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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review

Sex Distribution

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Disease relevance of Sex Distribution

  • Between patients with rapid progression and those without, there were no significant differences in sex distribution, age, smoking history, frequency of hypertension or diabetes mellitus, and serum LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and apolipoprotein B concentrations [1].
  • Mortality rates for a group of patients in a collaborative multicenter study of levodopa (Larodopa) in the treatment of parkinsonism were compared with corresponding mortality rates in the general population adjusted for age and sex distribution in accordance with that of the parkinsonian patients under study [2].
  • We evaluated the prevalence and severity of diabetic retinopathy in 173 juvenile-onset, type I diabetic subjects and 78 nondiabetic controls of similar age, race, and sex distribution by stereoscopic fundus photography and fluorescein angiography, performed by a standardized protocol and evaluated by five expert, masked observers [3].
  • RESULTS: Forty patients had a mean age of 65 years, an almost equal sex distribution, high prevalences of cardiovascular disease (53%) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (33%), but a low incidence of tuberculosis [4].
  • The patients in groups evaluated for either nephrotoxicity or auditory toxicity were similar with respect to intensity and etiology of bacterial disease, concurrent exposure to other antimicrobial drugs, age and sex distribution, initial serum creatinine level, and total dose and duration of antimicrobial therapy [5].

Psychiatry related information on Sex Distribution

  • In turn, characterological depressions are divisible into at least two subtypes: (1) "Subaffective dysthymias" have even sex distribution, are often complicated by superimposed depressive episodes, rapid eye movement latency is shortened, and they tend to respond to tricyclics of lithium carbonate [6].

High impact information on Sex Distribution


Chemical compound and disease context of Sex Distribution


Biological context of Sex Distribution


Anatomical context of Sex Distribution


Associations of Sex Distribution with chemical compounds

  • No significant differences were observed in sex distribution, current age, age at diabetes onset, BMI, fasting serum glucose, or glycemic control between anti-CD38+ and anti-CD38-diabetic patients in either the type 2 or type 1 diabetic groups [25].
  • RESULTS: Patients in the two groups did not differ significantly in age, sex distribution, diagnoses, mean dose or duration of fluoxetine treatment, or mean combined plasma concentrations of fluoxetine and norfluoxetine [26].
  • Except for the race, aberrant sex distribution and low incidence of urate stones, this series is not unlike a series of white gout patients [27].
  • The participants were divided into three groups: total plasma cholesterol < 5 mmol/l, total plasma cholesterol 5-8 mmol/l, total plasma cholesterol > 8 mmol/l. Each group was comparable in size and sex distribution [28].
  • METHODS: This article demonstrates Simpson's paradox with three cohorts of naproxen users (new users, chronic users, and combined users) who were compared on the age/sex distribution of further naproxen use [29].

Gene context of Sex Distribution

  • The prevalence of the A20210 allele of the prothrombin (PT) gene and the T677 allele of the methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene was determined in 205 patients with venous thromboembolism (VTE) and in 398 healthy subjects of similar age and sex distribution [30].
  • The two groups of patients had a similar age and sex distribution, had had RA for less than a year, had no joint erosions, and had not been treated previously with any other disease modifying drugs [31].
  • No statistical differences were found for mean donor age, sex distribution, or the total number of HLA-A and DR mismatches [32].
  • There was a significant difference in sex distribution between acromegalics with the GH-PRL tumor subtype and all other acromegalics [33].
  • Women represented 73% of the GH-PRL immunostain subtype, as compared with the overall sex distribution of 33 women (53%) and 29 men (47%) for the entire series of acromegalic patients [33].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Sex Distribution


  1. Rapid angiographic progression of coronary artery disease in patients with elevated lipoprotein(a). Terres, W., Tatsis, E., Pfalzer, B., Beil, F.U., Beisiegel, U., Hamm, C.W. Circulation (1995) [Pubmed]
  2. Levodopa in Parkinson disease: a long-term appraisal of mortality. Joseph, C., Chassan, J.B., Koch, M.L. Ann. Neurol. (1978) [Pubmed]
  3. Retinopathy in juvenile-onset type I diabetes of short duration. Frank, R.N., Hoffman, W.H., Podgor, M.J., Joondeph, H.C., Lewis, R.A., Margherio, R.R., Nachazel, D.P., Weiss, H., Christopherson, K.W., Cronin, M.A. Diabetes (1982) [Pubmed]
  4. The solitary pulmonary nodule: update 1995. Libby, D.M., Henschke, C.I., Yankelevitz, D.F. Am. J. Med. (1995) [Pubmed]
  5. Comparison of the nephrotoxicity and auditory toxicity of tobramycin and amikacin. Gatell, J.M., San Miguel, J.G., Zamora, L., Araujo, V., Bonet, M., Bohé, M., Jimenez de Anta, M.T., Farré, M., Elena, M., Ballesta, A., Marin, J.L. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1983) [Pubmed]
  6. Characterological depressions. Clinical and sleep EEG findings separating 'subaffective dysthymias' from 'character spectrum disorders'. Akiskal, H.S., Rosenthal, T.L., Haykal, R.F., Lemmi, H., Rosenthal, R.H., Scott-Strauss, A. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry (1980) [Pubmed]
  7. Impact of sex on inheritance of ankylosing spondylitis: a cohort study. Calin, A., Brophy, S., Blake, D. Lancet (1999) [Pubmed]
  8. Gastric emptying in patients with gastroesophageal reflux. McCallum, R.W., Berkowitz, D.M., Lerner, E. Gastroenterology (1981) [Pubmed]
  9. A controlled trial of azathioprine in the management of chronic ulcerative colitis. Rosenberg, J.L., Wall, A.J., Levin, B., Binder, H.J., Kirsner, J.B. Gastroenterology (1975) [Pubmed]
  10. Doxorubicin administration by continuous infusion is not cardioprotective: the Dana-Farber 91-01 Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia protocol. Lipshultz, S.E., Giantris, A.L., Lipsitz, S.R., Kimball Dalton, V., Asselin, B.L., Barr, R.D., Clavell, L.A., Hurwitz, C.A., Moghrabi, A., Samson, Y., Schorin, M.A., Gelber, R.D., Sallan, S.E., Colan, S.D. J. Clin. Oncol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  11. Reduced body weight and increased postimplantation fetal death in tyrosylprotein sulfotransferase-1-deficient mice. Ouyang, Y.B., Crawley, J.T., Aston, C.E., Moore, K.L. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  12. Correlation of various in vitro testing methods with clinical outcomes in patients with Bacteroides fragilis group infections treated with cefoxitin: a retrospective analysis. Snydman, D.R., Cuchural, G.J., McDermott, L., Gill, M. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1992) [Pubmed]
  13. Brains and faces in holoprosencephaly: pre- and postnatal description of 30 cases. Blaas, H.G., Eriksson, A.G., Salvesen, K.A., Isaksen, C.V., Christensen, B., Møllerløkken, G., Eik-Nes, S.H. Ultrasound in obstetrics & gynecology : the official journal of the International Society of Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology. (2002) [Pubmed]
  14. Female preponderance in ibutilide-induced torsade de pointes. Gowda, R.M., Khan, I.A., Punukollu, G., Vasavada, B.C., Sacchi, T.J., Wilbur, S.L. International journal of cardiology. (2004) [Pubmed]
  15. Seasonality, incidence, and sex distribution of cleft lip and palate births in Trent Region, 1973-1982. Coupland, M.A., Coupland, A.I. The Cleft palate journal. (1988) [Pubmed]
  16. Prediabetes in obese youth: a syndrome of impaired glucose tolerance, severe insulin resistance, and altered myocellular and abdominal fat partitioning. Weiss, R., Dufour, S., Taksali, S.E., Tamborlane, W.V., Petersen, K.F., Bonadonna, R.C., Boselli, L., Barbetta, G., Allen, K., Rife, F., Savoye, M., Dziura, J., Sherwin, R., Shulman, G.I., Caprio, S. Lancet (2003) [Pubmed]
  17. Restenosis after a first percutaneous transluminal renal angioplasty. Plouin, P.F., Darné, B., Chatellier, G., Pannier, I., Battaglia, C., Raynaud, A., Azizi, M. Hypertension (1993) [Pubmed]
  18. TT virus infection in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection--effect of primers, prevalence, and clinical significance. Hepatitis Interventional Therapy Group. Mizokami, M., Albrecht, J.K., Kato, T., Orito, E., Lai, V.C., Goodman, Z., Hong, Z., Lau, J.Y. J. Hepatol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  19. Hyperhomocysteinemia in cyclosporine-treated renal transplant recipients. Arnadottir, M., Hultberg, B., Vladov, V., Nilsson-Ehle, P., Thysell, H. Transplantation (1996) [Pubmed]
  20. A prospective study of peripheral occlusive arterial disease in diabetes. IV. Platelet and plasma functions. Kazmier, F.J., Bowie, E.J., O'Fallon, W.M., Zimmerman, B.R., Osmundson, P.J., Palumbo, P.J. Mayo Clin. Proc. (1981) [Pubmed]
  21. Atopy and primary lung cancer. Histology and sex distribution. McDuffie, H.H. Chest (1991) [Pubmed]
  22. Levels of glandular kallikrein in whole saliva obtained from patients with solid tumors remote from the oral cavity. Jenzano, J.W., Courts, N.F., Timko, D.A., Lundblad, R.L. J. Dent. Res. (1986) [Pubmed]
  23. Portal vein thrombosis in hepatocellular carcinoma: age and sex distribution in an autopsy study. Pirisi, M., Avellini, C., Fabris, C., Scott, C., Bardus, P., Soardo, G., Beltrami, C.A., Bartoli, E. J. Cancer Res. Clin. Oncol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  24. A statistical evaluation on the age and sex distribution of basal serum gastrin and gastric acid secretion in subjects with or without peptic ulcer disease. Tahir, H., Sumii, K., Haruma, K., Tari, A., Uemura, N., Shimizu, H., Sumioka, M., Inaba, Y., Kumamoto, T., Matsumoto, Y. Hiroshima J. Med. Sci. (1984) [Pubmed]
  25. Autoantibodies to CD38 (ADP-ribosyl cyclase/cyclic ADP-ribose hydrolase) in Caucasian patients with diabetes: effects on insulin release from human islets. Pupilli, C., Giannini, S., Marchetti, P., Lupi, R., Antonelli, A., Malavasi, F., Takasawa, S., Okamoto, H., Ferrannini, E. Diabetes (1999) [Pubmed]
  26. Ratio of plasma fluoxetine to norfluoxetine concentrations and associated sedation. Keck, P.E., McElroy, S.L. The Journal of clinical psychiatry. (1992) [Pubmed]
  27. Gouty arthritis in the black race. Talbott, J.H., Gottlieb, N., Grendelmeier, P., Rodriguez, E. Semin. Arthritis Rheum. (1975) [Pubmed]
  28. The prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism at different total plasma cholesterol levels in middle aged men and women: a need for case-finding? Bindels, A.J., Westendorp, R.G., Frölich, M., Seidell, J.C., Blokstra, A., Smelt, A.H. Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf) (1999) [Pubmed]
  29. The potential for Simpson's paradox in drug utilization studies. Neutel, C.I. Annals of epidemiology. (1997) [Pubmed]
  30. Venous thromboembolic disease and the prothrombin, methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase and factor V genes. Alhenc-Gelas, M., Arnaud, E., Nicaud, V., Aubry, M.L., Fiessinger, J.N., Aiach, M., Emmerich, J. Thromb. Haemost. (1999) [Pubmed]
  31. Circulating cytokine levels in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: results of a double blind trial with sulphasalazine. Danis, V.A., Franic, G.M., Rathjen, D.A., Laurent, R.M., Brooks, P.M. Ann. Rheum. Dis. (1992) [Pubmed]
  32. Renal graft survival in native and non-native European recipients. Roodnat, J.I., Zietse, R., Rischen-Vos, J., van Gelder, T., Mulder, P.G., Ijzermans, J.N., Weimar, W. Transpl. Int. (1999) [Pubmed]
  33. Novel features of tumors that secrete both growth hormone and prolactin in acromegaly. Nyquist, P., Laws, E.R., Elliott, E. Neurosurgery (1994) [Pubmed]
  34. Improvement in metabolic risk factors for coronary heart disease associated with cilazapril treatment. Shieh, S.M., Sheu, W.H., Shen, D.D., Fuh, M.M., Jeng, C.Y., Jeng, J.R., Chen, Y.D., Reaven, G.M. Am. J. Hypertens. (1992) [Pubmed]
  35. Clinical significance of TT virus infection in patients with chronic liver disease and volunteer blood donors in Egypt. Gad, A., Tanaka, E., Orii, K., Kafumi, T., Serwah, A.E., El-Sherif, A., Nooman, Z., Kiyosawa, K. J. Med. Virol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  36. An analysis of radiotherapy data from the CNS cancer consortium's randomized prospective trial comparing AZQ to BCNU in the treatment of patients with primary malignant brain tumors. The CNS cancer consortium. Halperin, E.C., Gaspar, L., Imperato, J., Salter, M., Herndon, J., Dowling, S. Am. J. Clin. Oncol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  37. Platelet function in patients admitted with a diagnosis of myocardial infarction. Mikhailidis, D.P., Barradas, M.A., Mier, A., Boag, F., Jeremy, J.Y., Havard, C.W., Dandona, P. Angiology. (1987) [Pubmed]
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