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Gene Review

PURA  -  purine-rich element binding protein A

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: MRD31, PUR-ALPHA, PUR1, PURALPHA, Purine-rich single-stranded DNA-binding protein alpha, ...
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Disease relevance of PURA


High impact information on PURA

  • A 10-nucleotide GC-rich consensus sequence identified in RNAs associated with Puralpha derived from human U-87MG cells plays an important role in the Puralpha:Tat interaction as examined by an in vitro reconstitution assay [6].
  • By using JCV as a model, we investigated the role of the viral early protein tumor antigen (TAg) in the binding of two cellular proteins, Pura alpha and YB-1, to JCV regulatory sequences [7].
  • Ectopic expression of Puralpha and Purbeta decreased betaMyHC reporter gene expression, while mutation of the dbetaNRE-S element increased expression in C2C12 myotubes [8].
  • Affinity chromatography and coimmunoprecipitation provide evidence for a direct interaction between Puralpha and YB-1 in the absence of the DNA sequence [4].
  • Reciprocal interaction between two cellular proteins, Puralpha and YB-1, modulates transcriptional activity of JCVCY in glial cells [4].

Biological context of PURA


Anatomical context of PURA

  • During PMA-induced differentiation, the ability of Puralpha to activate the CD11c promoter in U937 cells increases, as does that of Sp1 [12].
  • Puralpha is a ubiquitous, sequence-specific DNA- and RNA-binding protein which is highly conserved in eukaryotic cells [2].
  • Ectopic expression of YB-1 and Puralpha in glial cells synergistically stimulated viral promoter activity via the 23-bp sequence element [4].
  • Previously, we have reported that this protein controls BC1 RNA expression and its subsequent distribution within dendrites and that Puralpha is associated with polyribosomes [13].
  • Overexpression of YB-1 and Puralpha in Jurkat cells was shown to reduce the level of cell surface Fas staining, providing further evidence that these proteins regulate the fas promoter [14].

Associations of PURA with chemical compounds


Physical interactions of PURA

  • Previously, the multifunctional Pura protein was found to bind to E2F-1 and inhibit E2F-1 transcriptional activity [11].
  • In this study, we report that in U937 cells, expression of the CD11c gene is mediated by the ssDNA-binding protein Puralpha [12].

Regulatory relationships of PURA


Other interactions of PURA


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of PURA

  • Moreover, microinjection studies demonstrate that Puralpha causes either a G(1) or G(2) arrest depending on the cell cycle time of injection [2].
  • In this paper the vascular anatomy of recurrent flaps of the upper arm is described, based on dissections of 16 cadavers, in which the anterior ulnar recurrent (AURA), posterior ulnar recurrent (PURA), radial recurrent (RRA) and interosseous recurrent (IRA) arteries were dissected [3].
  • Characterization of the mouse Puralpha gene by restriction analysis/Southern blotting and sequencing revealed that the Puralpha gene contains only one intron within the 5' UTR and the open reading frame was intact [24].
  • Interestingly, results from cell culture studies revealed that incubation of oligodendrocytes with JCV led to a drastic decrease in the level of MEF-1/Puralpha protein [25].
  • Using mouse brain, double-RNA immunoprecipitation places Puralpha together with Staufen or FMRP on BC1 RNA and specific mRNA species in vivo [26].


  1. Deletions of PURA, at 5q31, and PURB, at 7p13, in myelodysplastic syndrome and progression to acute myelogenous leukemia. Lezon-Geyda, K., Najfeld, V., Johnson, E.M. Leukemia (2001) [Pubmed]
  2. Puralpha: a multifunctional single-stranded DNA- and RNA-binding protein. Gallia, G.L., Johnson, E.M., Khalili, K. Nucleic Acids Res. (2000) [Pubmed]
  3. Anatomical study of the recurrent flaps of the upper arm. Hayashi, A., Maruyama, Y. British journal of plastic surgery. (1990) [Pubmed]
  4. Reciprocal interaction between two cellular proteins, Puralpha and YB-1, modulates transcriptional activity of JCVCY in glial cells. Safak, M., Gallia, G.L., Khalili, K. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  5. Coordinate effects of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 protein Tat and cellular protein Puralpha on DNA replication initiated at the JC virus origin. Daniel, D.C., Wortman, M.J., Schiller, R.J., Liu, H., Gan, L., Mellen, J.S., Chang, C.F., Gallia, G.L., Rappaport, J., Khalili, K., Johnson, E.M. J. Gen. Virol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  6. Association of HIV-1 Tat with the cellular protein, Puralpha, is mediated by RNA. Gallia, G.L., Darbinian, N., Tretiakova, A., Ansari, S.A., Rappaport, J., Brady, J., Wortman, M.J., Johnson, E.M., Khalili, K. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1999) [Pubmed]
  7. Cooperative action of cellular proteins YB-1 and Pur alpha with the tumor antigen of the human JC polyomavirus determines their interaction with the viral lytic control element. Chen, N.N., Chang, C.F., Gallia, G.L., Kerr, D.A., Johnson, E.M., Krachmarov, C.P., Barr, S.M., Frisque, R.J., Bollag, B., Khalili, K. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1995) [Pubmed]
  8. Pur{alpha} and Pur{beta} Collaborate with Sp3 To Negatively Regulate {beta}-Myosin Heavy Chain Gene Expression during Skeletal Muscle Inactivity. Ji, J., Tsika, G.L., Rindt, H., Schreiber, K.L., McCarthy, J.J., Kelm, R.J., Tsika, R. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  9. Localization of PURA, the gene encoding the sequence-specific single-stranded-DNA-binding protein Pur alpha, to chromosome band 5q31. Ma, Z.W., Pejovic, T., Najfeld, V., Ward, D.C., Johnson, E.M. Cytogenet. Cell Genet. (1995) [Pubmed]
  10. Functional interaction of Puralpha with the Cdk2 moiety of cyclin A/Cdk2. Liu, H., Barr, S.M., Chu, C., Kohtz, D.S., Kinoshita, Y., Johnson, E.M. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2005) [Pubmed]
  11. Interaction between the pura and E2F-1 transcription factors. Darbinian, N., White, M.K., Gallia, G.L., Amini, S., Rappaport, J., Khalili, K. Anticancer Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  12. During differentiation of the monocytic cell line U937, Pur alpha mediates induction of the CD11c beta 2 integrin gene promoter. Shelley, C.S., Teodoridis, J.M., Park, H., Farokhzad, O.C., Böttinger, E.P., Arnaout, M.A. J. Immunol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  13. Identification of mRNA/protein (mRNP) complexes containing Puralpha, mStaufen, fragile X protein, and myosin Va and their association with rough endoplasmic reticulum equipped with a kinesin motor. Ohashi, S., Koike, K., Omori, A., Ichinose, S., Ohara, S., Kobayashi, S., Sato, T.A., Anzai, K. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  14. Regulation of the human fas promoter by YB-1, Puralpha and AP-1 transcription factors. Lasham, A., Lindridge, E., Rudert, F., Onrust, R., Watson, J. Gene (2000) [Pubmed]
  15. Molecular interactions between single-stranded DNA-binding proteins associated with an essential MCAT element in the mouse smooth muscle alpha-actin promoter. Kelm, R.J., Cogan, J.G., Elder, P.K., Strauch, A.R., Getz, M.J. J. Biol. Chem. (1999) [Pubmed]
  16. Early aldosterone up-regulated genes: new pathways for renal disease? Kellner, M., Peiter, A., Hafner, M., Feuring, M., Christ, M., Wehling, M., Falkenstein, E., Lösel, R. Kidney Int. (2003) [Pubmed]
  17. Self-association of Puralpha is mediated by RNA. Gallia, G.L., Darbinian, N., Johnson, E.M., Khalili, K. J. Cell. Biochem. (1999) [Pubmed]
  18. Exercise affects energy metabolism and neural plasticity-related proteins in the hippocampus as revealed by proteomic analysis. Ding, Q., Vaynman, S., Souda, P., Whitelegge, J.P., Gomez-Pinilla, F. Eur. J. Neurosci. (2006) [Pubmed]
  19. An artificial three-dimensional matrix promotes ramification in the microglial cell-line, BV-2. P??ttler, M., Zierler, S., Kerschbaum, H.H. Neurosci. Lett. (2006) [Pubmed]
  20. Puralpha activates PDGF-A gene transcription via interactions with a G-rich, single-stranded region of the promoter. Zhang, Q., Pedigo, N., Shenoy, S., Khalili, K., Kaetzel, D.M. Gene (2005) [Pubmed]
  21. Sequence of cDNAs encoding components of vascular actin single-stranded DNA-binding factor 2 establish identity to Puralpha and Purbeta. Kelm, R.J., Elder, P.K., Strauch, A.R., Getz, M.J. J. Biol. Chem. (1997) [Pubmed]
  22. Interactions between regulatory proteins that bind to the nicotinic receptor beta4 subunit gene promoter. Melnikova, I.N., Yang, Y., Gardner, P.D. Eur. J. Pharmacol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  23. Identification of (CAG)(n) and (CGG)(n) repeat-binding proteins, CAGERs expressed in mature neurons of the mouse brain. Yano, H., Wang, B.E., Ahmad, I., Zhang, J., Abo, T., Nakayama, J., Krempen, K., Kohwi, Y. Exp. Cell Res. (1999) [Pubmed]
  24. Molecular characterization and chromosomal localization of mouse Puralpha gene. Muralidharan, V., Cort, L., Meier, E., Blankenhorn, E.P., Khalili, K. J. Cell. Biochem. (2000) [Pubmed]
  25. Association of JC virus large T antigen with myelin basic protein transcription factor (MEF-1/Puralpha) in hypomyelinated brains of mice transgenically expressing T antigen. Tretiakova, A., Otte, J., Croul, S.E., Kim, J.H., Johnson, E.M., Amini, S., Khalili, K. J. Virol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  26. Role of Puralpha in targeting mRNA to sites of translation in hippocampal neuronal dendrites. Johnson, E.M., Kinoshita, Y., Weinreb, D.B., Wortman, M.J., Simon, R., Khalili, K., Winckler, B., Gordon, J. J. Neurosci. Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
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