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Gene Review

Rad51  -  RAD51 homolog

Mus musculus

Synonyms: AV304093, DNA repair protein RAD51 homolog 1, RAD51 homolog A, Rad51a, Reca
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Disease relevance of Rad51


High impact information on Rad51

  • Recruitment of p53 binding protein 1 (53BP1) and Rad51 to sites of DNA lesion is impaired in Zmpste24-/- MEFs and in HGPS fibroblasts, resulting in delayed checkpoint response and defective DNA repair [4].
  • Upon removal of the transgene by Cre recombinase, mutant ES cells cease DNA synthesis, arresting growth with S-phase DNA content, and generate nuclear Rad51 foci, followed by cell death with concomitant increase in p53 protein levels [5].
  • Distribution of the Rad51 recombinase in human and mouse spermatocytes [6].
  • To analyse its role in this process, polyclonal antibodies raised against hRad51 were used to study the distribution of Rad51 in human and mouse spermatocytes during meiosis I [6].
  • During zygotene, the largest foci were present in regions undergoing synapsis, suggesting that Rad51 is a component of early recombination nodules [6].

Biological context of Rad51

  • The presence of Rad51 and/or Lim15 proteins in early nodules supports the hypothesis that early nodules are involved in recombination-related events during meiosis [7].
  • The transformed Brca1-deficient OSE cells display an increased number of centrosomes, acquire complex chromosome aberrations, and lack Rad51 nuclear foci in the presence of DNA-damaging agents, such as mitomycin C and cisplatin [8].
  • Immunoflourescence studies with normal and brca1(-/-) mutant mouse ES cell lines indicate that Brca1 promotes assembly of subnuclear Rad51 foci following both types of DNA damage [1].
  • These foci are likely to be oligomeric complexes of Rad51 engaged in repair of DNA lesions or in processes that allow cells to tolerate such lesions during DNA replication [1].
  • Rad51 protein plays a pivotal role in homologous recombination (HR), which is involved in double-strand break repair and in genome maintenance [9].

Anatomical context of Rad51

  • These data show that distinctive Rad51 foci are induced by DNA damaging agents and cell activation and that the response to DNA damage may involve pathways distinct from those associated with B cell activation and switch recombination [10].
  • Rad51 immunocytology in rat and mouse spermatocytes and oocytes [11].
  • Such Rad51 superexpressing clones were also observed when expression was determined in monocytic myeloid cells differentiated from ES cells [12].
  • RESULTS: When synthetic Rad51 siRNA was delivered into HeLa cells using the HVJ envelope vector, no Rad51 transcripts were detected on day 2, and Rad51 protein completely disappeared for 4 days after siRNA transfer [2].

Associations of Rad51 with chemical compounds


Regulatory relationships of Rad51

  • We discuss our results with respect to two models that describe how Rad54 stimulates Rad51-mediated DNA strand invasion [14].
  • Furthermore, some Msh2 null clones expressed high levels of Rad51 specifically, a critical component of HRR [12].

Other interactions of Rad51

  • The Rad51 gene is the mammalian homologue of the bacterial RecA gene and catalyses homologous recombination in mammalian cells [15].
  • Rad51 and Dmc1 recombinases are the major players in these processes [16].
  • This included prolonged association of gammaH2AX with sites of DNA damage, reduced sex body formation, diminished Rad51 foci and absence of Mlh1 foci in the pachytene stage [17].
  • On the other hand, we did not find any difference during gametogenesis in mice harboring exon 27 truncating mutation of the Brca2 gene and control mice, and in both cases, Rad51 localized to the recombination foci [18].
  • These molecules included not only those involved in cell cycle progression, but also essential molecules for DNA double-strand break repair, such as Rad51 and Rpa1 [19].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Rad51

  • In addition, Rad51 has been localized by immunofluorescence in abundant foci that may correspond to early nodules in yeast, lily, and mouse [7].
  • Elevated expression of exogenous Rad51 leads to identical increases in gene-targeting frequency in murine embryonic stem (ES) cells with both functional and dysfunctional p53 genes [15].
  • Electron microscopy reveals that at first Rad51 immunogold-labeled 100 nm nodules are associated with single cores, and that they come to lie between the chromosome cores during synapsis [11].
  • Radiation-induced EGFR autophosphorylation and Rad51 expression were examined by Western blot analysis [13].


  1. The breast cancer susceptibility gene BRCA1 is required for subnuclear assembly of Rad51 and survival following treatment with the DNA cross-linking agent cisplatin. Bhattacharyya, A., Ear, U.S., Koller, B.H., Weichselbaum, R.R., Bishop, D.K. J. Biol. Chem. (2000) [Pubmed]
  2. Rad51 siRNA delivered by HVJ envelope vector enhances the anti-cancer effect of cisplatin. Ito, M., Yamamoto, S., Nimura, K., Hiraoka, K., Tamai, K., Kaneda, Y. The journal of gene medicine. (2005) [Pubmed]
  3. IRS-1-Rad51 nuclear interaction sensitizes JCV T-antigen positive medulloblastoma cells to genotoxic treatment. Trojanek, J., Ho, T., Croul, S., Wang, J.Y., Chintapalli, J., Koptyra, M., Giordano, A., Khalili, K., Reiss, K. Int. J. Cancer (2006) [Pubmed]
  4. Genomic instability in laminopathy-based premature aging. Liu, B., Wang, J., Chan, K.M., Tjia, W.M., Deng, W., Guan, X., Huang, J.D., Li, K.M., Chau, P.Y., Chen, D.J., Pei, D., Pendas, A.M., Cadiñanos, J., López-Otín, C., Tse, H.F., Hutchison, C., Chen, J., Cao, Y., Cheah, K.S., Tryggvason, K., Zhou, Z. Nat. Med. (2005) [Pubmed]
  5. Inactivation of Cdc7 kinase in mouse ES cells results in S-phase arrest and p53-dependent cell death. Kim, J.M., Nakao, K., Nakamura, K., Saito, I., Katsuki, M., Arai, K., Masai, H. EMBO J. (2002) [Pubmed]
  6. Distribution of the Rad51 recombinase in human and mouse spermatocytes. Barlow, A.L., Benson, F.E., West, S.C., Hultén, M.A. EMBO J. (1997) [Pubmed]
  7. RecA-like proteins are components of early meiotic nodules in lily. Anderson, L.K., Offenberg, H.H., Verkuijlen, W.M., Heyting, C. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1997) [Pubmed]
  8. A mouse model for the molecular characterization of brca1-associated ovarian carcinoma. Xing, D., Orsulic, S. Cancer Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  9. Overexpression of mammalian Rad51 does not stimulate tumorigenesis while a dominant-negative Rad51 affects centrosome fragmentation, ploidy and stimulates tumorigenesis, in p53-defective CHO cells. Bertrand, P., Lambert, S., Joubert, C., Lopez, B.S. Oncogene (2003) [Pubmed]
  10. Nuclear Rad51 foci induced by DNA damage are distinct from Rad51 foci associated with B cell activation and recombination. Li, M.J., Maizels, N. Exp. Cell Res. (1997) [Pubmed]
  11. Rad51 immunocytology in rat and mouse spermatocytes and oocytes. Moens, P.B., Chen, D.J., Shen, Z., Kolas, N., Tarsounas, M., Heng, H.H., Spyropoulos, B. Chromosoma (1997) [Pubmed]
  12. Deregulation of homologous recombination DNA repair in alkylating agent-treated stem cell clones: a possible role in the aetiology of chemotherapy-induced leukaemia. Worrillow, L.J., Allan, J.M. Oncogene (2006) [Pubmed]
  13. Mechanisms of enhanced radiation response following epidermal growth factor receptor signaling inhibition by erlotinib (Tarceva). Chinnaiyan, P., Huang, S., Vallabhaneni, G., Armstrong, E., Varambally, S., Tomlins, S.A., Chinnaiyan, A.M., Harari, P.M. Cancer Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  14. Analysis of mouse Rad54 expression and its implications for homologous recombination. Essers, J., Hendriks, R.W., Wesoly, J., Beerens, C.E., Smit, B., Hoeijmakers, J.H., Wyman, C., Dronkert, M.L., Kanaar, R. DNA Repair (Amst.) (2002) [Pubmed]
  15. Elevated expression of exogenous Rad51 leads to identical increases in gene-targeting frequency in murine embryonic stem (ES) cells with both functional and dysfunctional p53 genes. Domínguez-Bendala, J., Priddle, H., Clarke, A., McWhir, J. Exp. Cell Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  16. The Hop2 and Mnd1 proteins act in concert with Rad51 and Dmc1 in meiotic recombination. Petukhova, G.V., Pezza, R.J., Vanevski, F., Ploquin, M., Masson, J.Y., Camerini-Otero, R.D. Nat. Struct. Mol. Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  17. Impaired meiotic DNA-damage repair and lack of crossing-over during spermatogenesis in BRCA1 full-length isoform deficient mice. Xu, X., Aprelikova, O., Moens, P., Deng, C.X., Furth, P.A. Development (2003) [Pubmed]
  18. Homozygous germ line mutation in exon 27 of murine Brca2 disrupts the Fancd2-Brca2 pathway in the homologous recombination-mediated DNA interstrand cross-links' repair but does not affect meiosis. Atanassov, B.S., Barrett, J.C., Davis, B.J. Genes Chromosomes Cancer (2005) [Pubmed]
  19. Identification of ventricular-side-enriched molecules regulated in a stage-dependent manner during cerebral cortical development. Ajioka, I., Maeda, T., Nakajima, K. Eur. J. Neurosci. (2006) [Pubmed]
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