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Gene Review

Cd68  -  CD68 antigen

Mus musculus

Synonyms: Lamp4, Macrosialin, Scard1, gp110, macrosialin
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Disease relevance of Cd68


High impact information on Cd68

  • Resident peritoneal macrophages express low levels of macrosialin antigen in a glycoform that does not bind 125I wheat germ agglutinin or 125I peanut agglutinin; inflammatory stimuli upregulate expression of this antigen (up to 17-fold), in an alternative glycoform that is detected by these lectins [6].
  • Rat monoclonal antibody FA/11 has been used to identify macrosialin, a sialoglycoprotein confined to murine mononuclear phagocytes and related cells [6].
  • Immuno-adsorption experiments reported here show that macrosialin is identical to the major 87-115-kD sialoglycoprotein previously identified by lectin blotting in exudate but not resident peritoneal macrophages (Rabinowitz, S., and S. Gordon. 1989. J. Cell Sci. 93:623) [6].
  • Macrosialin, an antigen confined to macrophages and dendritic cells, was heavily expressed in TC and phagolysosomal membranes with low levels being detected in other endosomal compartments and on the cell surface [7].
  • Thus, although the surface expression of MS/CD68 at steady-state represents only a small percentage of their total cellular content, these proteins can play a significant role in oxidized LDL uptake by activated macrophages in vitro and could contribute to foam cell formation in atherosclerotic lesions [8].

Biological context of Cd68


Anatomical context of Cd68

  • Furthermore, fluoro-Jade((R)) B was co-localized with CD68/macrosialin, a specific marker of activated microglia, and with GFAP for astrocytes in APP(SL)/PS1 KI transgenic mice of AD [11].
  • FACS analysis of intact cells using mAb FA/11 showed small but definite surface expression of MS in resident mouse peritoneal macrophages but this was greatly enhanced with thioglycollate elicitation [8].
  • Macrosialin is a heavily glycosylated transmembrane protein of 87-115 kDa, highly and specifically expressed by mouse tissue macrophages, and to a lesser extent by dendritic cells [10].
  • In the present studies, macrosialin mRNA levels are shown to be markedly up-regulated during macrophage differentiation of bone marrow progenitor cells in response to macrophage colony-stimulating factor and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor [9].
  • Gold labelling and electron microscopy defines these compartments more precisely as electron-lucent late endosomal and electron-dense lysosomal compartments, with Nramp1 colocalizing with Lamp1 and cathepsins D and L in both compartments, with macrosialin in late endosomes, and with BSA-5 nm gold in pre-loaded lysosomes [12].

Associations of Cd68 with chemical compounds


Regulatory relationships of Cd68


Other interactions of Cd68


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Cd68

  • Macrosialin is a predominantly Mphi-specific oxidized LDL-binding protein and an atherogenic diet markedly up-regulates its hepatic expression in atherosclerosis-susceptible and atherosclerosis-resistant mouse strains [19].
  • However, a profusion of cells carrying the macrophage CD68/macrosialin antigen appear in the cortex of both mouse models at 1 month. mRNA encoding CD68/macrosialin also increases at that time, as shown by microarray and Northern blot analyses [20].
  • Analysis of the parasitophorous vacuoles (PV) by confocal microscopy showed that these compartments were surrounded by a membrane enriched in lysosomal glycoproteins lamp-1 and lamp-2, in macrosialin (a membrane protein of prelysosomes recognized by FA/11) and in MOMA-2 antigen [21].
  • Macrosialin increases during normal brain aging are attenuated by caloric restriction [22].
  • Other PV membrane components like the prelysosomal/lysosomal glycoproteins Igp110, Igp120 and macrosialin could not be detected in megasomes of amastigotes even after treatment of macrophages with protease inhibitors, suggesting the involvement of some specific mechanism(s) for the internalization of class II molecules [23].


  1. Lack of a direct role for macrosialin in oxidized LDL metabolism. de Beer, M.C., Zhao, Z., Webb, N.R., van der Westhuyzen, D.R., de Villiers, W.J. J. Lipid Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  2. Structure, organization, and chromosomal mapping of the gene encoding macrosialin, a macrophage-restricted protein. Jiang, Z., Shih, D.M., Xia, Y.R., Lusis, A.J., de Beer, F.C., de Villiers, W.J., van der Westhuyzen, D.R., de Beer, M.C. Genomics (1998) [Pubmed]
  3. Characterization of cloned class I MHC-restricted, CD8+ anti-Meth A cytotoxic T-lymphocytes: recognition of an epitope derived from the Meth A gp110 tumor rejection antigen. Fassanito, M.A., Loftus, D., De Leo, R.M., Law, L.W., Appella, E., De Leo, A.B. Cancer Res. (1994) [Pubmed]
  4. Characterization of murine gammaherpesvirus 68 glycoprotein B (gB) homolog: similarity to Epstein-Barr virus gB (gp110). Stewart, J.P., Janjua, N.J., Sunil-Chandra, N.P., Nash, A.A., Arrand, J.R. J. Virol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  5. Identification of a transformation-sensitive 110-kDa plasma membrane glycoprotein of rat hepatocytes. Becker, A., Neumeier, R., Park, C.S., Gossrau, R., Reutter, W. Eur. J. Cell Biol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  6. Macrosialin, a macrophage-restricted membrane sialoprotein differentially glycosylated in response to inflammatory stimuli. Rabinowitz, S.S., Gordon, S. J. Exp. Med. (1991) [Pubmed]
  7. Immunocytochemical characterization of the endocytic and phagolysosomal compartments in peritoneal macrophages. Rabinowitz, S., Horstmann, H., Gordon, S., Griffiths, G. J. Cell Biol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  8. Cell surface expression of mouse macrosialin and human CD68 and their role as macrophage receptors for oxidized low density lipoprotein. Ramprasad, M.P., Terpstra, V., Kondratenko, N., Quehenberger, O., Steinberg, D. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1996) [Pubmed]
  9. The macrosialin promoter directs high levels of transcriptional activity in macrophages dependent on combinatorial interactions between PU.1 and c-Jun. Li, A.C., Guidez, F.R., Collier, J.G., Glass, C.K. J. Biol. Chem. (1998) [Pubmed]
  10. Macrosialin, a mouse macrophage-restricted glycoprotein, is a member of the lamp/lgp family. Holness, C.L., da Silva, R.P., Fawcett, J., Gordon, S., Simmons, D.L. J. Biol. Chem. (1993) [Pubmed]
  11. Fluoro-Jade((R)) B staining as useful tool to identify activated microglia and astrocytes in a mouse transgenic model of Alzheimer's disease. Damjanac, M., Bilan, A.R., Barrier, L., Pontcharraud, R., Anne, C., Hugon, J., Page, G. Brain Res. (2007) [Pubmed]
  12. Localisation of Nramp1 in macrophages: modulation with activation and infection. Searle, S., Bright, N.A., Roach, T.I., Atkinson, P.G., Barton, C.H., Meloen, R.H., Blackwell, J.M. J. Cell. Sci. (1998) [Pubmed]
  13. Role of CCR2 in macrophage migration into the liver during acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity in the mouse. Dambach, D.M., Watson, L.M., Gray, K.R., Durham, S.K., Laskin, D.L. Hepatology (2002) [Pubmed]
  14. Phagocytosis stimulates alternative glycosylation of macrosialin (mouse CD68), a macrophage-specific endosomal protein. da Silva, R.P., Gordon, S. Biochem. J. (1999) [Pubmed]
  15. Intrabursal injection of clodronate liposomes causes macrophage depletion and inhibits ovulation in the mouse ovary. Van der Hoek, K.H., Maddocks, S., Woodhouse, C.M., van Rooijen, N., Robertson, S.A., Norman, R.J. Biol. Reprod. (2000) [Pubmed]
  16. The mannose receptor is expressed by subsets of APC in non-lymphoid organs. Linehan, S.A. BMC Immunol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  17. Scavenger receptor-like receptors for the binding of lipopolysaccharide and lipoteichoic acid to liver endothelial and Kupffer cells. van Oosten, M., van Amersfoort, E.S., van Berkel, T.J., Kuiper, J. J. Endotoxin Res. (2001) [Pubmed]
  18. Diversity in phenotype and steroid hormone dependence in dendritic cells and macrophages in the mouse uterus. Keenihan, S.N., Robertson, S.A. Biol. Reprod. (2004) [Pubmed]
  19. Macrophage scavenger receptors and foam cell formation. de Villiers, W.J., Smart, E.J. J. Leukoc. Biol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  20. Activated microglia in cortex of mouse models of mucopolysaccharidoses I and IIIB. Ohmi, K., Greenberg, D.S., Rajavel, K.S., Ryazantsev, S., Li, H.H., Neufeld, E.F. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2003) [Pubmed]
  21. Macrophage subsets harbouring Leishmania donovani in spleens of infected BALB/c mice: localization and characterization. Lang, T., Avé, P., Huerre, M., Milon, G., Antoine, J.C. Cell. Microbiol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  22. Macrosialin increases during normal brain aging are attenuated by caloric restriction. Wong, A.M., Patel, N.V., Patel, N.K., Wei, M., Morgan, T.E., de Beer, M.C., de Villiers, W.J., Finch, C.E. Neurosci. Lett. (2005) [Pubmed]
  23. Intracellular Leishmania amazonensis amastigotes internalize and degrade MHC class II molecules of their host cells. De Souza Leao, S., Lang, T., Prina, E., Hellio, R., Antoine, J.C. J. Cell. Sci. (1995) [Pubmed]
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