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Gene Review

IDO1  -  indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: IDO, IDO-1, INDO, Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1, Indoleamine-pyrrole 2,3-dioxygenase
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Disease relevance of INDO


Psychiatry related information on INDO


High impact information on INDO


Chemical compound and disease context of INDO


Biological context of INDO


Anatomical context of INDO


Associations of INDO with chemical compounds


Physical interactions of INDO

  • This inhibition of IDO was coupled in glioblastoma cells by a complete abrogation of the IFN-gamma-induced toxoplasmastasis in these cells [25].

Regulatory relationships of INDO


Other interactions of INDO

  • We found that rTNF-alpha was able to induce low levels expression of INDO mRNA in the parental cell line, as well as the cell line lacking functional JAK2 [2].
  • Related to this, the NOS inhibitors L-NMMA and aminoguanidine, and the calmodulin antagonist W7 also decreased IDO activity [30].
  • Treatment with IL-3, IL-5, GM-CSF, or IFN-gamma alone expressed IDO enzymatic activity (the presence of KYN in supernatants 48 h postculture) [22].
  • Immunohistochemical localization showed IDO to be induced in cells of both endocrine, including pancreatic duodenal homeobox 1-positive beta-cells, and nonendocrine origin [20].
  • Polyadenylated IDO mRNA accumulation was detected as early as 2 h after IFN stimulation [26].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of INDO

  • Human fibroblasts (GM637) stably transfected with the sense construct expressed INDO activity after treatment with CdCl2 or ZnSO4, but cells transfected with the antisense construct did not [1].
  • Here, we report the possible use of this enzyme to suppress proliferation of immune cells cocultured with IDO-expressing fibroblasts of an allogenic skin substitute [24].
  • The results of Western blot analysis, however, revealed a significantly longer (192 h) lasting effect of IFN-gamma on IDO protein level, relative to that of mRNA expression [24].
  • Immunoprecipitation analysis showed a nitration of the IDO protein in unstimulated and stimulated U-937 and THP-1 cells [30].
  • Strategies to inhibit the IDO pathway may thus assist in breaking tolerance to tumors, and might enhance the efficacy of other immunotherapy strategies by removing unwanted counter-regulation [31].


  1. Antiparasitic and antiproliferative effects of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase enzyme expression in human fibroblasts. Gupta, S.L., Carlin, J.M., Pyati, P., Dai, W., Pfefferkorn, E.R., Murphy, M.J. Infect. Immun. (1994) [Pubmed]
  2. Replication of Toxoplasma gondii, but not Trypanosoma cruzi, is regulated in human fibroblasts activated with gamma interferon: requirement of a functional JAK/STAT pathway. Cerávolo, I.P., Chaves, A.C., Bonjardim, C.A., Sibley, D., Romanha, A.J., Gazzinelli, R.T. Infect. Immun. (1999) [Pubmed]
  3. The effects of TNF-alpha and inhibitors of arachidonic acid metabolism on human colon HT-29 cells depend on differentiation status. Kovaríková, M., Hofmanová, J., Soucek, K., Kozubík, A. Differentiation (2004) [Pubmed]
  4. Inhibition of human herpes simplex virus type 2 by interferon gamma and tumor necrosis factor alpha is mediated by indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase. Adams, O., Besken, K., Oberdörfer, C., MacKenzie, C.R., Rüssing, D., Däubener, W. Microbes Infect. (2004) [Pubmed]
  5. Implications of interferon-induced tryptophan catabolism in cancer, auto-immune diseases and AIDS. Brown, R.R., Ozaki, Y., Datta, S.P., Borden, E.C., Sondel, P.M., Malone, D.G. Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  6. Molecular phylogeny analysis of fiddler crabs: test of the hypothesis of increasing behavioral complexity in evolution. Sturmbauer, C., Levinton, J.S., Christy, J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1996) [Pubmed]
  7. IDO and interferon-alpha-induced depressive symptoms: a shift in hypothesis from tryptophan depletion to neurotoxicity. Wichers, M.C., Koek, G.H., Robaeys, G., Verkerk, R., Scharpé, S., Maes, M. Mol. Psychiatry (2005) [Pubmed]
  8. Low serum tryptophan levels, reduced macrophage IDO activity and high frequency of psychopathology in HCV patients. Cozzi, A., Zignego, A.L., Carpendo, R., Biagiotti, T., Aldinucci, A., Monti, M., Giannini, C., Rosselli, M., Laffi, G., Moroni, F. J. Viral Hepat. (2006) [Pubmed]
  9. Indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase and quinolinic acid immunoreactivity in Alzheimer's disease hippocampus. Guillemin, G.J., Brew, B.J., Noonan, C.E., Takikawa, O., Cullen, K.M. Neuropathol. Appl. Neurobiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  10. Scleroderma, fasciitis, and eosinophilia associated with the ingestion of tryptophan. Silver, R.M., Heyes, M.P., Maize, J.C., Quearry, B., Vionnet-Fuasset, M., Sternberg, E.M. N. Engl. J. Med. (1990) [Pubmed]
  11. Inhibition of allogeneic T cell proliferation by indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-expressing dendritic cells: mediation of suppression by tryptophan metabolites. Terness, P., Bauer, T.M., Röse, L., Dufter, C., Watzlik, A., Simon, H., Opelz, G. J. Exp. Med. (2002) [Pubmed]
  12. A two-step induction of indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase (IDO) activity during dendritic-cell maturation. Braun, D., Longman, R.S., Albert, M.L. Blood (2005) [Pubmed]
  13. Prognostic value of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase expression in colorectal cancer: effect on tumor-infiltrating T cells. Brandacher, G., Perathoner, A., Ladurner, R., Schneeberger, S., Obrist, P., Winkler, C., Werner, E.R., Werner-Felmayer, G., Weiss, H.G., Göbel, G., Margreiter, R., Königsrainer, A., Fuchs, D., Amberger, A. Clin. Cancer Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  14. Induction of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase in vivo by IFN-con1. Sweeten, T.L., Ferris, M., McDougle, C.J., Kwo, P., Taylor, M.W. J. Interferon Cytokine Res. (2001) [Pubmed]
  15. Proliferative responses of normal human mammary and MCF-7 breast cancer cells to linoleic acid, conjugated linoleic acid and eicosanoid synthesis inhibitors in culture. Cunningham, D.C., Harrison, L.Y., Shultz, T.D. Anticancer Res. (1997) [Pubmed]
  16. Regulation of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase gene expression in human fibroblasts by interferon-gamma. Upstream control region discriminates between interferon-gamma and interferon-alpha. Dai, W., Gupta, S.L. J. Biol. Chem. (1990) [Pubmed]
  17. Cooperative role of interferon regulatory factor 1 and p91 (STAT1) response elements in interferon-gamma-inducible expression of human indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase gene. Chon, S.Y., Hassanain, H.H., Gupta, S.L. J. Biol. Chem. (1996) [Pubmed]
  18. Treatment of ME180 cells with interferon-gamma causes apoptosis as a result of tryptophan starvation. Konan, K.V., Taylor, M.W. J. Interferon Cytokine Res. (1996) [Pubmed]
  19. Localization of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase gene (INDO) to chromosome 8p12-->p11 by fluorescent in situ hybridization. Najfeld, V., Menninger, J., Muhleman, D., Comings, D.E., Gupta, S.L. Cytogenet. Cell Genet. (1993) [Pubmed]
  20. Induction of Indoleamine 2,3-Dioxygenase by Interferon-{gamma} in Human Islets. Sarkar, S.A., Wong, R., Hackl, S.I., Moua, O., Gill, R.G., Wiseman, A., Davidson, H.W., Hutton, J.C. Diabetes (2007) [Pubmed]
  21. IL-4 and IL-13 regulate the induction of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase activity and the control of Toxoplasma gondii replication in human fibroblasts activated with IFN-gamma. Chaves, A.C., Cerávolo, I.P., Gomes, J.A., Zani, C.L., Romanha, A.J., Gazzinelli, R.T. Eur. J. Immunol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  22. Cutting edge: human eosinophils regulate T cell subset selection through indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase. Odemuyiwa, S.O., Ghahary, A., Li, Y., Puttagunta, L., Lee, J.E., Musat-Marcu, S., Ghahary, A., Moqbel, R. J. Immunol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  23. Synergistic transcriptional activation of indoleamine dioxygenase by IFN-gamma and tumor necrosis factor-alpha. Robinson, C.M., Shirey, K.A., Carlin, J.M. J. Interferon Cytokine Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  24. Immune cell proliferation is suppressed by the interferon-gamma-induced indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase expression of fibroblasts populated in collagen gel (FPCG). Sarkhosh, K., Tredget, E.E., Karami, A., Uludag, H., Iwashina, T., Kilani, R.T., Ghahary, A. J. Cell. Biochem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  25. Inhibition of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase in human macrophages inhibits interferon-gamma-induced bacteriostasis but does not abrogate toxoplasmastasis. MacKenzie, C.R., Langen, R., Takikawa, O., Däubener, W. Eur. J. Immunol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  26. Role of IFN-gamma-induced indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase and inducible nitric oxide synthase in the replication of human cytomegalovirus in retinal pigment epithelial cells. Bodaghi, B., Goureau, O., Zipeto, D., Laurent, L., Virelizier, J.L., Michelson, S. J. Immunol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  27. IDO expression on decidual and peripheral blood dendritic cells and monocytes/macrophages after treatment with CTLA-4 or interferon-gamma increase in normal pregnancy but decrease in spontaneous abortion. Miwa, N., Hayakawa, S., Miyazaki, S., Myojo, S., Sasaki, Y., Sakai, M., Takikawa, O., Saito, S. Mol. Hum. Reprod. (2005) [Pubmed]
  28. Interleukin-4 inhibits indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase expression in human monocytes. Musso, T., Gusella, G.L., Brooks, A., Longo, D.L., Varesio, L. Blood (1994) [Pubmed]
  29. Regulation of human auto- and alloreactive T cells by indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO)-producing dendritic cells: too much ado about IDO? Terness, P., Chuang, J.J., Bauer, T., Jiga, L., Opelz, G. Blood (2005) [Pubmed]
  30. Bimodal effect of nitric oxide in the enzymatic activity of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase in human monocytic cells. López, A.S., Alegre, E., Díaz, A., Mugueta, C., González, A. Immunol. Lett. (2006) [Pubmed]
  31. Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase, tumor-induced tolerance and counter-regulation. Munn, D.H. Curr. Opin. Immunol. (2006) [Pubmed]
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