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Gene Review

CHRDL1  -  chordin-like 1

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: CHL, Chordin-like protein 1, MGC1, MGCN, NRLN1, ...
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Disease relevance of CHRDL1

  • Causes of CHL include external canal atresia and neoplasms, myringosclerosis, middle ear anomalies, effusion, cholesteatomas, and neoplasms [1].
  • Audiograms are used to determine if hearing loss is sensorineural (SNHL), conductive (CHL), or mixed (MHL) [1].
  • API 50 CHL panels were useful for the identification of Lactobacillus species [2].
  • Therefore, in order to evaluate the generality of clastogenicity of low pH conditions, chromosomal aberration tests were carried out on Chinese hamster cell line cells (CHO-K1, CHL, Don and V79 379A) and human cells (HeLa and peripheral lymphocytes used as whole-blood cultures) [3].
  • An evaluation of 602 patient admissions, 1,134 intermittent access devices, and 2,268 observed indwelling device days demonstrated more pain at the insertion site for CHL than NL; however, no differences in objective signs of phlebitis were noted [4].

High impact information on CHRDL1

  • The frequencies and the rates of segregation of the Emtr and Thgr (thioguanine-resistant, an X-linked recessive mutation) markers were determined from hybrids constructed between an Emtr-Thgr CHO cell line and various other Chinese hamster lines (V79, M3-1, CHO, GM7S, CHW and CHL) [5].
  • Here we describe the intramolecular disulfide bonding, solution structure, and dynamics of a prototypical chordin-like CR repeat from procollagen IIA (CR(ColIIA)), which has been previously shown to bind TGF-beta1 and bone morphogenetic protein-2 [6].
  • Solution structure and dynamics of a prototypical chordin-like cysteine-rich repeat (von Willebrand Factor type C module) from collagen IIA [6].
  • Moreover, we show that Ventroptin precedes Noggin in the modulation of BMP activity in the developing cartilages [7].
  • The observed changes in plasma total cholesterol were not significantly different than the values predicted by the Keys' equation, delta CHL = 1.35(2 delta S-delta P) + 1.5 delta Z [8].

Biological context of CHRDL1

  • The three polymorphisms studied were in strong linkage disequilibrium in both the group of CHL patients and the unrelated individuals [9].
  • Mean hPL was also lower in some pregnancies resulting in normal-weight neonates with abnormally low PI or short CHL, suggesting that these neonates, despite normal birth weight achievement, may represent previously unsuspected [10].
  • STUDY DESIGN: Sham-controlled study of metabolic effects of CHL during sound stimulation [11].
  • The REAL/WHO classification recognises a basic distinction between lymphocyte predominance HL (LP-HL) and classic HL (CHL), reflecting the differences in clinical presentation and behaviour, morphology, phenotype, and molecular features [12].
  • Natural degreening was accompanied by a marked decrease in transcript levels of 1-deoxy-d-xylulose 5-phosphate synthase (DXS) and geranylgeranyl reductase (CHL P) while, conversely, pheophorbide a oxygenase (PaO) and phytoene synthase (PSY) gene expression increased [13].

Anatomical context of CHRDL1


Associations of CHRDL1 with chemical compounds

  • These data suggest that although probucol causes a decrease in HDL-CHL, it may act anti-atherogenically by modulating HDL metabolism and stimulating reverse transfer of CHL from peripheral tissue [17].
  • We report treatment results with fludarabine and prednisone in 22 pretreated B-CLL patients in progressive disease, refractory to CHL and other regimens [18].
  • Plant geranylgeranyl hydrogenase (CHL P) reduces free geranylgeranyl diphosphate to phytil diphosphate, which provides the side chain to chlorophylls, tocopherols, and plastoquinones [19].
  • In fact, CHL levels in RDs were higher than those in humans and some avian species, while DDT levels in RDs were much lower than other animals [20].
  • The relative contribution of OCs could be ranked as follows: Ringed seal females: sigmaPCB > sigma DDT > sigma CHL > sigma HCH > HCB > Mirex [21].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of CHRDL1

  • We have previously demonstrated by differential scanning calorimetry that approximately 1-2% of total CHL V79 cellular protein denatures during a 10- to 15-min exposure to 43 degrees C (J. E. Lepock et al., J. Cell. Physiol. 137, 14-24 (1988)) [22].
  • METHODS: Maximum cycling power (Pmax) and optimal pedaling rate (Vopt, a surrogate measure for muscle fiber type) were determined for 195 boys and men, 8-70 years of age, by using inertial load cycle ergometry [23].
  • In normal rats, single and repeated oral administration of the AI-extract, at a dose of 10mg/kg produced a small but significant decrease in plasma CHL levels (P<0.05) [24].
  • METHODS: This study has identified and reports on 46 arthroscopically identified subscapularis tears, 25 "hidden" rotator interval lesions (SGHL/MCHL complex) and 6 SGHL/CHL complex plastic deformation lesions in 165 patients undergoing shoulder arthroscopy for conditions ranging from anterior instability to rotator cuff tears [25].
  • Usefulness of calf circumference (CC) for screening low birth weight (LBW) was assessed in comparison with other anthropometric measurements, crown heel and crown rump lengths (CHL, CRL), Chest (Ch C), head (HC) and arm (AC) circumferences in 256 infants within 24 hours of birth [26].


  1. Hearing loss. Weissman, J.L. Radiology. (1996) [Pubmed]
  2. Identification of vancomycin-resistant lactic bacteria isolated from humans. Mackey, T., Lejeune, V., Janssens, M., Wauters, G. J. Clin. Microbiol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  3. Clastogenicity of low pH to various cultured mammalian cells. Morita, T., Nagaki, T., Fukuda, I., Okumura, K. Mutat. Res. (1992) [Pubmed]
  4. Study of a needleless intermittent intravenous-access system for peripheral infusions: analysis of staff, patient, and institutional outcomes. Mendelson, M.H., Short, L.J., Schechter, C.B., Meyers, B.R., Rodriguez, M., Cohen, S., Lozada, J., DeCambre, M., Hirschman, S.Z. Infection control and hospital epidemiology : the official journal of the Society of Hospital Epidemiologists of America. (1998) [Pubmed]
  5. Evidence for functional hemizygosity at the Emtr locus in CHO cells through segregation analysis. Gupta, R.S., Chan, D.Y., Siminovitch, L. Cell (1978) [Pubmed]
  6. Solution structure and dynamics of a prototypical chordin-like cysteine-rich repeat (von Willebrand Factor type C module) from collagen IIA. O'Leary, J.M., Hamilton, J.M., Deane, C.M., Valeyev, N.V., Sandell, L.J., Downing, A.K. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  7. Analysis of the molecular cascade responsible for mesodermal limb chondrogenesis: Sox genes and BMP signaling. Chimal-Monroy, J., Rodriguez-Leon, J., Montero, J.A., Gañan, Y., Macias, D., Merino, R., Hurle, J.M. Dev. Biol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  8. Influence of type and amount of dietary lipid on plasma lipid concentrations in endurance athletes. Lukaski, H.C., Bolonchuk, W.W., Klevay, L.M., Mahalko, J.R., Milne, D.B., Sandstead, H.H. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (1984) [Pubmed]
  9. Association between genetic variation at the APO AI-CIII-AIV gene cluster and familial combined hyperlipidaemia. Xu, C.F., Talmud, P., Schuster, H., Houlston, R., Miller, G., Humphries, S. Clin. Genet. (1994) [Pubmed]
  10. The relative significance of human placental lactogen in the diagnosis of retarded fetal growth. Daikoku, N.H., Tyson, J.E., Graf, C., Scott, R., Smith, B., Johnson, J.W., King, T.M. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. (1979) [Pubmed]
  11. Conductive hearing loss results in a decrease in central auditory system activity in the young gerbil. Tucci, D.L., Cant, N.B., Durham, D. Laryngoscope (1999) [Pubmed]
  12. Hodgkin's lymphoma: the pathologist's viewpoint. Pileri, S.A., Ascani, S., Leoncini, L., Sabattini, E., Zinzani, P.L., Piccaluga, P.P., Pileri, A., Giunti, M., Falini, B., Bolis, G.B., Stein, H. J. Clin. Pathol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  13. Regulation of color break in citrus fruits. Changes in pigment profiling and gene expression induced by gibberellins and nitrate, two ripening retardants. Alós, E., Cercós, M., Rodrigo, M.J., Zacarías, L., Talón, M. J. Agric. Food Chem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  14. Host range and cytopathogenicity of the highly attenuated MVA strain of vaccinia virus: propagation and generation of recombinant viruses in a nonhuman mammalian cell line. Carroll, M.W., Moss, B. Virology (1997) [Pubmed]
  15. Review of the mutagenicity/genotoxicity of butylated hydroxytoluene. Bomhard, E.M., Bremmer, J.N., Herbold, B.A. Mutat. Res. (1992) [Pubmed]
  16. Evaluation of the genotoxicity of stevioside and steviol using six in vitro and one in vivo mutagenicity assays. Matsui, M., Matsui, K., Kawasaki, Y., Oda, Y., Noguchi, T., Kitagawa, Y., Sawada, M., Hayashi, M., Nohmi, T., Yoshihira, K., Ishidate, M., Sofuni, T. Mutagenesis (1996) [Pubmed]
  17. Effect of probucol on serum lipoprotein and apoprotein profiles in renal transplant patients. Okubo, M., Horii, A., Kamata, K., Takeuchi, Y., Tsukamoto, Y., Kobayashi, N., Sato, K., Kumano, K., Endo, T. Am. J. Kidney Dis. (1998) [Pubmed]
  18. Fludarabine and prednisone in pretreated and refractory B-chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL) in advanced stages. De Rossi, G., Mauro, F.R., Caruso, R., Monarca, B., Mandelli, F. Haematologica (1993) [Pubmed]
  19. The gene geranylgeranyl reductase of peach (Prunus persica [L.] Batsch) is regulated during leaf development and responds differentially to distinct stress factors. Giannino, D., Condello, E., Bruno, L., Testone, G., Tartarini, A., Cozza, R., Innocenti, A.M., Bitonti, M.B., Mariotti, D. J. Exp. Bot. (2004) [Pubmed]
  20. Persistent organochlorines in raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) from Japan: Hepatic sequestration of oxychlordane. Kunisue, T., Takayanagi, N., Tsubota, T., Tanabe, S. Chemosphere (2007) [Pubmed]
  21. Organochlorine burdens in blood of ringed and bearded seals from north-western Svalbard. Bang, K., Jenssen, B.M., Lydersen, C., Skaare, J.U. Chemosphere (2001) [Pubmed]
  22. Protein degradation in CHL V79 cells during and after exposure to 43 degrees C. Heynen, M., Frey, H.E., Kruuv, J., Lepock, J.R. Radiat. Res. (1989) [Pubmed]
  23. Maximal power across the lifespan. Martin, J.C., Farrar, R.P., Wagner, B.M., Spirduso, W.W. J. Gerontol. A Biol. Sci. Med. Sci. (2000) [Pubmed]
  24. Hypolipidemic effects of acute and sub-chronic administration of an aqueous extract of Ajuga iva L. whole plant in normal and diabetic rats. El-Hilaly, J., Tahraoui, A., Israili, Z.H., Lyoussi, B. Journal of ethnopharmacology. (2006) [Pubmed]
  25. Subscapularis, medial, and lateral head coracohumeral ligament insertion anatomy. Arthroscopic appearance and incidence of "hidden" rotator interval lesions. Bennett, W.F. Arthroscopy : the journal of arthroscopic & related surgery : official publication of the Arthroscopy Association of North America and the International Arthroscopy Association. (2001) [Pubmed]
  26. Usefulness of calf circumference as a measure for screening low birth weight infants. Neela, J., Raman, L., Balakrishna, N., Rao, K.V. Indian pediatrics. (1991) [Pubmed]
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