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Gene Review

PRS  -  Prieto X-linked mental retardation syndrome

Homo sapiens

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Disease relevance of PRS

  • The presence of PRS on the EEG of the premature infant has a high correlation with white matter necrosis rather than with intraventricular hemorrhage [1].
  • 0. The level of phosphatase activity detected in several isolates of C. burnetii implicated in acute (Nine Mile) and chronic (S Q217, PRS Q177, K Q154) Q fever was 25 to 60 times greater than that reported in other microorganisms, including Leishmania and Legionella spp [2].
  • Further efforts are necessary in the design of a clinically relevant trial addressing the role of fractionated external beam radiation therapy with boost vs. PRS treatment with WBRT in the treatment of single metastases [3].
  • Similar RBE values of 1.4 and 1.2 were obtained for human U373 and T98 glioblastoma cells grown in vitro irradiated with the PRS or GE sources, respectively [4].
  • In a retrospective survey of 40 infants with PRS, failure to thrive was found to be significantly correlated with the severity of the airflow obstruction [5].

Psychiatry related information on PRS

  • In comparison, the association between PRS scores and different measures of psychopathology during the 2-year follow-up period was weak [6].
  • The study instruments included PRS (The pupil rating scale revised screening for learning disabilities), Conners' children behavior check-list taken by parents and YG-WR character check-list [7].
  • This study examined associations among self-esteem and self-efficacy; perceived unfavorable Parental Rearing Style (perceived PRS) and unfavorable family climate in the family of origin; and depression in undergraduates still in frequent contact with their families (N = 186) [8].

High impact information on PRS

  • We have shown that three C(2)H(2) zinc finger proteins, namely Sp1, Sp3, and Egr-1, bind to PRS [9].
  • Here we have characterized the PTP1B promoter and demonstrate that a motif with features of a stress-response element acts as a p210 Bcr-Abl-responsive sequence, termed PRS [9].
  • The clean-up procedure was comprised of a solid-phase cation exchange extraction using PRS-columns from which the acylcarnitines were eluted with a barium chloride solution [10].
  • These isolates clustered together in a major pyrogroup that showed high congruence with PRS profiles of the 16S rRNA gene [11].
  • For Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, the PRS was 1.25 and 3.3 times more effective than 90 kVp X-rays and 6 MeV photons at 0.5% cell survival, respectively; by comparison, the PRS was 1.2 and 1.9 times more effective at 0.05% cell survival, respectively [4].

Chemical compound and disease context of PRS


Biological context of PRS

  • RESULTS: The RBE for the PRS low-energy X-ray source (at 1-mm depth) was greater than either the GE or Varian machines and varied with cell survival [4].
  • The deduced amino acid sequence of PAP39 is remarkably similar to those of PRS I and PRS II [14].
  • The rat gene for PRS I has 22 kb and is split into 7 exons. cDNAs for human enzymes were also cloned [14].
  • Cloning of cDNA for the catalytic subunit revealed the presence of two highly homologous isoforms of 34 kDa, designated as PRS I and PRS II [14].
  • CONCLUSION(S): Recombinant FSH low-dose protocol proved to be as effective as low-dose hMG in producing reasonable ovulation and PRS in polycystic ovary syndrome patients with a history of severe OHSS and the protocol was safe concerning the risk of development of OHSS [15].

Anatomical context of PRS


Associations of PRS with chemical compounds


Other interactions of PRS


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of PRS

  • A NOVEL TECHNIQUE: The Photon Radiosurgery System (PRS) is an ingenious portable electron-beam driven device that can typically deliver intra-operative doses of 5-20 Gy, respectively, to 1 cm and 0.2 cm from the tumour bed over about 22 min [27].
  • CONCLUSIONS: The biological and physical properties of the PRS low-energy X-rays offer, under the right conditions, a significant advantage for patient treatment over conventional external beam, stereotactic, or brachytherapy treatment [4].
  • Analysis of the aforementioned antibodies can help in an early differential diagnosis and thus, in better management of PRS [28].
  • An artificial Pbx-binding sequence (PRS), previously determined by random PCR analysis, is similar to the Pbx1-binding sequence in CRS1 and by both gel shift analysis and transfection studies shows characteristics very similar to CRS1 [29].
  • Our general interactive system, known as PRS for Patient Randomization System, was designed to be easily expandable as its functions increase over time, and transportable to other clinical trials settings [30].


  1. Positive rolandic sharp waves in the EEG of the premature infant. Novotny, E.J., Tharp, B.R., Coen, R.W., Bejar, R., Enzmann, D., Vaucher, Y.E. Neurology (1987) [Pubmed]
  2. Acid phosphatase activity in Coxiella burnetii: a possible virulence factor. Baca, O.G., Roman, M.J., Glew, R.H., Christner, R.F., Buhler, J.E., Aragon, A.S. Infect. Immun. (1993) [Pubmed]
  3. Dosimetric results from a feasibility study of a novel radiosurgical source for irradiation of intracranial metastases. Douglas, R.M., Beatty, J., Gall, K., Valenzuela, R.F., Biggs, P., Okunieff, P., Pardo, F.S. Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. (1996) [Pubmed]
  4. Preclinical studies with the photon radiosurgery system (PRS). Astor, M.B., Hilaris, B.S., Gruerio, A., Varricchione, T., Smith, D. Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. (2000) [Pubmed]
  5. Nasopharyngeal airways in Pierre Robin Syndrome. Heaf, D.P., Helms, P.J., Dinwiddie, R., Matthew, D.J. J. Pediatr. (1982) [Pubmed]
  6. Patient Rejection Scale: correlations with symptoms, social disability and number of rehospitalizations. Bailer, J., Rist, F., Bräuer, W., Rey, E.R. European archives of psychiatry and clinical neuroscience. (1994) [Pubmed]
  7. Risk factors of learning disabilities in Chinese children in Wuhan. Yao, B., Wu, H.R. Biomed. Environ. Sci. (2003) [Pubmed]
  8. Self-esteem and self-efficacy; perceived parenting and family climate; and depression in university students. Oliver, J.M., Paull, J.C. Journal of clinical psychology. (1995) [Pubmed]
  9. The reciprocal role of Egr-1 and Sp family proteins in regulation of the PTP1B promoter in response to the p210 Bcr-Abl oncoprotein-tyrosine kinase. Fukada, T., Tonks, N.K. J. Biol. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  10. Quantitative analysis of plasma acylcarnitines using gas chromatography chemical ionization mass fragmentography. Costa, C.G., Struys, E.A., Bootsma, A., ten Brink, H.J., Dorland, L., Tavares de Almeida, I., Duran, M., Jakobs, C. J. Lipid Res. (1997) [Pubmed]
  11. Discrimination and taxonomy of geographically diverse strains of nitrile-metabolizing actinomycetes using chemometric and molecular sequencing techniques. Brandão, P.F., Clapp, J.P., Bull, A.T. Environ. Microbiol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  12. Interstitial brachytherapy for intracranial metastases. McDermott, M.W., Cosgrove, G.R., Larson, D.A., Sneed, P.K., Gutin, P.H. Neurosurg. Clin. N. Am. (1996) [Pubmed]
  13. Response of the renin-aldosterone system in the camel to acute dehydration. Finberg, J.P., Yagil, R., Berlyne, G.M. Journal of applied physiology: respiratory, environmental and exercise physiology. (1978) [Pubmed]
  14. Mammalian phosphoribosyl-pyrophosphate synthetase. Tatibana, M., Kita, K., Taira, M., Ishijima, S., Sonoda, T., Ishizuka, T., Iizasa, T., Ahmad, I. Adv. Enzyme Regul. (1995) [Pubmed]
  15. Recombinant follicle-stimulating hormone in the treatment of patients with history of severe ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. Aboulghar, M.A., Mansour, R.T., Serour, G.I., Amin, Y.M., Sattar, M.A., elAttar, E. Fertil. Steril. (1996) [Pubmed]
  16. Platelet-derived mitogenic activity and bone marrow fibrosis in myeloproliferative disorders. Romano, M., Viero, P., Cortellazzo, S., Barbui, T., Donati, M.B., Poggi, A. Haemostasis (1990) [Pubmed]
  17. Identification and semi-quantification of estrogen and progesterone receptors in peripheral giant cell lesions of the jaws. Whitaker, S.B., Bouquot, J.E. J. Periodontol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  18. Complete nucleotide sequence of human phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate synthetase subunit I (PRS I) cDNA and a comparison with human and rat PRPS gene families. Sonoda, T., Taira, M., Ishijima, S., Ishizuka, T., Iizasa, T., Tatibana, M. J. Biochem. (1991) [Pubmed]
  19. Stereotactic interstitial radiosurgery with a miniature X-ray device in the minimally invasive treatment of selected tumors in the thalamus and the basal Ganglia. Gallina, P., Francescon, P., Cavedon, C., Casamassima, F., Mungai, R., Perrini, P., Russo, S., Di Lorenzo, N. Stereotactic and functional neurosurgery. (2002) [Pubmed]
  20. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of human phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate synthetase 1 (PRS1). Tang, W., Li, X., Zhu, Z., Tong, S., Li, X., Zhang, X., Teng, M., Niu, L. Acta Crystallograph. Sect. F Struct. Biol. Cryst. Commun. (2006) [Pubmed]
  21. Determination of carnosine and other biogenic imidazoles in equine plasma by isocratic reversed-phase ion-pair high-performance liquid chromatography. Dunnett, M., Harris, R.C. J. Chromatogr. (1992) [Pubmed]
  22. Automated solid-phase extraction method for the determination of piperaquine in whole blood by rapid liquid chromatography. Lindegårdh, N., Ashton, M., Bergqvist, Y. Therapeutic drug monitoring. (2003) [Pubmed]
  23. Clean-up procedures for the analysis of heterocyclic aromatic amines (aminoazaarenes) from heat-treated meat samples. Janoszka, B., Blaszczyk, U., Warzecha, L., Strózyk, M., Damasiewicz-Bodzek, A., Bodzek, D. Journal of chromatography. A. (2001) [Pubmed]
  24. Localization of human phosphoribosylpyrophosphate synthetase subunit I and II genes (PRPS1 and PRPS2) to different regions of the X chromosome and assignment of two PRPS1-related genes to autosomes. Taira, M., Kudoh, J., Minoshima, S., Iizasa, T., Shimada, H., Shimizu, Y., Tatibana, M., Shimizu, N. Somat. Cell Mol. Genet. (1989) [Pubmed]
  25. Renin, renin substrate and angiotensin II concentration in renal venous blood. Oelkers, W., Holze, C., Molzahn, M., Soerensen, R. Contributions to nephrology. (1976) [Pubmed]
  26. Stroke in women of reproductive age: comparison between stroke related and unrelated to pregnancy. Jeng, J.S., Tang, S.C., Yip, P.K. J. Neurol. Sci. (2004) [Pubmed]
  27. Targeted intra-operative radiotherapy (Targit): an innovative method of treatment for early breast cancer. Vaidya, J.S., Baum, M., Tobias, J.S., D'Souza, D.P., Naidu, S.V., Morgan, S., Metaxas, M., Harte, K.J., Sliski, A.P., Thomson, E. Ann. Oncol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  28. Circulating autoantibodies as serological markers in the differential diagnosis of pulmonary renal syndrome. Saxena, R., Bygren, P., Arvastson, B., Wieslander, J. J. Intern. Med. (1995) [Pubmed]
  29. cAMP-dependent transactivation involving the homeodomain protein Pbx1. Ogo, A., Waterman, M.R., Kagawa, N. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. (1997) [Pubmed]
  30. A computerized patient registration and treatment randomization system for multi-institutional clinical trials. Lange, N., MacIntyre, J. Controlled clinical trials. (1985) [Pubmed]
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