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Gene Review

SNAI1  -  snail family zinc finger 1

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: Protein sna, Protein snail homolog 1, SLUGH2, SNA, SNAH, ...
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Disease relevance of SNAI1

  • SNAI1 mRNA was expressed in placenta, neuroblastoma, and diffuse type gastric cancer [1].
  • Additionally, colon carcinomas that showed amplification of 20q13, the localization of the human SNAI1 gene, were examined [2].
  • Colon cancer tissues display an increased activity of beta-galactoside alpha2,6 sialyltransferase (ST6Gal.I) and an increased reactivity with the lectin from Sambucus nigra (SNA), specific for alpha2,6-sialyl-linkages [3].
  • One of the stereotyped nerves of H. medicinalis is a "sex nerve" that projects from the anterior root of ganglion 6 [SNA (6)] to the male reproductive structures in the adjacent anterior segment [4].
  • CONCLUSIONS: The increase in basal levels of SNA with increasing concentrations of desflurane persisted despite "fixing" BP and thus is probably not due to hypotension and unloading of the baroreceptors [5].

Psychiatry related information on SNAI1


High impact information on SNAI1

  • Here we report that inhibition of transmitter release from synaptosomes caused by botulinum neurotoxin A (BoNT/A) is associated with the selective proteolysis of the synaptic protein SNAP-25 [8].
  • In neuroendocrine cells, splice variants of the SNARE protein SNAP-25 and phosphorylation of SNAP-25 independently influence the size of the releasable vesicle pool, possibly by altering the rate of vesicle depriming [9].
  • Overexpression of the SNARE protein SNAP-25a mutated in a PKA phosphorylation site (Thr-138) eliminated the effect of PKA inhibitors on the vesicle priming process [10].
  • These data show that cardiopulmonary baroreflex control of SNA is augmented in borderline hypertensive subjects and that this augmentation does not result from an attenuation of the arterial baroreflex [11].
  • Uniquely, 2 syntaxin t-SNAREs, syntaxin 2 and 4, which localize to granules and open canalicular membranes, together with the general target membrane SNAP receptor (t-SNARE) protein SNAP-23 appear to make up the heterodimeric t-SNAREs required for lysosome exocytosis [12].

Chemical compound and disease context of SNAI1


Biological context of SNAI1


Anatomical context of SNAI1

  • The labeling of LFA and SNA showed that sialic acids existed mainly in the mucinous granules of secretory cells and ciliated epithelium glycocalyx, and in the mucous blanket [16].
  • The epithelial cell (nonsecretory) surface was stained largely by WGA, LFA, SNA, RCA-I, Con-A, and LCA; this finding suggests the presence of alpha-neuraminic acid, beta-galactose, and alpha-mannose [17].
  • Epithelial goblet cells were stained predominantly by WGA, LFA, SNA, RCA-I, Con-A, LCA, SBA, PHA-E, and UEA; this finding suggests they contain alpha-neuraminic acid, beta-galactose, alpha-mannose, N-acetyl alpha-galactosamine, and alpha-fucose [17].
  • Antibodies neutralize sporozoites (SNA), i.e. abolish their infectivity, and cause, in vitro, the formation of a thread-like precipitate on the parasites (CSP reaction) [18].
  • Heart rate (HR; measured by electrocardiograph), blood pressure (BP; measured by arterial catheter), and efferent sympathetic nerve activity (SNA; obtained from percutaneous recordings from the peroneal nerve) were monitored [5].

Associations of SNAI1 with chemical compounds

  • Moreover, the same treatment of Neu5Ac(alpha 2-3)lactitol also abolished its ability to inhibit the precipitation reaction, suggesting that the glyceryl side chain of NBu5Ac (especially the C-8 and/or C-9 portion) is an important determinant for SNA [19].
  • Conversion of the Neu5Ac residue to its 7-carbon analogue by selective periodate oxidation of its glyceryl side chain, followed by NaBH4 reduction, completely destroyed the ability of fetuin and orosomucoid to precipitate with SNA [19].
  • The alpha2,6 sialic acid was detected by elderberry bark lectin (SNA), the exposure of terminal galactose (Gal) and N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc) were detected by arachis hypogaea [peanut agglutinin (PNA)] and vilsa villosa lectin (VVL), respectively [20].
  • The long latency 5-HT-evoked increase in BAT SNA was prevented by microinjection of methysergide (600 pmol) into the T4 IML [21].
  • The 5-HT-mediated potentiation of the increase in BAT SNA evoked by microinjection of NMDA into the T4 IML was reversed by microinjection of methysergide (600 pmol) into the T4 IML [21].

Other interactions of SNAI1


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of SNAI1

  • We have used sequence similarity to the Fugu genes to identify a human SNA EST and mapped this by radiation hybrid and physical mapping to the distal end of human 20q [22].
  • Western blot analysis revealed a strikingly heterogeneous pattern of SNA reactivity among cancer tissues [3].
  • Site-directed mutagenesis was used to mimic the conversion of the highly active B-chain of fruit-specific SNA (SNA-If) into the completely inactive B-chain of the closely related and naturally occurring loss-of-activity mutant called S. nigra agglutinin lectin-related protein [26].
  • In a multiple regression correlation analysis MP-H, SNB (angle from sella to nasion to subspinale point), SNA (angle from sella to nasion to supramentale point), PAS (posterior airway space), tongue size, and body mass index contributed significantly to the equation explaining the severity of sleep apnoea [27].
  • Those derived from SW 948 xenografts showed an enrichment of round, non-adherent cells, strongly reactive with the NeuAc alpha 2,6 Gal/GalNAc-specific lectin from Sambucus nigra (SNA), thus indicating that a selection of these cells has occurred [28].


  1. Comparative genomics on SNAI1, SNAI2, and SNAI3 orthologs. Katoh, M., Katoh, M. Oncol. Rep. (2005) [Pubmed]
  2. Neoexpression of N-cadherin in E-cadherin positive colon cancers. Rosivatz, E., Becker, I., Bamba, M., Schott, C., Diebold, J., Mayr, D., Höfler, H., Becker, K.F. Int. J. Cancer (2004) [Pubmed]
  3. Beta-galactoside alpha2,6 sialyltransferase in human colon cancer: contribution of multiple transcripts to regulation of enzyme activity and reactivity with Sambucus nigra agglutinin. Dall'Olio, F., Chiricolo, M., Ceccarelli, C., Minni, F., Marrano, D., Santini, D. Int. J. Cancer (2000) [Pubmed]
  4. An identified cell is required for the formation of a major nerve during embryogenesis in the leech. Jellies, J., Kristan, W.B. J. Neurobiol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  5. Desflurane-mediated sympathetic activation occurs in humans despite preventing hypotension and baroreceptor unloading. Ebert, T.J., Perez, F., Uhrich, T.D., Deshur, M.A. Anesthesiology (1998) [Pubmed]
  6. Histochemical localization of glycoconjugates on microglial cells in Alzheimer's disease brain samples by using Abrus precatorius, Maackia amurensis, Momordica charantia, and Sambucus nigra lectins. Zambenedetti, P., Giordano, R., Zatta, P. Exp. Neurol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  7. Altered levels of the synaptosomal associated protein SNAP-25 in hippocampus of subjects with mood disorders and schizophrenia. Fatemi, S.H., Earle, J.A., Stary, J.M., Lee, S., Sedgewick, J. Neuroreport (2001) [Pubmed]
  8. Botulinum neurotoxin A selectively cleaves the synaptic protein SNAP-25. Blasi, J., Chapman, E.R., Link, E., Binz, T., Yamasaki, S., De Camilli, P., Südhof, T.C., Niemann, H., Jahn, R. Nature (1993) [Pubmed]
  9. Vesicle priming and depriming: a SNAP decision. Heidelberger, R., Matthews, G. Neuron (2004) [Pubmed]
  10. Regulation of releasable vesicle pool sizes by protein kinase A-dependent phosphorylation of SNAP-25. Nagy, G., Reim, K., Matti, U., Brose, N., Binz, T., Rettig, J., Neher, E., Sørensen, J.B. Neuron (2004) [Pubmed]
  11. Baroreflex control of muscle sympathetic nerve activity in borderline hypertension. Rea, R.F., Hamdan, M. Circulation (1990) [Pubmed]
  12. Molecular mechanisms of platelet exocytosis: role of SNAP-23 and syntaxin 2 and 4 in lysosome release. Chen, D., Lemons, P.P., Schraw, T., Whiteheart, S.W. Blood (2000) [Pubmed]
  13. Agglutination of Streptococcus suis by sialic acid-binding lectins. Charland, N., Kellens, J.T., Caya, F., Gottschalk, M. J. Clin. Microbiol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  14. Identification and characterization of human SNAIL3 (SNAI3) gene in silico. Katoh, M., Katoh, M. Int. J. Mol. Med. (2003) [Pubmed]
  15. Genomic organization, expression, and chromosome location of the human SNAIL gene (SNAI1) and a related processed pseudogene (SNAI1P). Paznekas, W.A., Okajima, K., Schertzer, M., Wood, S., Jabs, E.W. Genomics (1999) [Pubmed]
  16. Heterogeneity of glycoconjugates in the secretory cells of the chinchilla middle ear and eustachian tubal epithelia: a lectin-gold cytochemical study. Ueno, K., Lim, D.J. J. Histochem. Cytochem. (1991) [Pubmed]
  17. Glycoconjugates in the chinchilla tubotympanum. Lim, D.J., Coticchia, J.M., Ueno, K., Heiselman, F.A., Bakaletz, L.O. The Annals of otology, rhinology, and laryngology. (1991) [Pubmed]
  18. Antibody-induced ultrastructural changes of malarial sporozoites. Cochrane, A.H., Aikawa, M., Jeng, M., Nussenzweig, R.S. J. Immunol. (1976) [Pubmed]
  19. The elderberry (Sambucus nigra L.) bark lectin recognizes the Neu5Ac(alpha 2-6)Gal/GalNAc sequence. Shibuya, N., Goldstein, I.J., Broekaert, W.F., Nsimba-Lubaki, M., Peeters, B., Peumans, W.J. J. Biol. Chem. (1987) [Pubmed]
  20. Aberrantly glycosylated serum IgA1 are closely associated with pathologic phenotypes of IgA nephropathy. Xu, L.X., Zhao, M.H. Kidney Int. (2005) [Pubmed]
  21. Serotonin potentiates sympathetic responses evoked by spinal NMDA. Madden, C.J., Morrison, S.F. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (2006) [Pubmed]
  22. Identification and analysis of two snail genes in the pufferfish (Fugu rubripes) and mapping of human SNA to 20q. Smith, S., Metcalfe, J.A., Elgar, G. Gene (2000) [Pubmed]
  23. Spatial segregation of transport and signalling functions between human endothelial caveolae and lipid raft proteomes. Sprenger, R.R., Fontijn, R.D., van Marle, J., Pannekoek, H., Horrevoets, A.J. Biochem. J. (2006) [Pubmed]
  24. Selective effects of typical antipsychotic drugs on SNAP-25 and synaptophysin in the hippocampal trisynaptic pathway. Barr, A.M., Young, C.E., Phillips, A.G., Honer, W.G. Int. J. Neuropsychopharmacol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  25. Function of the t-SNARE SNAP-23 and secretory carrier membrane proteins (SCAMPs) in exocytosis in mast cells. Castle, J.D., Guo, Z., Liu, L. Mol. Immunol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  26. Mutational analysis of the carbohydrate-binding activity of the NeuAc(alpha-2,6)Gal/GalNAc-specific type 2 ribosome-inactivating protein from elderberry (Sambucus nigra) fruits. Chen, Y., Rouge, P., Peumans, W.J., van Damme, E.J. Biochem. J. (2002) [Pubmed]
  27. Habitual snoring with and without obstructive sleep apnoea: the importance of cephalometric variables. Zucconi, M., Ferini-Strambi, L., Palazzi, S., Orena, C., Zonta, S., Smirne, S. Thorax (1992) [Pubmed]
  28. Enhanced CMP-NeuAc:Gal beta 1,4GlcNAc-R alpha 2,6 sialyltransferase activity of human colon cancer xenografts in athymic nude mice and of xenograft-derived cell lines. Dall'Olio, F., Malagolini, N., Serafini-Cessi, F. Int. J. Cancer (1992) [Pubmed]
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