymectomy


High impact information on Thymectomy

  • These consist of T1 cells, which are short-lived, sessile cells sensitive to adult thymectomy (ATx), and T2 cells, which are long-lived, recirculating cells sensitive to anti-thymocyte serum (ATS) [7].
  • Such proliferation is inhibited by the presence of both memory and naive CD4 T cells, is enhanced by 3-day thymectomy, is independent of IL-7, and requires a class II MHC-TCR interaction and a CD28-mediated signal [8].
  • An intact MBP-primed thymus was required up to 10 d postimmunization, as thymectomy on days 1, 2, and 7 postimmunization abrogated the protective effect, whereas thymectomy on day 10 did not [9].
  • Plasma androgen sulfate levels decreased immediately after thymectomy, but overall no significant differences were found between prethymectomy and post thymectomy levels [10].
  • BACKGROUND & AIMS: A Th1 clone, II-6, established from an autoimmune gastritis BALB/c mouse that underwent thymectomy 3 days after birth, recognized a 15 mer peptide constructing the alpha subunit of H+, K(+)-adenosine triphosphatase as antigen and induced gastritis in nu/nu mice by adoptive transfer [11].

Chemical compound and disease context of Thymectomy


Biological context of Thymectomy


Anatomical context of Thymectomy

  • Support for a cell-mediated autoimmune pathogenesis of the diabetic syndrome is derived from the following experiments: administration of antiserum to rat lymphocytes prevents diabetes in susceptible animals and normalizes plasma glucose levels in 36% of diabetic rats; neonatal thymectomy almost completely prevents the occurrence of diabetes [21].
  • These data are consistent with the notion that thymectomy and treatment with antilymphocyte serum results in enhanced tumor growth that is in part due to activation of histamine-dependent suppressor cells [22].
  • In mice, SLE can be induced with polyclonal B-cell activators and thymectomy [23].
  • Sera from 9 patients with a primary thymic tumour but without myasthenia gravis (MG) at the time of thymectomy were examined for skeletal muscle antibodies [24].
  • These results seem to show that such combined therapy as applied in case 3 may be effective for some of the patients with pure red blood cell aplasia and thymoma; however, the effects of thymomectomy or thymectomy (or both) are still controversial for the treatment of pure red blood cell aplasia [25].

Associations of Thymectomy with chemical compounds


Gene context of Thymectomy

  • We also found that the CCR5 antagonist met-RANTES failed to prevent the development of EAG induced by neonatal thymectomy [30].
  • Upon stimulation with anti-CD3/CD28 monoclonal antibodies, CD4(+)CD25(+) cells responded more vigorously than CD4(+)CD25(-) cells in MG, irrespective of treatment with thymectomy, as well as in HCs [31].
  • Upregulation of TGF-beta in MS patients with little disability and in MG after thymectomy implicates that TGF-beta has desirable effects in human diseases with autoimmune background [32].
  • Resting splenic CD4 cells from KLH-primed mice that were depleted of naive cells by adult thymectomy and were exclusively of memory phenotype initially secreted high titers of IL-2 and low levels of IL-4 and IFN-gamma in response to Ag [33].
  • The present results suggest that the proliferation of intermediate TCR cells occur at multiple sites; this may explain the effect of thymectomy, namely, the retarded onset of disease, in lpr mice [34].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Thymectomy


  1. An autoimmune disease with multiple molecular targets abrogated by the transgenic expression of a single autoantigen in the thymus. Alderuccio, F., Toh, B.H., Tan, S.S., Gleeson, P.A., van Driel, I.R. J. Exp. Med. (1993) [Pubmed]
  2. Endogenous oocyte antigens are required for rapid induction and progression of autoimmune ovarian disease following day-3 thymectomy. Alard, P., Thompson, C., Agersborg, S.S., Thatte, J., Setiady, Y., Samy, E., Tung, K.S. J. Immunol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  3. The anti-tumor efficacy of lymphokine-activated killer cells and recombinant interleukin 2 in vivo: direct correlation between reduction of established metastases and cytolytic activity of lymphokine-activated killer cells. Mulé, J.J., Yang, J., Shu, S., Rosenberg, S.A. J. Immunol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  4. Regulation of contact sensitivity to DNFB in the mouse: effects of adult thymectomy and thymic factor. Erard, D., Charreire, J., Auffredou, M.T., Galanaud, P., Bach, J.F. J. Immunol. (1979) [Pubmed]
  5. Effects of thymectomy or androgen administration upon the autoimmune disease of MRL/Mp-lpr/lpr mice. Steinberg, A.D., Roths, J.B., Murphy, E.D., Steinberg, R.T., Raveche, E.S. J. Immunol. (1980) [Pubmed]
  6. Myasthenia gravis in identical twins. Murphy, J., Murphy, S.F. Neurology (1986) [Pubmed]
  7. Different target antigens for T-cell subsets acting synergistically in vivo. Wolters, E.A., Benner, R. Nature (1980) [Pubmed]
  8. Neonates support lymphopenia-induced proliferation. Min, B., McHugh, R., Sempowski, G.D., Mackall, C., Foucras, G., Paul, W.E. Immunity (2003) [Pubmed]
  9. Acquired tolerance to experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis by intrathymic injection of myelin basic protein or its major encephalitogenic peptide. Khoury, S.J., Sayegh, M.H., Hancock, W.W., Gallon, L., Carpenter, C.B., Weiner, H.L. J. Exp. Med. (1993) [Pubmed]
  10. Thymus and breast cancer--plasma androgens, thymic pathology, and peripheral lymphocytes in myasthenia gravis. Papatestas, A.E., Mulvihill, M., Genkins, G., Kornfeld, P., Aufses, A.H., Wang, D.Y., Bulbrook, R.D. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1977) [Pubmed]
  11. A possible involvement of Fas-Fas ligand signaling in the pathogenesis of murine autoimmune gastritis. Nishio, A., Katakai, T., Oshima, C., Kasakura, S., Sakai, M., Yonehara, S., Suda, T., Nagata, S., Masuda, T. Gastroenterology (1996) [Pubmed]
  12. Analysis of mononuclear cell infiltrate and cytokine production in murine autoimmune gastritis. Martinelli, T.M., van Driel, I.R., Alderuccio, F., Gleeson, P.A., Toh, B.H. Gastroenterology (1996) [Pubmed]
  13. Cellular immune response to acetylcholine receptor in myasthenia gravis: II. Thymectomy and corticosteroids. Morgutti, M., Conti-Tronconi, B.M., Sghirlanzoni, A., Clementi, F. Neurology (1979) [Pubmed]
  14. Induction of an organ-specific autoimmune disease, lymphocytic hypophysitis, in hamsters by recombinant rubella virus glycoprotein and prevention of disease by neonatal thymectomy. Yoon, J.W., Choi, D.S., Liang, H.C., Baek, H.S., Ko, I.Y., Jun, H.S., Gillam, S. J. Virol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  15. Organ-specific autoimmunity induced by adult thymectomy and cyclophosphamide-induced lymphopenia. Barrett, S.P., Toh, B.H., Alderuccio, F., van Driel, I.R., Gleeson, P.A. Eur. J. Immunol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  16. Experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis in rats. Modification by thymectomy and prednisolone. Sanders, D.B., Johns, T.R., Eldefrawi, M.E., Cobb, E.E. Arch. Neurol. (1977) [Pubmed]
  17. Regulation of antibody heterogeneity by suppressor T cells: diminishing suppressor T cell activity increases the number of dinitrophenyl clones in mice immunized with dinitrophenyl-poly(Glu,Lys,Phe) or dinitrophenyl-poly(Glu,Lys,Ala). Kipps, T.J., Benacerraf, B., Dorf, M.E. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1978) [Pubmed]
  18. Interaction of dietary fat and the thymus in the induction of mammary tumors by 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene. Wagner, D.A., Naylor, P.H., Kim, U., Shea, W., Ip, C., Ip, M.M. Cancer Res. (1982) [Pubmed]
  19. Activation of distinct helper and suppressor T cells in experimental trypanosomiasis. Jayawardena, A.N., Waksman, B.H., Eardley, D.D. J. Immunol. (1978) [Pubmed]
  20. Interacting quantitative trait loci control loss of peripheral tolerance and susceptibility to autoimmune ovarian dysgenesis after day 3 thymectomy in mice. Roper, R.J., Ma, R.Z., Biggins, J.E., Butterfield, R.J., Michael, S.D., Tung, K.S., Doerge, R.W., Teuscher, C. J. Immunol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  21. Spontaneous autoimmune diabetes mellitus in the BB rat. Like, A.A., Butler, L., Williams, R.M., Appel, M.C., Weringer, E.J., Rossini, A.A. Diabetes (1982) [Pubmed]
  22. The effect of histamine, antihistamines, and a mast cell stabilizer on the growth of cloudman melanoma cells in DBA/2 mice. Nordlund, J.J., Askenase, P.W. J. Invest. Dermatol. (1983) [Pubmed]
  23. Studies of immune abnormalities in systemic lupus erythematosus. Steinberg, A.D., Smith, H.R., Laskin, C.A., Steinberg, B.J., Smolen, J.S. Am. J. Kidney Dis. (1982) [Pubmed]
  24. Skeletal muscle antibodies in patients with a thymic tumour but without myasthenia gravis. Gilhus, N.E., Aarli, J.A., Janzen, R.W., Otto, H.F., Fasske, E., Matre, R. J. Neuroimmunol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  25. Experience with surgery for thymoma associated with pure red blood cell aplasia. Report of three cases. Fujimura, S., Kondo, T., Yamauchi, A., Handa, M., Nakada, T. Chest (1985) [Pubmed]
  26. Tumor proliferation and chemotherapy in immunosuppressed mice. Ghanta, V.K., Shrestha, K., Durant, J.R., Hiramoto, R.N. Cancer Res. (1983) [Pubmed]
  27. Origin of CD4-CD8-B220+ T cells in MRL-lpr/lpr mice. Clues from a T cell receptor beta transgenic mouse. Zhou, T., Bluethmann, H., Eldridge, J., Berry, K., Mountz, J.D. J. Immunol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  28. High-dose intravenous immunoglobulin in the management of myasthenia gravis. Arsura, E.L., Bick, A., Brunner, N.G., Namba, T., Grob, D. Arch. Intern. Med. (1986) [Pubmed]
  29. Thymectomy for myasthenia gravis: 14-year experience. Hankins, J.R., Mayer, R.F., Satterfield, J.R., Turney, S.Z., Attar, S., Sequeira, A.J., Thompson, B.W., McLaughlin, J.S. Ann. Surg. (1985) [Pubmed]
  30. Chemokine receptor CCR5 is not required for development of experimental autoimmune gastritis. Field, J., Marshall, A.C., J Hertzog, P., Wells, T.N., Alderuccio, F., Toh, B.H. Clin. Immunol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  31. Circulating CD4+CD25+ and CD4+CD25+ T cells in myasthenia gravis and in relation to thymectomy. Huang, Y.M., Pirskanen, R., Giscombe, R., Link, H., Lefvert, A.K. Scand. J. Immunol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  32. Interferon-gamma, interleukin-4 and transforming growth factor-beta mRNA expression in multiple sclerosis and myasthenia gravis. Link, J. Acta Neurol. Scand., Suppl. (1994) [Pubmed]
  33. The cytokines IL-4, IFN-gamma, and IL-12 regulate the development of subsets of memory effector helper T cells in vitro. Bradley, L.M., Yoshimoto, K., Swain, S.L. J. Immunol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  34. Characterization of intermediate T-cell receptor cells expanding in the liver, thymus and other organs in autoimmune lpr mice: parallel analysis with their normal counterparts. Iiai, T., Kimura, M., Kawachi, Y., Hirokawa, K., Watanabe, H., Hatakeyama, K., Abo, T. Immunology (1995) [Pubmed]
  35. Clinicopathologic studies of thymic carcinoids in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1. Teh, B.T., McArdle, J., Chan, S.P., Menon, J., Hartley, L., Pullan, P., Ho, J., Khir, A., Wilkinson, S., Larsson, C., Cameron, D., Shepherd, J. Medicine (Baltimore) (1997) [Pubmed]
  36. Lewis rat pancreas, but not cardiac xenografts, are resistant to anti-gal antibody mediated hyperacute rejection. Yin, D.P., Sankary, H.N., Ma, L.L., Shen, J., Qin, Y., Blinder, L., Williams, J.W., Chong, A.S. Transplantation (2001) [Pubmed]
  37. Plasmapheresis in refractory generalized myasthenia gravis. Kornfeld, P., Ambinder, E.P., Mittag, T., Bender, A.N., Papatestas, A.E., Goldberg, J., Genkins, G. Arch. Neurol. (1981) [Pubmed]
  38. Malignant thymoma with dysautonomia and disordered neuromuscular transmission. Tabbaa, M.A., Leshner, R.T., Campbell, W.W. Arch. Neurol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  39. Limbic encephalitis and immunological perturbations in two patients with thymoma. Antoine, J.C., Honnorat, J., Anterion, C.T., Aguera, M., Absi, L., Fournel, P., Michel, D. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatr. (1995) [Pubmed]
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