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Gene Review

Csn  -  casein gene family, alpha, beta, gamma,...

Mus musculus

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Disease relevance of Csn


Psychiatry related information on Csn


High impact information on Csn

  • gamma -Secretase cleavage and nuclear localization of ErbB-4 receptor tyrosine kinase [7].
  • beta-cell-specific inactivation of the mouse Ipf1/Pdx1 gene results in loss of the beta-cell phenotype and maturity onset diabetes [8].
  • gamma 2b transgenic mice have a severe B cell defect, apparently caused by strong feedback inhibition of endogenous H-gene rearrangement coupled with an inability of gamma 2b to provide the survival/maturation functions of mu [9].
  • alpha-Syntrophin is a scaffolding adapter protein expressed primarily on the sarcolemma of skeletal muscle [10].
  • beta-very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) is a large lipoprotein with multiple apoprotein E (apoE) molecules that bind to the LDL receptors on mouse macrophages [11].

Chemical compound and disease context of Csn


Biological context of Csn


Anatomical context of Csn


Associations of Csn with chemical compounds


Regulatory relationships of Csn


Other interactions of Csn

  • Here we report a comparison of the DNA coding sequences and putative amino acid sequences they determine for the three common alleles of the Alpha subunit gene (Abpa), alleles that appear to be diagnostic for the three subspecies of Mus musculus [29].
  • alpha s1-Casein-specific CD8+ T cell clones expressed the interleukin (IL)-4 receptor, although they did not secrete detectable IL-4 [30].
  • alpha-Calcitonin gene-related peptide (alphaCGRP) is a pleiotropic peptide neuromodulator that is widely expressed throughout the Central and peripheral nervous systems [31].
  • The results of cell-free translation studies in which the pre-ABP subunits are identified specifically by immunoprecipitation with anti-ABP antibody supports the idea that independent mRNAs code for the Alpha, Beta and Gamma subunits [32].
  • The effects of BNF on expression of hepatic GST were studied in both DBA/2 and C57BL/6 mice; these studies revealed a preferential induction of the Alpha-class 25,600-Mr subunits and of the Pi-class 24,800-Mr subunits in those mice in possession of a functional Ah receptor [25].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Csn

  • beta cell replacement via islet or pancreas transplantation is currently the only approach to cure type 1 diabetic patients [33].
  • alpha N-acetyl human beta-endorphin-(1-31) injected icv to mice antagonized the analgesic activity of beta-endorphin-(1-31) and morphine whereas the analgesia evoked by DADLE and DAGO was enhanced by this treatment [34].
  • beta-Amyloid peptide vaccination results in marked changes in serum and brain Abeta levels in APPswe/PS1DeltaE9 mice, as detected by SELDI-TOF-based ProteinChip technology [35].


  1. beta-cell-specific deletion of the Igf1 receptor leads to hyperinsulinemia and glucose intolerance but does not alter beta-cell mass. Kulkarni, R.N., Holzenberger, M., Shih, D.Q., Ozcan, U., Stoffel, M., Magnuson, M.A., Kahn, C.R. Nat. Genet. (2002) [Pubmed]
  2. Multiple receptors linked to inhibition of adenylate cyclase accelerate Na+/H+ exchange in neuroblastoma x glioma cells via a mechanism other than decreased cAMP accumulation. Isom, L.L., Cragoe, E.J., Limbird, L.E. J. Biol. Chem. (1987) [Pubmed]
  3. Evidence that receptor aggregation may play a role in transmembrane signaling through the insulin-like growth factor-I receptor. Ikari, N., Yoshino, H., Moses, A.C., Flier, J.S. Mol. Endocrinol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  4. Roles of nonstructural protein nsP2 and Alpha/Beta interferons in determining the outcome of Sindbis virus infection. Frolova, E.I., Fayzulin, R.Z., Cook, S.H., Griffin, D.E., Rice, C.M., Frolov, I. J. Virol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  5. alpha v-Integrin antagonist EMD 121974 induces apoptosis in brain tumor cells growing on vitronectin and tenascin. Taga, T., Suzuki, A., Gonzalez-Gomez, I., Gilles, F.H., Stins, M., Shimada, H., Barsky, L., Weinberg, K.I., Laug, W.E. Int. J. Cancer (2002) [Pubmed]
  6. Caspase-2 mediates neuronal cell death induced by beta-amyloid. Troy, C.M., Rabacchi, S.A., Friedman, W.J., Frappier, T.F., Brown, K., Shelanski, M.L. J. Neurosci. (2000) [Pubmed]
  7. gamma -Secretase cleavage and nuclear localization of ErbB-4 receptor tyrosine kinase. Ni, C.Y., Murphy, M.P., Golde, T.E., Carpenter, G. Science (2001) [Pubmed]
  8. beta-cell-specific inactivation of the mouse Ipf1/Pdx1 gene results in loss of the beta-cell phenotype and maturity onset diabetes. Ahlgren, U., Jonsson, J., Jonsson, L., Simu, K., Edlund, H. Genes Dev. (1998) [Pubmed]
  9. lambda 5, but not mu, is required for B cell maturation in a unique gamma 2b transgenic mouse line. Roth, P.E., Kurtz, B., Lo, D., Storb, U. J. Exp. Med. (1995) [Pubmed]
  10. In vivo requirement of the alpha-syntrophin PDZ domain for the sarcolemmal localization of nNOS and aquaporin-4. Adams, M.E., Mueller, H.A., Froehner, S.C. J. Cell Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  11. Beta-very low density lipoprotein is sequestered in surface-connected tubules in mouse peritoneal macrophages. Myers, J.N., Tabas, I., Jones, N.L., Maxfield, F.R. J. Cell Biol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  12. beta-Glucosidase activity in fetal bovine serum renders the plant glucoside, hypoxoside, cytotoxic toward B16-F10-BL-6 mouse melanoma cells. Theron, E.J., Albrecht, C.F., Kruger, P.B., Jenkins, K., van der Merwe, M.J. In Vitro Cell. Dev. Biol. Anim. (1994) [Pubmed]
  13. Localization of the casein gene family to a single mouse chromosome. Gupta, P., Rosen, J.M., D'Eustachio, P., Ruddle, F.H. J. Cell Biol. (1982) [Pubmed]
  14. kappa Chain joining segments and structural diversity of antibody combining sites. Rudikoff, S., Rao, D.N., Glaudemans, C.P., Potter, M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1980) [Pubmed]
  15. Knockout of the alpha 1A/C-adrenergic receptor subtype: the alpha 1A/C is expressed in resistance arteries and is required to maintain arterial blood pressure. Rokosh, D.G., Simpson, P.C. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2002) [Pubmed]
  16. Multiple elements in the upstream glucokinase promoter contribute to transcription in insulinoma cells. Shelton, K.D., Franklin, A.J., Khoor, A., Beechem, J., Magnuson, M.A. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  17. Specificity for in vivo graft prolongation in gamma delta T cell receptor+ hybridomas derived from mice given portal vein donor-specific preimmunization and skin allografts. Gorczynski, R.M., Chen, Z., Zeng, H., Fu, X.M. J. Immunol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  18. Modulation of secreted proteins of mouse mammary epithelial cells by the collagenous substrata. Lee, E.Y., Parry, G., Bissell, M.J. J. Cell Biol. (1984) [Pubmed]
  19. alpha -galactosylceramide-activated Valpha 14 natural killer T cells mediate protection against murine malaria. Gonzalez-Aseguinolaza, G., de Oliveira, C., Tomaska, M., Hong, S., Bruna-Romero, O., Nakayama, T., Taniguchi, M., Bendelac, A., Van Kaer, L., Koezuka, Y., Tsuji, M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2000) [Pubmed]
  20. kappa gene diversity among the clonal progeny of pre-B lymphocytes. Ziegler, S.F., Treiman, L.J., Witte, O.N. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1984) [Pubmed]
  21. Failure of the intracellular itinerary of beta very low density lipoproteins to augment cholesterol esterification in macrophages from Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic rabbits. Daugherty, A., Rateri, D.L. J. Biol. Chem. (1991) [Pubmed]
  22. gamma -glutamyltransferase and its isoform mediate an endoplasmic reticulum stress response. Joyce-Brady, M., Jean, J.C., Hughey, R.P. J. Biol. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  23. alpha 2 integrin subunit cytoplasmic domain-dependent cellular migration requires p38 MAPK. Klekotka, P.A., Santoro, S.A., Zutter, M.M. J. Biol. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  24. Enhancement of recombinant gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptor currents by chronic activation of cAMP-dependent protein kinase. Angelotti, T.P., Uhler, M.D., Macdonald, R.L. Mol. Pharmacol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  25. Regulation of mouse glutathione S-transferases by chemoprotectors. Molecular evidence for the existence of three distinct alpha-class glutathione S-transferase subunits, Ya1, Ya2, and Ya3, in mouse liver. McLellan, L.I., Kerr, L.A., Cronshaw, A.D., Hayes, J.D. Biochem. J. (1991) [Pubmed]
  26. Loss of the Nrf2 transcription factor causes a marked reduction in constitutive and inducible expression of the glutathione S-transferase Gsta1, Gsta2, Gstm1, Gstm2, Gstm3 and Gstm4 genes in the livers of male and female mice. Chanas, S.A., Jiang, Q., McMahon, M., McWalter, G.K., McLellan, L.I., Elcombe, C.R., Henderson, C.J., Wolf, C.R., Moffat, G.J., Itoh, K., Yamamoto, M., Hayes, J.D. Biochem. J. (2002) [Pubmed]
  27. Receptor binding activities of biotinylated derivatives of beta-nerve growth factor. Rosenberg, M.B., Hawrot, E., Breakefield, X.O. J. Neurochem. (1986) [Pubmed]
  28. alpha- and beta-adrenergic control of thermogenin mRNA expression in brown adipose tissue. Jacobsson, A., Nedergaard, J., Cannon, B. Biosci. Rep. (1986) [Pubmed]
  29. The microevolution of mouse salivary androgen-binding protein (ABP) paralleled subspeciation of Mus musculus. Hwang, J.M., Hofstetter, J.R., Bonhomme, F., Karn, R.C. J. Hered. (1997) [Pubmed]
  30. Enhancing effect of interleukin-4 on the secretion of interferon-gamma by alpha s1-casein-specific CD8+ T cells. Nishijima, K., Kohyama, M., Hisatsune, T., Kato, H., Kakehi, M., Kaminogawa, S. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem. (1997) [Pubmed]
  31. Mice lacking alpha-calcitonin gene-related peptide exhibit normal cardiovascular regulation and neuromuscular development. Lu, J.T., Son, Y.J., Lee, J., Jetton, T.L., Shiota, M., Moscoso, L., Niswender, K.D., Loewy, A.D., Magnuson, M.A., Sanes, J.R., Emeson, R.B. Mol. Cell. Neurosci. (1999) [Pubmed]
  32. The genes for mouse salivary androgen-binding protein (ABP) subunits alpha and gamma are located on chromosome 7. Dlouhy, S.R., Taylor, B.A., Karn, R.C. Genetics (1987) [Pubmed]
  33. Early autoimmune destruction of islet grafts is associated with a restricted repertoire of IGRP-specific CD8+ T cells in diabetic nonobese diabetic mice. Wong, C.P., Li, L., Frelinger, J.A., Tisch, R. J. Immunol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  34. alpha N-acetyl derivatives of beta-endorphin-(1-31) and -(1-27) regulate the supraspinal antinociceptive activity of different opioids in mice. Garzón, J., Sánchez-Blázquez, P. Life Sci. (1991) [Pubmed]
  35. beta-Amyloid peptide vaccination results in marked changes in serum and brain Abeta levels in APPswe/PS1DeltaE9 mice, as detected by SELDI-TOF-based ProteinChip technology. Vehmas, A.K., Borchelt, D.R., Price, D.L., McCarthy, D., Wills-Karp, M., Peper, M.J., Rudow, G., Luyinbazi, J., Siew, L.T., Troncoso, J.C. DNA Cell Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
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