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Gene Review

EPO  -  erythropoietin

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Disease relevance of EPO


High impact information on EPO

  • Role of endogenous prostaglandin E2 in erythropoietin production and dome formation by human renal carcinoma cells in culture [5].
  • However, after the cultured cells became confluent, the levels of Ep in the incubated media showed a marked increase to 222.9 +/- 5.26 mU/ml (n = 5) at 30 d of cultivation [5].
  • Studies were carried out on the role of endogenous prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in erythropoietin (Ep) production and dome formation in primary monolayer cultures of a human renal carcinoma from a patient with erythrocytosis that has been serially transplanted into BALB/c athymic nude mice [5].
  • In the plasma clot culture system both normal and polycythemia vera (PV) bone marrow cells respond to erythropoietin (Ep), giving rise to large numbers of colonies of erythroid cells [2].
  • These results indicate that a portion of the NH2-terminal region of erythropoietin is exposed on the surface of the protein at some distance from the receptor-binding domain [6].

Biological context of EPO


Anatomical context of EPO


Associations of EPO with chemical compounds


Regulatory relationships of EPO

  • The effect of recombinant human erythropoietin (Ep) and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) on colony formation by human hemopoietic progenitors was examined in a methylcellulose culture system [17].

Other interactions of EPO


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of EPO

  • The expression of the bovine Epo gene in tissues from a severely anemic calf, bovine fetus and a healthy steer was analysed by a competitive RT-PCR method [7].
  • The release profile was comparable to FITC-Dextran 40 kDa (FD 40) loaded microspheres in the initial release phase, while EPO release was leveling off at later time points [13].
  • Different polymer compositions were studied for the microencapsulation of EPO using a modified double-emulsion process (W/O/W) [13].
  • A bioassay was used to measure erythropoietin (EPO) concentrations in calves with haemorrhagic anaemia due to blood loss and in calves with anaemia due to Trypanosoma congolense infection [1].
  • In addition, the cultured cells at each time period were incubated for 24 h in 5 ml of serum-free Eagle's MEM and the levels of PGE2 and Ep in the incubated media were measured via radioimmunoassay [5].


  1. Rise in erythropoietin concentrations in experimental Trypanosoma congolense infection of calves. Buza, J.J., Logan-Henfrey, L., Andrianarivo, A.G., Williams, D.J. J. Comp. Pathol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  2. Erythroid colony formation by polycythemia vera bone marrow in vitro. Dependence on erythropoietin. Zanjani, E.D., Lutton, J.D., Hoffman, R., Wasserman, L.R. J. Clin. Invest. (1977) [Pubmed]
  3. Hypoxia upregulates glucose transport activity through an adenosine-mediated increase of GLUT1 expression in retinal capillary endothelial cells. Takagi, H., King, G.L., Aiello, L.P. Diabetes (1998) [Pubmed]
  4. Interaction of erythropoietin RNA binding protein with erythropoietin RNA requires an association with heat shock protein 70. Scandurro, A.B., Rondon, I.J., Wilson, R.B., Tenenbaum, S.A., Garry, R.F., Beckman, B.S. Kidney Int. (1997) [Pubmed]
  5. Role of endogenous prostaglandin E2 in erythropoietin production and dome formation by human renal carcinoma cells in culture. Hagiwara, M., McNamara, D.B., Chen, I.L., Fisher, J.W. J. Clin. Invest. (1984) [Pubmed]
  6. Site-specific antibodies to human erythropoietin directed toward the NH2-terminal region. Sue, J.M., Sytkowski, A.J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1983) [Pubmed]
  7. Cloning of a cDNA encoding bovine erythropoietin and analysis of its transcription in selected tissues. Suliman, H.B., Majiwa, P.A., Feldman, B.F., Mertens, B., Logan-Henfrey, L. Gene (1996) [Pubmed]
  8. Stimulation of cell growth by erythropoietin in RAW264.7 cells: association with AP-1 activation. Seong, S.R., Lee, J.W., Lee, Y.K., Kim, T.I., Son, D.J., Moon, D.C., Yun, Y.W., Yoon, d.o. .Y., Hong, J.T. Arch. Pharm. Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  9. A neovascularized organoid derived from retrovirally engineered bone marrow stroma leads to prolonged in vivo systemic delivery of erythropoietin in nonmyeloablated, immunocompetent mice. Eliopoulos, N., Al-Khaldi, A., Crosato, M., Lachapelle, K., Galipeau, J. Gene Ther. (2003) [Pubmed]
  10. The C-terminal peptide of thrombospondin-4 stimulates erythroid cell proliferation. Congote, L.F., Difalco, M.R., Gibbs, B.F. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2004) [Pubmed]
  11. Circulating burst-forming unit-erythroid (BFU-E) colonies as an early marker to measure the recombinant human erythropoietin response in peritoneal dialysis patients. Castro, M.A., Fernandez de Castro, M., Selgas, R., Fernandez-Reyes, M.J., Bajo, M.A., Jimenez, C., Del Peso, G., Dapena, F., de Alvaro, F. Advances in peritoneal dialysis. Conference on Peritoneal Dialysis. (1996) [Pubmed]
  12. Adsorption of human recombinant erythropoietin on dialysis membranes in vitro. Mori, H., Hiraoka, K., Yorifuji, R., Iwasaki, T., Gomikawa, S., Inagaki, O., Inoue, S., Takamitsu, Y., Fujita, Y. Artificial organs. (1994) [Pubmed]
  13. Erythropoietin loaded microspheres prepared from biodegradable LPLG-PEO-LPLG triblock copolymers: protein stabilization and in-vitro release properties. Morlock, M., Kissel, T., Li, Y.X., Koll, H., Winter, G. Journal of controlled release : official journal of the Controlled Release Society. (1998) [Pubmed]
  14. Charcoal-dextran treatment of fetal bovine serum removes an inhibitor of human CFU-megakaryocytes. Lindquist, D.L., de Alarcon, P.A. Exp. Hematol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  15. Isolation of two biologically active peptides, erythrotropin I and erythrotropin II from fetal calf intestine. Congote, L.F. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1983) [Pubmed]
  16. Improved capillary isoelectric focusing method for recombinant erythropoietin analysis. Lopez-Soto-Yarritu, P., Díez-Masa, J.C., Cifuentes, A., de Frutos, M. Journal of chromatography. A. (2002) [Pubmed]
  17. Effect of recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor on hemopoietic cells in serum-free culture. Ohara, A., Suda, T., Saito, M., Miura, Y., Okabe, T., Takaku, F. Exp. Hematol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  18. Bovine fetal-liver stromal cells support erythroid colony formation: enhancement by insulin-like growth factor II. Li, Q., Congote, L.F. Exp. Hematol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  19. Analysis of erythropoietin and erythropoietin receptor genes expression in cattle during acute infection with Trypanosoma congolense. Suliman, H.B., Logan-Henfrey, L., Majiwa, P.A., ole-Moiyoi, O., Feldman, B.F. Exp. Hematol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  20. Extraction from fetal bovine serum of erythrotropin, an erythroid cell-stimulating factor. Congote, L.F. Anal. Biochem. (1984) [Pubmed]
  21. Online size-exclusion high-performance liquid chromatography light scattering and differential refractometry methods to determine degree of polymer conjugation to proteins and protein-protein or protein-ligand association states. Kendrick, B.S., Kerwin, B.A., Chang, B.S., Philo, J.S. Anal. Biochem. (2001) [Pubmed]
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