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Gene Review

Fpr1  -  formyl peptide receptor 1

Mus musculus

Synonyms: FPR, LXA4R, N-formyl peptide receptor, N-formylpeptide chemoattractant receptor, fMLF-R, ...
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Disease relevance of Fpr1

  • Members of the formyl peptide receptor family recognize chemotactic peptides as well the amyloïd-beta peptide and fragments of the human immunodeficiency virus envelope and may thus be implicated in major pathologies [1].
  • FPR-/- mice developed normally, but had increased susceptibility to challenge with Listeria monocytogenes, as measured by increased mortality compared with wild-type littermates [2].
  • In a model of mouse peritonitis, FPR antagonists abrogated the anti-migratory effects of peptides Ac2-26 and Ac2-12, with a partial reduction in annexin 1 effects [3].
  • These data demonstrate that a complex chemokine network is activated in response to pulmonary pneumococcal infection, and also suggest an important role for fMLP receptor in monocyte/macrophage recruitment in that model [4].
  • The activity of these novel PAMPs was sensitive to pertussis toxin but insensitive to the formyl peptide receptor inhibitor CHIPS [5].

Psychiatry related information on Fpr1

  • Human formyl peptide receptor (FPR)-like 1 (FPRL1) and its mouse homologue mFPR2 are functional receptors for a variety of exogenous and host-derived chemotactic peptides, including amyloid beta 1-42 (Abeta(42)), a pathogenic factor in Alzheimer's disease [6].

High impact information on Fpr1

  • Consistent with this, fMLF induced two distinct concentration optima for chemotaxis of normal mouse neutrophils, but only the high concentration optimum for chemotaxis of neutrophils from FPR knockout mice [7].
  • Consistent with this, neutrophil chemotaxis in vitro and neutrophil mobilization into peripheral blood in vivo in response to the prototype N-formylpeptide fMLF (formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine) were both absent in FPR-/- mice [2].
  • The N-formylpeptide receptor (FPR) is a G protein-coupled receptor that mediates mammalian phagocyte chemotactic responses to bacterial N-formylpeptides [7].
  • FPR-/- mice also had increased bacterial load in spleen and liver 2 d after infection, which is before development of a specific cellular immune response, suggesting a defect in innate immunity [2].
  • When expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells, the mouse LXA4R showed specific binding to [3H]LXA4 (K(d) approximately 1.5 nM), and with LXA4 activated GTP hydrolysis [8].

Chemical compound and disease context of Fpr1


Biological context of Fpr1

  • Fpr1 gene deletion failed to modify the pituitary responses to dexamethasone or ANXA1(Ac2-26) [10].
  • Studies with peptide antagonists suggest that WKYMVm-NH2 preferentially activates exocytosis via FPRL1 and not FPR, the major receptor for N-formylated peptides such as fMLF [1].
  • Surprisingly, a non-desensitizing and non-internalizing mutant of the FPR is unable to initiate apoptosis, indicating that receptor phosphorylation and internalization, but not solely chronic activation due to a lack of desensitization, are critical determinants for the induction of apoptosis by the FPR [11].
  • Reconstitution with either arrestin-2 or arrestin-3 is completely sufficient to prevent FPR-mediated apoptosis [11].
  • Yet, FPR(+/+) and FPR(-/-) neutrophils showed similar oxidase activation kinetics and G(i) protein-dependent pharmacological sensitivities [12].

Anatomical context of Fpr1


Associations of Fpr1 with chemical compounds

  • Additionally, a nonselective FPR antagonist (Boc1, 100 microM) overcame the effects of dexamethasone, ANXA1(1-188), ANXA1(Ac2-26), fMLF, and LXA4 on ACTH release, although at a lower concentration (50 microM), it was without effect [10].
  • We further demonstrate that this response is not unique to the FPR with numerous additional GPCRs, including the V2 vasopressin, angiotensin II (type 1A), and CXCR2 receptors, capable of initiating apoptosis upon stimulation, whereas GPCRs such as the beta(2)-adrenergic receptor and CXCR4 are not capable of initiating apoptotic signaling [11].
  • We found that the formyl peptide receptor agonist formyl-MLF (fMLF) induced anti-nociceptive effects in the formalin test both after the peripheral and central administration [15].
  • This less sensitive second pathway may permit continued oxidant generation in response to formyl peptides when FPR is desensitized in high concentrations of the chemotactic gradient [12].
  • In FPR-deficient mice, peptide Ac2-26 retained significant inhibitory actions (about 50% of the effects in naive mice), and these were blocked by an FPR antagonist, termed butyloxycarbonyl-Phe-Leu-Phe-Leu-Phe, or Boc2 [16].

Physical interactions of Fpr1

  • The cellular effects of PGF(2alpha) are mediated by a G protein-coupled transmembrane receptor designated the FP receptor [17].

Regulatory relationships of Fpr1


Other interactions of Fpr1


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Fpr1


  1. The immunostimulatory peptide WKYMVm-NH activates bone marrow mouse neutrophils via multiple signal transduction pathways. Boxio, R., Bossenmeyer-Pourié, C., Vanderesse, R., Dournon, C., Nüsse, O. Scand. J. Immunol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  2. Impaired antibacterial host defense in mice lacking the N-formylpeptide receptor. Gao, J.L., Lee, E.J., Murphy, P.M. J. Exp. Med. (1999) [Pubmed]
  3. Involvement of the receptor for formylated peptides in the in vivo anti-migratory actions of annexin 1 and its mimetics. Perretti, M., Getting, S.J., Solito, E., Murphy, P.M., Gao, J.L. Am. J. Pathol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  4. Role of chemokines and formyl peptides in pneumococcal pneumonia-induced monocyte/macrophage recruitment. Fillion, I., Ouellet, N., Simard, M., Bergeron, Y., Sato, S., Bergeron, M.G. J. Immunol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  5. Neutrophil chemotaxis by pathogen-associated molecular patterns--formylated peptides are crucial but not the sole neutrophil attractants produced by Staphylococcus aureus. Dürr, M.C., Kristian, S.A., Otto, M., Matteoli, G., Margolis, P.S., Trias, J., van Kessel, K.P., van Strijp, J.A., Bohn, E., Landmann, R., Peschel, A. Cell. Microbiol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  6. Induction of the Formyl Peptide Receptor 2 in Microglia by IFN-{gamma} and Synergy with CD40 Ligand. Chen, K., Iribarren, P., Huang, J., Zhang, L., Gong, W., Cho, E.H., Lockett, S., Dunlop, N.M., Wang, J.M. J. Immunol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  7. N-formylpeptides induce two distinct concentration optima for mouse neutrophil chemotaxis by differential interaction with two N-formylpeptide receptor (FPR) subtypes. Molecular characterization of FPR2, a second mouse neutrophil FPR. Hartt, J.K., Barish, G., Murphy, P.M., Gao, J.L. J. Exp. Med. (1999) [Pubmed]
  8. Aspirin-triggered 15-epi-lipoxin A4 (LXA4) and LXA4 stable analogues are potent inhibitors of acute inflammation: evidence for anti-inflammatory receptors. Takano, T., Fiore, S., Maddox, J.F., Brady, H.R., Petasis, N.A., Serhan, C.N. J. Exp. Med. (1997) [Pubmed]
  9. Down-regulation of lipoxin A4 receptor by thromboxane A2 signaling in RAW246.7 cells in vitro and bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis in vivo. Sato, Y., Kitasato, H., Murakami, Y., Hashimoto, A., Endo, H., Kondo, H., Inoue, M., Hayashi, I. Biomed. Pharmacother. (2004) [Pubmed]
  10. Formyl peptide receptors and the regulation of ACTH secretion: targets for annexin A1, lipoxins, and bacterial peptides. John, C.D., Sahni, V., Mehet, D., Morris, J.F., Christian, H.C., Perretti, M., Flower, R.J., Solito, E., Buckingham, J.C. FASEB J. (2007) [Pubmed]
  11. Arrestins block G protein-coupled receptor-mediated apoptosis. Revankar, C.M., Vines, C.M., Cimino, D.F., Prossnitz, E.R. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  12. The N-formylpeptide receptor (FPR) and a second G(i)-coupled receptor mediate fMet-Leu-Phe-stimulated activation of NADPH oxidase in murine neutrophils. Lavigne, M.C., Murphy, P.M., Leto, T.L., Gao, J.L. Cell. Immunol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  13. Signaling in lipopolysaccharide-induced stabilization of formyl Peptide receptor 1 mRNA in mouse peritoneal macrophages. Mandal, P., Hamilton, T. J. Immunol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  14. Species and subtype variants of the N-formyl peptide chemotactic receptor reveal multiple important functional domains. Gao, J.L., Murphy, P.M. J. Biol. Chem. (1993) [Pubmed]
  15. Stimulus-dependent specificity for annexin 1 inhibition of the inflammatory nociceptive response: the involvement of the receptor for formylated peptides. Pieretti, S., Di Giannuario, A., De Felice, M., Perretti, M., Cirino, G. Pain (2004) [Pubmed]
  16. Leukocyte antiadhesive actions of annexin 1: ALXR- and FPR-related anti-inflammatory mechanisms. Gavins, F.N., Yona, S., Kamal, A.M., Flower, R.J., Perretti, M. Blood (2003) [Pubmed]
  17. Expression of the prostaglandin F receptor (FP) gene along the mouse genitourinary tract. Saito, O., Guan, Y., Qi, Z., Davis, L.S., Kömhoff, M., Sugimoto, Y., Narumiya, S., Breyer, R.M., Breyer, M.D. Am. J. Physiol. Renal Physiol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  18. IL-4 inhibits the expression of mouse formyl peptide receptor 2, a receptor for amyloid beta1-42, in TNF-alpha-activated microglia. Iribarren, P., Chen, K., Hu, J., Zhang, X., Gong, W., Wang, J.M. J. Immunol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  19. IL-4 inhibits expression of the formyl peptide receptor gene in mouse peritoneal macrophages. Dai, Y., Major, J., Novotny, M., Hamilton, T.A. J. Interferon Cytokine Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  20. Specialized functions of MHC class I molecules. I. An N-formyl peptide receptor is required for construction of the class I antigen Mta. Shawar, S.M., Cook, R.G., Rodgers, J.R., Rich, R.R. J. Exp. Med. (1990) [Pubmed]
  21. Suppression of naloxone-precipitated withdrawal jumps in morphine-dependent mice by stimulation of prostaglandin EP3 receptor. Nakagawa, T., Minami, M., Katsumata, S., Ienaga, Y., Satoh, M. Br. J. Pharmacol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  22. Signal transducing properties of the N-formyl peptide receptor expressed in undifferentiated HL60 cells. Prossnitz, E.R., Quehenberger, O., Cochrane, C.G., Ye, R.D. J. Immunol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  23. Expression of PGF(2alpha) receptor mRNA in normal, hyperplastic and neoplastic skin. Müller, K., Krieg, P., Marks, F., Fürstenberger, G. Carcinogenesis (2000) [Pubmed]
  24. Studies using isolated uterine and other preparations show bimatoprost and prostanoid FP agonists have different activity profiles. Chen, J., Senior, J., Marshall, K., Abbas, F., Dinh, H., Dinh, T., Wheeler, L., Woodward, D. Br. J. Pharmacol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  25. Expression and regulation of prostaglandin F receptor mRNA in rodent osteoblastic cells. Nemoto, K., Bernecker, P.M., Pilbeam, C.C., Raisz, L.G. Prostaglandins (1995) [Pubmed]
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