The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
Chemical Compound Review

M-XYLENE     1,3-dimethylbenzene

Synonyms: m-Xylenes, m-Xylol, meta-Xylene, Santosol 150, Xylene, m-, ...
Welcome! If you are familiar with the subject of this article, you can contribute to this open access knowledge base by deleting incorrect information, restructuring or completely rewriting any text. Read more.

Disease relevance of m-xylene

  • In the presence of m-xylene, the Pu promoter of the TOL plasmid of Pseudomonas putida is activated by the prokaryotic enhancer-binding protein XylR [1].
  • Initial reactions in anaerobic oxidation of m-xylene by the denitrifying bacterium Azoarcus sp. strain T [2].
  • Good induction of the enzymes by m-toluate and m-methylbenzyl alcohol but not by m-xylene was measured in P. putida, but little or no regulation was found in E. coli [3].
  • Molecular and biochemical characterization of two meta-cleavage dioxygenases involved in biphenyl and m-xylene degradation by Beijerinckia sp. strain B1 [4].
  • 1-NN treatment caused severe respiratory toxicity that was prevented by prior m-xylene exposure [5].

Psychiatry related information on m-xylene


High impact information on m-xylene

  • The results of the above experiments provide evidence that xylR positively controls the transcription of xylS in the presence of m-xylene or m-methylbenzyl alcohol [8].
  • The nucleotide sequence of the xylS promoter resembles that of the promoter of the xylCAB operon for the m-xylene-degrading pathway, which is also activated by xylR in the presence of m-xylene or m-methylbenzyl alcohol [8].
  • This study provides genetic evidence that the upstream-activating sequences (UAS), which serve as the binding sites for the pWW0-encoded XylR protein (the m-xylene-responsive sigma(54)-dependent activator of Pu), isolate expression of the upper TOL genes from any adventitious transcriptional flow originating further upstream [9].
  • A genetic approach has been followed to locate the specific segment within A domain of XylR that is directly responsible for its down-regulation in the absence of inducer, as compared to that involved in effector (m-xylene) binding [10].
  • Examination of the resulting phenotypes allowed the assignment of the A domain region near the central activation domain, as the portion of the protein responsible for the specific repression of XylR activity in the absence of m-xylene [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of m-xylene


Biological context of m-xylene


Anatomical context of m-xylene

  • Toluene- or m-xylene-grown strain T cells were induced to the same extent for oxidation of both hydrocarbons [19].
  • Partition coefficients were measured and used to estimate the m-xylene concentration in the fibroblasts [20].
  • The metabolism of a third P450 substrate, cyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (CMT), was also analyzed. m-Xylene caused significant inhibition of CMT metabolism at all time points in both nasal and pulmonary microsomes but was without effect on hepatic microsomal metabolism of this compound [21].
  • The effect of acute ethanol-mediated inhibition of m-xylene metabolism on central nervous system (CNS) depression in the human worker population was investigated using physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models and probabilistic random (Monte Carlo) sampling [22].
  • The median elimination half-time of m-xylene from subcutaneous fat was 58 h (range 25--128 h) [23].

Associations of m-xylene with other chemical compounds


Gene context of m-xylene

  • The apparent K(s) value for the oxidation of m-xylene in intact cells of the xylN mutant was fourfold higher than that of the wild-type strain, although the TOL catabolic enzyme activities in cell extracts from the two strains were almost identical [28].
  • Transcription from the promoter of a positive regulatory gene, xylS, on the TOL plasmid of Pseudomonas putida is activated by another positive regulator, XylR, in the presence of m-xylene and is dependent on RNA polymerase containing the NtrA protein (sigma 54) [29].
  • The regulator was activated by m-toluate or benzoate, but not by m-xylene or m-methylbenzyl alcohol. the map positions of xylG and xylF were also determined [30].
  • The xylE product, catechol 2,3-dioxygenase, was induced by m-xylene or m-methylbenzyl alcohol in the cells containing the fused operon when a 2.8-kilobase segment of the TOL plasmid was provided in trans [31].
  • The regulatory gene xylR of the TOL plasmid, which functions positively on both xylABC and xylDEGF operons in the presence of m-xylene or m-methylbenzyl alcohol, was cloned onto an Escherichia coli vector, pACYC177 [31].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of m-xylene


  1. Integration host factor suppresses promiscuous activation of the sigma 54-dependent promoter Pu of Pseudomonas putida. Pérez-Martín, J., De Lorenzo, V. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1995) [Pubmed]
  2. Initial reactions in anaerobic oxidation of m-xylene by the denitrifying bacterium Azoarcus sp. strain T. Krieger, C.J., Beller, H.R., Reinhard, M., Spormann, A.M. J. Bacteriol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  3. Evolutionary conservation of genes coding for meta pathway enzymes within TOL plasmids pWW0 and pWW53. Keil, H., Keil, S., Pickup, R.W., Williams, P.A. J. Bacteriol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  4. Molecular and biochemical characterization of two meta-cleavage dioxygenases involved in biphenyl and m-xylene degradation by Beijerinckia sp. strain B1. Kim, E., Zylstra, G.J. J. Bacteriol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  5. Inhibition of rat respiratory-tract cytochrome P-450 activity after acute low-level m-xylene inhalation: role in 1-nitronaphthalene toxicity. Foy, J.W., Schatz, R.A. Inhalation toxicology. (2004) [Pubmed]
  6. Acute effects of m-xylene inhalation on body sway, reaction times, and sleep in man. Laine, A., Savolainen, K., Riihimäki, V., Matikainen, E., Salmi, T., Juntunen, J. International archives of occupational and environmental health. (1993) [Pubmed]
  7. Effects of acute combined exposure to N-butyl alcohol and M-xylene. Korsak, Z., Swiercz, R., Jedrychowski, R. Polish journal of occupational medicine and environmental health. (1993) [Pubmed]
  8. Expression of the regulatory gene xylS on the TOL plasmid is positively controlled by the xylR gene product. Inouye, S., Nakazawa, A., Nakazawa, T. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1987) [Pubmed]
  9. The Upstream-activating Sequences of the {sigma}54 Promoter Pu of Pseudomonas putida Filter Transcription Readthrough from Upstream Genes. Velázquez, F., Fernández, S., de Lorenzo, V. J. Biol. Chem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  10. Identification of the repressor subdomain within the signal reception module of the prokaryotic enhancer-binding protein XylR of Pseudomonas putida. Pérez-Martín, J., de Lorenzo, V. J. Biol. Chem. (1996) [Pubmed]
  11. Genetic evidence for activation of the positive transcriptional regulator Xy1R, a member of the NtrC family of regulators, by effector binding. Delgado, A., Ramos, J.L. J. Biol. Chem. (1994) [Pubmed]
  12. Metabolism of toluene and xylenes by Pseudomonas (putida (arvilla) mt-2: evidence for a new function of the TOL plasmid. Worsey, M.J., Williams, P.A. J. Bacteriol. (1975) [Pubmed]
  13. Catabolism of pseudocumene and 3-ethyltoluene by Pseudomonas putida (arvilla) mt-2: evidence for new functions of the TOL (pWWO) plasmid. Kunz, D.A., Chapman, P.J. J. Bacteriol. (1981) [Pubmed]
  14. Genetic evidence that catabolites of the Entner-Doudoroff pathway signal C source repression of the sigma54 Pu promoter of Pseudomonas putida. Velázquez, F., di Bartolo, I., de Lorenzo, V. J. Bacteriol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  15. Theoretical study of the methylbenzene side-chain hydrocarbon pool mechanism in methanol to olefin catalysis. Arstad, B., Nicholas, J.B., Haw, J.F. J. Am. Chem. Soc. (2004) [Pubmed]
  16. Changes in the regiospecificity of aromatic hydroxylation produced by active site engineering in the diiron enzyme toluene 4-monooxygenase. Pikus, J.D., Studts, J.M., McClay, K., Steffan, R.J., Fox, B.G. Biochemistry (1997) [Pubmed]
  17. Physiological modeling and extrapolation of pharmacokinetic interactions from binary to more complex chemical mixtures. Krishnan, K., Haddad, S., Béliveau, M., Tardif, R. Environ. Health Perspect. (2002) [Pubmed]
  18. Human cytochrome P450 isoform specificity in the regioselective metabolism of toluene and o-, m- and p-xylene. Tassaneeyakul, W., Birkett, D.J., Edwards, J.W., Veronese, M.E., Tassaneeyakul, W., Tukey, R.H., Miners, J.O. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. (1996) [Pubmed]
  19. Initial reactions in the anaerobic oxidation of toluene and m-xylene by denitrifying bacteria. Seyfried, B., Glod, G., Schocher, R., Tschech, A., Zeyer, J. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  20. Improved method for in vitro assessment of dermal toxicity for volatile organic chemicals. Rogers, J.V., McDougal, J.N. Toxicol. Lett. (2002) [Pubmed]
  21. Effects of m-xylene on rat nasal cytochrome P450 mixed function oxidase activities. Blanchard, K.T., Morris, J.B. Toxicol. Lett. (1994) [Pubmed]
  22. Analysis of solvent central nervous system toxicity and ethanol interactions using a human population physiologically based kinetic and dynamic model. MacDonald, A.J., Rostami-Hodjegan, A., Tucker, G.T., Linkens, D.A. Regulatory toxicology and pharmacology : RTP. (2002) [Pubmed]
  23. Distribution of m-xylene to subcutaneous adipose tissue in short-term experimental human exposure. Engström, J., Riihimäki, V. Scandinavian journal of work, environment & health. (1979) [Pubmed]
  24. Anaerobic degradation of ethylbenzene by a new type of marine sulfate-reducing bacterium. Kniemeyer, O., Fischer, T., Wilkes, H., Glöckner, F.O., Widdel, F. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  25. Benzylsuccinate synthase of Azoarcus sp. strain T: cloning, sequencing, transcriptional organization, and its role in anaerobic toluene and m-xylene mineralization. Achong, G.R., Rodriguez, A.M., Spormann, A.M. J. Bacteriol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  26. Biotransformation in double-phase systems: physiological responses of Pseudomonas putida DOT-T1E to a double phase made of aliphatic alcohols and biosynthesis of substituted catechols. Rojas, A., Duque, E., Schmid, A., Hurtado, A., Ramos, J.L., Segura, A. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  27. The m-xylene biodegradation capacity of Pseudomonas putida mt-2 is submitted to adaptation to abiotic stresses: evidence from expression profiling of xyl genes. Velázquez, F., de Lorenzo, V., Valls, M. Environ. Microbiol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  28. The TOL plasmid pWW0 xylN gene product from Pseudomonas putida is involved in m-xylene uptake. Kasai, Y., Inoue, J., Harayama, S. J. Bacteriol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  29. Analysis of an upstream regulatory sequence required for activation of the regulatory gene xylS in xylene metabolism directed by the TOL plasmid of Pseudomonas putida. Gomada, M., Inouye, S., Imaishi, H., Nakazawa, A., Nakazawa, T. Mol. Gen. Genet. (1992) [Pubmed]
  30. Molecular cloning of gene xylS of the TOL plasmid: evidence for positive regulation of the xylDEGF operon by xylS. Inouye, S., Nakazawa, A., Nakazawa, T. J. Bacteriol. (1981) [Pubmed]
  31. Molecular cloning of regulatory gene xylR and operator-promoter regions of the xylABC and xylDEGF operons of the TOL plasmid. Inouye, S., Nakazawa, A., Nakazawa, T. J. Bacteriol. (1983) [Pubmed]
  32. Sex differences in the toxicokinetics of inhaled solvent vaporsin humans 1. m-Xylene. Ernstgård, L., Sjögren, B., Warholm, M., Johanson, G. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  33. Estimation of the dermal absorption of m-xylene vapor in humans using breath sampling and physiologically based pharmacokinetic analysis. Loizou, G.D., Jones, K., Akrill, P., Dyne, D., Cocker, J. Toxicol. Sci. (1999) [Pubmed]
  34. m-xylene toxicokinetics in phenobarbital-treated rats: comparison among inhalation exposure, oral administration, and intraperitoneal administration. Kaneko, T., Wang, P.Y., Tsukada, H., Sato, A. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  35. Cytochrome P450 isozyme induction by methyl ethyl ketone and m-xylene in rat liver. Raunio, H., Liira, J., Elovaara, E., Riihimäki, V., Pelkonen, O. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  36. Recovery of some common solvents from protective clothing breakthrough indicator pads by microwave-solvent extraction and gas chromatography. Vo, E., Berardinelli, S.P., Hall, R.C. The Analyst. (1999) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities