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Chemical Compound Review

D-Lysine     (2R)-2,6-diaminohexanoic acid

Synonyms: D-Lysin, Poly-D-lysine, PubChem6286, PubChem12448, L-Lysine (9CI), ...
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Disease relevance of lysine


High impact information on lysine

  • When explants or reaggregates of small neurons from early postnatal mouse cerebella are plated on a mixture of laminin and poly-D-lysine, one observes small cells with an orientation of processes largely perpendicular to the direction of granule cell neurites after several days [6].
  • Transient increases in cytosolic free calcium concentration, [Ca2+]i, appear to be required for the migration of human neutrophils on poly-D-lysine-coated glass in the presence of dilute serum (Marks, P. W., and F. R. Maxfield. 1990. J. Cell Biol. 110:43-52) [7].
  • C6 cell spreading on inhibitor-free substrates such as CNS gray matter, peripheral nervous system myelin, glass, or poly-D-lysine was not sensitive to 1,10-phenanthroline [8].
  • Although the current density remained unchanged in neurons on astrocytes, that in neurons on PDL decreased and became statistically lower beginning after 2 HIC [9].
  • At 16 hr after plating on a substrate of poly-D-lysine, in a serum-free or serum-supplemented growth medium, using a microisland culturing method, 95% of the cells stained positive for neuron-specific enolase, 20% for tyrosine hydroxylase, and < 5% for vimentin [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of lysine


Biological context of lysine

  • Furthermore, inhibitors of TRAIL, including recombinant soluble TRAIL receptors and a neutralizing antibody against TRAIL, blocked apoptosis of serum-starved HMECs plated on the nonintegrin attachment factor poly-d-lysine [14].
  • Cell survival was enhanced under optimal conditions of cell attachment and cell-to-cell contact as provided by extracellular matrix components or poly-D-lysine [15].
  • Cultured CHO cells were treated with the radiomimetic antitumor agent bleomycin (BLM) and post-treated with the polycationic compound poly-D-lysine (PDL), recently reported by us as able to potentiate chromosome damage induced by X-rays and chemical mutagens in both plant and mammalian cells [16].
  • Such a phenomenon could explain why injected plasmid DNA is more stable in vivo when it is associated with poly-D-lysine [17].
  • When U-251 cells were plated in G2 medium on poly-D-lysine precoated dishes, their growth rate was 77% and final cell density was 82% of serum-grown counterparts [18].

Anatomical context of lysine


Associations of lysine with other chemical compounds


Gene context of lysine


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of lysine


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  6. Small inhibitory cerebellar interneurons grow in a perpendicular orientation to granule cell neurites in culture. Hekmat, A., Künemund, V., Fischer, G., Schachner, M. Neuron (1989) [Pubmed]
  7. Attachment to fibronectin or vitronectin makes human neutrophil migration sensitive to alterations in cytosolic free calcium concentration. Marks, P.W., Hendey, B., Maxfield, F.R. J. Cell Biol. (1991) [Pubmed]
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  10. Mesencephalic type 1 astrocytes rescue dopaminergic neurons from death induced by serum deprivation. Takeshima, T., Johnston, J.M., Commissiong, J.W. J. Neurosci. (1994) [Pubmed]
  11. Poly-D-lysine in G2 potentiates chromosome damage induced by X-rays and mitomycin C in CHO cells. Cortés, F., Mateos, S., Ortiz, T., Panneerselvam, N., Mateos, J.C. Mutat. Res. (1992) [Pubmed]
  12. Observations on the effects of protease inhibitors on the suppression of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis. Smith, M.E., Amaducci, L.A. Neurochem. Res. (1982) [Pubmed]
  13. CELISA for rapid screening of monoclonal islet cell surface antibodies using living rat insulinoma cells as target. Ziegler, B., Schlosser, M., Fürll, B., Witt, S., Ziegler, M. Diabetes Res. (1991) [Pubmed]
  14. The role of osteoprotegerin and tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand in human microvascular endothelial cell survival. Pritzker, L.B., Scatena, M., Giachelli, C.M. Mol. Biol. Cell (2004) [Pubmed]
  15. Functionality and cell anchorage dependence of the African swine fever virus gene A179L, a viral bcl-2 homolog, in insect cells. Brun, A., Rodríguez, F., Escribano, J.M., Alonso, C. J. Virol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  16. Poly-D-lysine enhances the genotoxicity of bleomycin in cultured CHO cells. Cortés, F., Panneerselvam, N., Mateos, S., Ortiz, T. Carcinogenesis (1993) [Pubmed]
  17. Uptake by rat liver and intracellular fate of plasmid DNA complexed with poly-L-lysine or poly-D-lysine. Laurent, N., Wattiaux-De Coninck, S., Mihaylova, E., Leontieva, E., Warnier-Pirotte, M.T., Wattiaux, R., Jadot, M. FEBS Lett. (1999) [Pubmed]
  18. Proliferation of glial-derived cells in defined media. Michler-Stuke, A., Bottenstein, J.E. J. Neurosci. Res. (1982) [Pubmed]
  19. Osteoprotegerin is an alpha vbeta 3-induced, NF-kappa B-dependent survival factor for endothelial cells. Malyankar, U.M., Scatena, M., Suchland, K.L., Yun, T.J., Clark, E.A., Giachelli, C.M. J. Biol. Chem. (2000) [Pubmed]
  20. MOCA induces membrane spreading by activating Rac1. Namekata, K., Enokido, Y., Iwasawa, K., Kimura, H. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  21. Actin cytoskeleton polymerization in Dbl-transformed NIH3T3 fibroblasts is dependent on cell adhesion to specific extracellular matrix proteins. Defilippi, P., Olivo, C., Tarone, G., Mancini, P., Torrisi, M.R., Eva, A. Oncogene (1997) [Pubmed]
  22. Hypomethylation of the interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein (IRBP) promotor and first exon is linked to expression of the gene. Albini, A., Toffenetti, J., Zhu, Z., Chader, G.J., Noonan, D.M. Nucleic Acids Res. (1990) [Pubmed]
  23. Integration of topographical and biochemical cues by axons during growth on microfabricated 3-D substrates. Li, N., Folch, A. Exp. Cell Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  24. Integrin-mediated cell adhesion activates mitogen-activated protein kinases. Chen, Q., Kinch, M.S., Lin, T.H., Burridge, K., Juliano, R.L. J. Biol. Chem. (1994) [Pubmed]
  25. Activation of human basophils through the IL-8 receptor. Krieger, M., Brunner, T., Bischoff, S.C., von Tscharner, V., Walz, A., Moser, B., Baggiolini, M., Dahinden, C.A. J. Immunol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  26. (211)At-labeled and biotinylated effector molecules for pretargeted radioimmunotherapy using poly-L- and poly-D-Lysine as multicarriers. Lindegren, S., Karlsson, B., Jacobsson, L., Andersson, H., Hultborn, R., Skarnemark, G. Clin. Cancer Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
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  29. Myofibroblast differentiation by transforming growth factor-beta1 is dependent on cell adhesion and integrin signaling via focal adhesion kinase. Thannickal, V.J., Lee, D.Y., White, E.S., Cui, Z., Larios, J.M., Chacon, R., Horowitz, J.C., Day, R.M., Thomas, P.E. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  30. A sensitive solid-phase immunosorbent assay for tissue-type plasminogen activator activity in plasma using trinitrobenzoylated poly-D-lysine as a stimulator for plasminogen activation. Petersen, L.C., Handest, P., Brender, J., Selmer, J., Jørgensen, M., Thorsen, S. Thromb. Haemost. (1987) [Pubmed]
  31. Involvement of p53 in alpha4beta1 integrin-mediated resistance of B-CLL cells to fludarabine. de la Fuente, M.T., Casanova, B., Cantero, E., Hernández del Cerro, M., Garcia-Marco, J., Silva, A., Garcia-Pardo, A. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2003) [Pubmed]
  32. The effects of orally administered calcium pentosan polysulfate on inflammation and cartilage degradation produced in rabbit joints by intraarticular injection of a hyaluronate-polylysine complex. Smith, M.M., Ghosh, P., Numata, Y., Bansal, M.K. Arthritis Rheum. (1994) [Pubmed]
  33. Transcription of the nonrepeated fraction of "accessible" DNA in rat liver chromatin. Arnold, E.A., Young, K.E. Nucleic Acids Res. (1976) [Pubmed]
  34. Cell cultures enriched in oligodendrocytes from the central nervous system of trout in terms of phenotypic expression exhibit parallels with cultured rat Schwann cells. Jeserich, G., Rauen, T. Glia (1990) [Pubmed]
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