The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)



Gene Review

Xrcc2  -  X-ray repair complementing defective...

Mus musculus

Synonyms: 4921524O04Rik, 8030409M04Rik, DNA repair protein XRCC2, RAD51, RecA, ...
Welcome! If you are familiar with the subject of this article, you can contribute to this open access knowledge base by deleting incorrect information, restructuring or completely rewriting any text. Read more.

Disease relevance of Xrcc2


High impact information on Xrcc2

  • RAD51/DMC1, RPA, and MSH4 foci (which mark early and intermediate steps in pairing/recombination) appear in similar numbers as in wild type, but do not all disappear, and MLH1 and MLH3 foci (which mark late steps in crossing over) are not formed [5].
  • Although meiosis is initiated in Msh4 mutant male and female mice, as indicated by the chromosomal localization of RAD51 and COR1 during leptonema/zygonema, the chromosomes fail to undergo normal pairing [6].
  • The mouse RecA-like gene Dmc1 is required for homologous chromosome synapsis during meiosis [7].
  • At an acute double-strand break in the recombination substrate, Bcl-2 specifically inhibits RAD51-dependent gene conversion without affecting non-conservative recombination [8].
  • In xrs6 as well as XR-1 cell lines, Rad51 foci accumulate more rapidly compared with their respective controls [9].

Biological context of Xrcc2

  • Xrcc2(-/-) embryos surviving until later stages of embryogenesis commonly showed developmental abnormalities and died at birth [10].
  • DNA damage-induced apoptosis resulting from inactivation of HR (Xrcc2 deficiency) only occurred in proliferating neural precursor cells, whereas disruption of NHEJ (DNA ligase IV deficiency) mainly affected differentiating cells at later developmental stages [11].
  • Using spectral karyotyping, we find that aneuploidy and complex chromosome exchanges, including an unexpectedly high frequency of homologue exchanges, are hallmarks of Xrcc2 deficiency [12].
  • In addition to growth arrest and sensitivity to agents causing severe DNA damage, we show that order-of-magnitude higher levels of chromosomal alterations are sustained in primary or immortal Xrcc2(-/-) embryonic fibroblasts [12].
  • The data reveal that Xrcc2 plays a role in the protection against a wide range of anticancer drugs and, therefore, suggest Xrcc2 to be a determinant of anticancer drug resistance [2].

Anatomical context of Xrcc2

  • In parallel, we used CHO cell lines expressing a RAD51 dominant-negative form that specifically inhibits gene conversion without affecting cell viability (Hypo-rec lines) [3].
  • The transformed Brca1-deficient OSE cells display an increased number of centrosomes, acquire complex chromosome aberrations, and lack Rad51 nuclear foci in the presence of DNA-damaging agents, such as mitomycin C and cisplatin [13].
  • RESULTS: In the leptotene and zygotene stages, the Rad51 protein was present on chromatin loops of mouse testis chromosomes then the protein left the loops [14].
  • By using a dominant negative approach, we generated a mouse embryonic stem cell line that expresses an ATP hydrolysis-defective RAD51 protein, hRAD51-K133R, at comparable levels to the endogenous wild-type RAD51 protein, whose expression is retained in these cells [15].

Associations of Xrcc2 with chemical compounds


Other interactions of Xrcc2

  • Thus, loss of Ercc1, Csb or Ku70 leads to increased fragment formation, but loss of Xrcc2 promotes exchanges between chromosomes [18].
  • Xrcc2 is one of a family of five Rad51-like genes with important roles in the repair of DNA damage by homologous recombination (HR) in mammals [1].
  • The Rad51 gene is the mammalian homologue of the bacterial RecA gene and catalyses homologous recombination in mammalian cells [19].
  • A novel role for the Bcl-2 protein family: specific suppression of the RAD51 recombination pathway [8].
  • These paralogs form two complexes (Rad51C/Xrcc3 and Rad51B/C/D/Xrcc2), which play roles in somatic recombination, DNA repair and chromosome stability [20].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Xrcc2

  • In addition, Rad51 has been localized by immunofluorescence in abundant foci that may correspond to early nodules in yeast, lily, and mouse [21].
  • The recombinants can thus be amplified in mammalian cells, isolated by plasmid rescue in an Escherichia coli RecA- host, and identified by in situ hybridization, by using mammalian vector sequences as probes [22].
  • The gene family cloning method is fast, efficient, and free from PCR errors; moreover, it exploits the abilities of RecA protein to pair homologous or partially homologous DNA sequences stably in kinetically trapped, multistranded DNA hybrids that can be used for subsequent gene clone enrichment [23].
  • RecA-assisted restriction endonuclease cleavage of genomic DNA showed that the cloned fragments correspond to telomere-terminal genomic DNA, and restriction enzyme mapping of the YACs shows that the smaller clone (175 kb) corresponds exactly to the telomeric end of the larger one (300 kb) [24].
  • Overexpression of bacterial RecA protein in somatic mammalian cells increases the frequency of gene targeting [25].


  1. A role for Xrcc2 in the early stages of mouse development. Adam, J., Deans, B., Thacker, J. DNA Repair (Amst.) (2007) [Pubmed]
  2. Xrcc2 deficiency sensitizes cells to apoptosis by MNNG and the alkylating anticancer drugs temozolomide, fotemustine and mafosfamide. Tsaryk, R., Fabian, K., Thacker, J., Kaina, B. Cancer Lett. (2006) [Pubmed]
  3. Overexpression of mammalian Rad51 does not stimulate tumorigenesis while a dominant-negative Rad51 affects centrosome fragmentation, ploidy and stimulates tumorigenesis, in p53-defective CHO cells. Bertrand, P., Lambert, S., Joubert, C., Lopez, B.S. Oncogene (2003) [Pubmed]
  4. A mutation in mouse rad51 results in an early embryonic lethal that is suppressed by a mutation in p53. Lim, D.S., Hasty, P. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  5. Mouse Sycp1 functions in synaptonemal complex assembly, meiotic recombination, and XY body formation. de Vries, F.A., de Boer, E., van den Bosch, M., Baarends, W.M., Ooms, M., Yuan, L., Liu, J.G., van Zeeland, A.A., Heyting, C., Pastink, A. Genes Dev. (2005) [Pubmed]
  6. MutS homolog 4 localization to meiotic chromosomes is required for chromosome pairing during meiosis in male and female mice. Kneitz, B., Cohen, P.E., Avdievich, E., Zhu, L., Kane, M.F., Hou, H., Kolodner, R.D., Kucherlapati, R., Pollard, J.W., Edelmann, W. Genes Dev. (2000) [Pubmed]
  7. The mouse RecA-like gene Dmc1 is required for homologous chromosome synapsis during meiosis. Yoshida, K., Kondoh, G., Matsuda, Y., Habu, T., Nishimune, Y., Morita, T. Mol. Cell (1998) [Pubmed]
  8. A novel role for the Bcl-2 protein family: specific suppression of the RAD51 recombination pathway. Saintigny, Y., Dumay, A., Lambert, S., Lopez, B.S. EMBO J. (2001) [Pubmed]
  9. Characterization of homologous recombination induced by replication inhibition in mammalian cells. Saintigny, Y., Delacôte, F., Varès, G., Petitot, F., Lambert, S., Averbeck, D., Lopez, B.S. EMBO J. (2001) [Pubmed]
  10. Xrcc2 is required for genetic stability, embryonic neurogenesis and viability in mice. Deans, B., Griffin, C.S., Maconochie, M., Thacker, J. EMBO J. (2000) [Pubmed]
  11. Selective utilization of nonhomologous end-joining and homologous recombination DNA repair pathways during nervous system development. Orii, K.E., Lee, Y., Kondo, N., McKinnon, P.J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2006) [Pubmed]
  12. Homologous recombination deficiency leads to profound genetic instability in cells derived from Xrcc2-knockout mice. Deans, B., Griffin, C.S., O'Regan, P., Jasin, M., Thacker, J. Cancer Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  13. A mouse model for the molecular characterization of brca1-associated ovarian carcinoma. Xing, D., Orsulic, S. Cancer Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  14. Localization of mouse Rad51 and Lim15 proteins on meiotic chromosomes at late stages of prophase 1. Ikeya, T., Shinohara, A., Sato, S., Tabata, S., Ogawa, T. Genes Cells (1996) [Pubmed]
  15. ATP hydrolysis by mammalian RAD51 has a key role during homology-directed DNA repair. Stark, J.M., Hu, P., Pierce, A.J., Moynahan, M.E., Ellis, N., Jasin, M. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  16. Site-specific mutagenesis demonstrates that cysteine 4326 of apolipoprotein B is required for covalent linkage with apolipoprotein (a) in vivo. Callow, M.J., Rubin, E.M. J. Biol. Chem. (1995) [Pubmed]
  17. p53 protects from replication-associated DNA double-strand breaks in mammalian cells. Kumari, A., Schultz, N., Helleday, T. Oncogene (2004) [Pubmed]
  18. The involvement of key DNA repair pathways in the formation of chromosome rearrangements in embryonic stem cells. Griffin, C., Waard, H., Deans, B., Thacker, J. DNA Repair (Amst.) (2005) [Pubmed]
  19. Elevated expression of exogenous Rad51 leads to identical increases in gene-targeting frequency in murine embryonic stem (ES) cells with both functional and dysfunctional p53 genes. Domínguez-Bendala, J., Priddle, H., Clarke, A., McWhir, J. Exp. Cell Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  20. Differing requirements for the Arabidopsis Rad51 paralogs in meiosis and DNA repair. Bleuyard, J.Y., Gallego, M.E., Savigny, F., White, C.I. Plant J. (2005) [Pubmed]
  21. RecA-like proteins are components of early meiotic nodules in lily. Anderson, L.K., Offenberg, H.H., Verkuijlen, W.M., Heyting, C. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1997) [Pubmed]
  22. Intermolecular recombination assay for mammalian cells that produces recombinants carrying both homologous and nonhomologous junctions. Brouillette, S., Chartrand, P. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  23. Discovery of gene families and alternatively spliced variants by RecA-mediated cloning. Zeng, H., Allen, E., Lehman, C.W., Sargent, R.G., Pati, S., Zarling, D.A. Genomics (2002) [Pubmed]
  24. Structure of the terminal 300 kb of DNA from human chromosome 21q. Reston, J.T., Hu, X.L., Macina, R.A., Spais, C., Riethman, H.C. Genomics (1995) [Pubmed]
  25. Overexpression of bacterial RecA protein in somatic mammalian cells increases the frequency of gene targeting. Scherbakova, O.G., Lanzov, V.A., Filatov, M.V. Dokl. Biochem. (2000) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities