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Gene Review

Thy1  -  Thy-1 cell surface antigen

Rattus norvegicus

Synonyms: Thy-1, Thy-1 antigen, Thy-1 membrane glycoprotein
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Disease relevance of Thy1

  • BACKGROUND: An Experimental model of proliferative glomerulonephritis induced by an antibody against Thy-1 antigen has been established [1].
  • Induction of protective genes by cobalt ameliorates tubulointerstitial injury in the progressive Thy1 nephritis [2].
  • BACKGROUND: We previously demonstrated that chronic hypoxia has pivotal roles in the progression of tubulointerstitial injury from the early stage of the uninephrectomized Thy1 nephritis model [2].
  • This study reveals that GS after Thy1 GN represents acceleration of an age-related disease, presents evidence for use of prolonged glomerular hypercellularity as the best histological index of future disease progression, and correlates the key lesion of GS in these animals, the segmental hyaline lesion, with the presence of TGF-beta peptides [3].
  • Its efficiency could be shown by the successful synthesis of the GPI anchor of rat brain Thy-1 and of the scrapie prion protein both in the water soluble 1c and lipidated form 1a [4].

High impact information on Thy1

  • Thy-1 is expressed both by fibroblasts and by all the neurones [5].
  • We now report the structure of the GPI anchor of rat brain Thy-1 glycoprotein [6].
  • Thy-1 is a differentiation marker expressed predominantly on thymocytes, T cells and brain tissue [7].
  • An extremely hydrophobic region of 20 amino acids lies within this 31-amino acid stretch and may represent the transmembrane segment responsible for anchoring Thy-1 to the cell membrane [7].
  • Although analogues of Thy-1 have been described in several mammalian species, its tissue distribution in different species varies widely, precluding its use as T-cell-specific marker [7].

Chemical compound and disease context of Thy1


Biological context of Thy1


Anatomical context of Thy1

  • In both species, Thy-1 is present in large amounts on thymus and brain cells and in smaller quantities on fibroblasts, epidermal cells, mammary glands and immature skeletal muscle [13].
  • Aggregation of integrins and RhoA activation are required for Thy-1-induced morphological changes in astrocytes [15].
  • In both cases, Thy-1-induced focal adhesion formation was inhibited [15].
  • Evidence suggests that Thy-1 affects intracellular signaling through src-family protein kinases, and modulates adhesive and migratory events, such as thymocyte adhesion and neurite extension [16].
  • However, the pathophysiologic role and the critical epitope of Thy-1 molecule for induction of mesangial cell dysfunction remain unknown [1].

Associations of Thy1 with chemical compounds

  • Together, these results indicate that Thy-1-mediated astrocyte stimulation depended on beta(3) integrin clustering and the resulting increase in RhoA activity [15].
  • Control Thy1 rats received DMSO alone [17].
  • Administration of warfarin or daily injection of Axl-Fc inhibited mesangial cell proliferation, and abolished the induction of platelet-derived growth factor-B mRNA and protein in Thy1 GN [18].
  • Thy1-enriched cells expressed CK-18 at all times, albumin in the early, and AFP in the late stages [19].
  • The lateral diffusion of 100 nm fluorescent latex microspheres (FS) bound to either N-biotinyl-phosphatidyl-ethanolamine or the glycosylphosphatidylinositol-linked protein Thy1 were monitored in the plasmalemma of primary rat fibroblasts by single particle tracking of FS centroids from digital fluorescence micrographs [20].
  • In retrorsine-treated liver, transplanted Thy-1(+) fetal liver cells achieved a 4.6%-23.5% repopulation [21].

Physical interactions of Thy1

  • Thy-1 is a neuronal and glial surface antigen which interacts with matrix proteins and plasminogen activator [22].

Enzymatic interactions of Thy1


Regulatory relationships of Thy1

  • To allow the monitoring of synaptotagmin 1 trafficking in vivo, we generated transgenic mice expressing a synaptotagmin 1-enhanced cyan fluorescent protein (ECFP) fusion protein under control of the Thy1 promoter [24].
  • By Northern blot analysis, Cyr61 mRNA was markedly upregulated in glomeruli of Thy-1 GN from day 3 through day 7, when mesangial cell migration was most prominent [25].
  • Ribonuclease protection assay demonstrated minimal COX-1 mRNA expression in glomeruli of control rat kidneys and a gradual increase of expression from day 1 to day 10 after administration of monoclonal anti-rat Thy-1 antibody [26].
  • In gelatin zymography, the gelatinolytic band for MMP-9 was expressed in SI-27 treated Thy-1 nephritis groups, although it was not expressed in the nephritic group at day 7 [27].
  • The bands for an active form of MMP-2 were expressed throughout the experimental period in the Thy-1 nephritic groups [27].

Other interactions of Thy1


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Thy1

  • Using peptides as antigens, ELISA showed that 1-22-3 bound to the LRLDCRHEN but not to the RVNLFSDRF, which was corresponding to at amino acids 59-67 of rat Thy-1 [1].
  • RESULTS: Western blot analysis using recombinant GST-truncated-Thy-1 revealed that 1-22-3 bound to epitope at amino acids 15-23 (LRLDCRHEN) [1].
  • We have examined the expression of Thy-1, an abundant glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored glycoprotein, in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and associated nerve fascicles, during postnatal development and following a nerve crush [31].
  • Thy1 expression was found at all stages of liver development before and after MACS in immunocytochemistry [32].
  • Experimental mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis (Thy1 GN) was induced by a single intravenous injection of anti-rat Thy-1.1 monoclonal antibody [33].


  1. The characterization of a specific Thy-1 molecular epitope expressed on rat mesangial cells. Morioka, T., Yao, J., Suzuki, Y., Oite, T. Kidney Int. (2004) [Pubmed]
  2. Induction of protective genes by cobalt ameliorates tubulointerstitial injury in the progressive Thy1 nephritis. Tanaka, T., Matsumoto, M., Inagi, R., Miyata, T., Kojima, I., Ohse, T., Fujita, T., Nangaku, M. Kidney Int. (2005) [Pubmed]
  3. Thy1 glomerulonephritis induced in young lewis rats accelerates age-related glomerulosclerosis. Stewart, K., Wilson, P., Wilson, H., Minto, A., Haites, N., Whiting, P., Macleod, A., Brown, P. Nephron (2001) [Pubmed]
  4. A variable concept for the preparation of branched glycosyl phosphatidyl inositol anchors. Pekari, K., Schmidt, R.R. J. Org. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  5. Cell surface markers for distinguishing different types of rat dorsal root ganglion cells in culture. Fields, K.L., Brockes, J.P., Mirsky, R., Wendon, L.M. Cell (1978) [Pubmed]
  6. Complete structure of the glycosyl phosphatidylinositol membrane anchor of rat brain Thy-1 glycoprotein. Homans, S.W., Ferguson, M.A., Dwek, R.A., Rademacher, T.W., Anand, R., Williams, A.F. Nature (1988) [Pubmed]
  7. Structural organization of the rat thy-1 gene. Seki, T., Moriuchi, T., Chang, H.C., Denome, R., Silver, J. Nature (1985) [Pubmed]
  8. Mycophenolate mofetil and roscovitine decrease cyclin expression and increase p27(kip1) expression in anti Thy1 mesangial proliferative nephritis. Chiara, M., Menegatti, E., Di Simone, D., Davit, A., Bellis, D., Sferch, D., De Rosa, G., Giachino, O., Sena, L.M., Roccatello, D. Clin. Exp. Immunol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  9. Agmatine inhibits cell proliferation and improves renal function in anti-thy-1 glomerulonephritis. Ishizuka, S., Cunard, R., Poucell-Hatton, S., Wead, L., Lortie, M., Thomson, S.C., Gabbai, F.B., Satriano, J., Blantz, R.C. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  10. Thy-1-mediated phosphatidylinositol turnover in cultured rat glomerular mesangial cell. Narisawa-Saito, M., Kimura, S., Fujiwara, N., Oite, T., Shimoji, K., Shimizu, F. J. Cell. Physiol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  11. Topical flunarizine reduces IOP and protects the retina against ischemia-excitotoxicity. Osborne, N.N., Wood, J.P., Cupido, A., Melena, J., Chidlow, G. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2002) [Pubmed]
  12. Recombinant glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins are not associated with protein kinases in transfected thymoma cells. Clissold, P.M. Biochem. J. (1994) [Pubmed]
  13. Thy-1 cDNA sequence suggests a novel regulatory mechanism. Moriuchi, T., Chang, H.C., Denome, R., Silver, J. Nature (1983) [Pubmed]
  14. Tissue-specific N-glycosylation, site-specific oligosaccharide patterns and lentil lectin recognition of rat Thy-1. Parekh, R.B., Tse, A.G., Dwek, R.A., Williams, A.F., Rademacher, T.W. EMBO J. (1987) [Pubmed]
  15. Aggregation of integrins and RhoA activation are required for Thy-1-induced morphological changes in astrocytes. Avalos, A.M., Arthur, W.T., Schneider, P., Quest, A.F., Burridge, K., Leyton, L. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  16. Thy-1 regulates fibroblast focal adhesions, cytoskeletal organization and migration through modulation of p190 RhoGAP and Rho GTPase activity. Barker, T.H., Grenett, H.E., MacEwen, M.W., Tilden, S.G., Fuller, G.M., Settleman, J., Woods, A., Murphy-Ullrich, J., Hagood, J.S. Exp. Cell Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  17. Direct in vivo inhibition of the nuclear cell cycle cascade in experimental mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis with Roscovitine, a novel cyclin-dependent kinase antagonist. Pippin, J.W., Qu, Q., Meijer, L., Shankland, S.J. J. Clin. Invest. (1997) [Pubmed]
  18. Gas6 regulates mesangial cell proliferation through Axl in experimental glomerulonephritis. Yanagita, M., Arai, H., Ishii, K., Nakano, T., Ohashi, K., Mizuno, K., Varnum, B., Fukatsu, A., Doi, T., Kita, T. Am. J. Pathol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  19. Hepatic lineages isolated from developing rat liver show different ways of maturation. Fiegel, H.C., Kluth, J., Lioznov, M.V., Holzhüter, S., Fehse, B., Zander, A.R., Kluth, D. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2003) [Pubmed]
  20. Tracking movements of lipids and Thy1 molecules in the plasmalemma of living fibroblasts by fluorescence video microscopy with nanometer scale precision. Hicks, B.W., Angelides, K.J. J. Membr. Biol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  21. Comparison of hepatic properties and transplantation of Thy-1(+) and Thy-1(-) cells isolated from embryonic day 14 rat fetal liver. Oertel, M., Menthena, A., Chen, Y.Q., Shafritz, D.A. Hepatology (2007) [Pubmed]
  22. Thy-1 is a neuronal and glial surface antigen which interacts with matrix proteins and plasminogen activator. Liësi, P., Salonen, E.M., Dahl, D., Vaheri, A., Richards, S.J. Experimental brain research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation cérébrale. (1990) [Pubmed]
  23. Protein tyrosine kinase Syk is involved in Thy-1 signaling in rat basophilic leukemia cells. Tolar, P., Dráberová, L., Dráber, P. Eur. J. Immunol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  24. C-terminal ECFP fusion impairs synaptotagmin 1 function: crowding out synaptotagmin 1. Han, W., Rhee, J.S., Maximov, A., Lin, W., Hammer, R.E., Rosenmund, C., Südhof, T.C. J. Biol. Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  25. Angiogenic protein Cyr61 is expressed by podocytes in anti-Thy-1 glomerulonephritis. Sawai, K., Mori, K., Mukoyama, M., Sugawara, A., Suganami, T., Koshikawa, M., Yahata, K., Makino, H., Nagae, T., Fujinaga, Y., Yokoi, H., Yoshioka, T., Yoshimoto, A., Tanaka, I., Nakao, K. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  26. Expression and localization of cyclooxygenase isoforms and cytosolic phospholipase A2 in anti-Thy-1 glomerulonephritis. Hirose, S., Yamamoto, T., Feng, L., Yaoita, E., Kawasaki, K., Goto, S., Fujinaka, H., Wilson, C.B., Arakawa, M., Kihara, I. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  27. Participation of the matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor in Thy-1 nephritis. Mitani, O., Katoh, M., Shigematsu, H. Pathol. Int. (2004) [Pubmed]
  28. The membrane domains occupied by glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored prion protein and Thy-1 differ in lipid composition. Brügger, B., Graham, C., Leibrecht, I., Mombelli, E., Jen, A., Wieland, F., Morris, R. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  29. Pentoxifylline inhibits platelet-derived growth factor-stimulated cyclin D1 expression in mesangial cells by blocking Akt membrane translocation. Lin, S.L., Chen, R.H., Chen, Y.M., Chiang, W.C., Tsai, T.J., Hsieh, B.S. Mol. Pharmacol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  30. Circadian expression of clock genes and clock-controlled genes in the rat retina. Kamphuis, W., Cailotto, C., Dijk, F., Bergen, A., Buijs, R.M. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2005) [Pubmed]
  31. Role of Thy-1 in in vivo and in vitro neural development and regeneration of dorsal root ganglionic neurons. Chen, C.H., Wang, S.M., Yang, S.H., Jeng, C.J. J. Cell. Biochem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  32. Characterization of cell types during rat liver development. Fiegel, H.C., Park, J.J., Lioznov, M.V., Martin, A., Jaeschke-Melli, S., Kaufmann, P.M., Fehse, B., Zander, A.R., Kluth, D. Hepatology (2003) [Pubmed]
  33. Activation of STAT3/Smad1 is a key signaling pathway for progression to glomerulosclerosis in experimental glomerulonephritis. Takahashi, T., Abe, H., Arai, H., Matsubara, T., Nagai, K., Matsuura, M., Iehara, N., Yokode, M., Nishikawa, S., Kita, T., Doi, T. J. Biol. Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
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