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MeSH Review

Critical Pathways

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Disease relevance of Critical Pathways


Psychiatry related information on Critical Pathways

  • Further exploration of this database will provide additional insights into genes and pathways critical for olfactory neurogenesis, neuronal differentiation, olfaction, and mucosal defense [6].
  • The S-1 clinical pathway includes a pathway for clinicians, a pathway for patients, and such assist tools as a medication diary, an explanatory document containing instructions relating to patient compliance, a table of associations between adverse reactions and prodromes, and general principles for dose reduction and withdrawal [7].

High impact information on Critical Pathways

  • The MAML (mastermind-like) proteins are a family of three co-transcriptional regulators that are essential for Notch signaling, a pathway critical for cell fate determination [8].
  • Thus, regulation of the JNK pathway provides an interesting example of how many different stimuli can converge into regulating pathways critical for the determination of cell fate [9].
  • A summary is provided of recent studies examining the electrophysiological properties of CCK cells and newly discovered proteins that act as releasing factors for CCK, which mediate feedback pathways critical for regulated secretion in the intact organism [10].
  • This interaction may impart functional specificity to GATA factors and provide cooperative crosstalk between two pathways critical for early cardiogenesis [11].
  • Raf induces NF-kappaB by membrane shuttle kinase MEKK1, a signaling pathway critical for transformation [12].

Chemical compound and disease context of Critical Pathways

  • Our recent studies have demonstrated that Smad signalling is also a critical pathway for renal fibrosis induced by other pro-fibrotic factors, such as angiotensin II and advanced glycation end products (AGE) [13].

Biological context of Critical Pathways


Anatomical context of Critical Pathways

  • Although a number of candidate molecules have been identified that are capable of delivering a costimulatory signal, increasing evidence suggests that one such critical pathway involves the interaction of the T-cell surface antigen CD28 with its ligand B7, expressed on APCs [19].
  • Hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 (HNF-4) is a liver enriched transcription factor that regulates a large number of liver-specific genes, which play important roles in the critical pathways modulated by the response to injury [20].
  • Altogether, these data suggest that a critical pathway for T cell development in the human thymus likely involves the permanent activation of Vav in vivo [21].
  • The human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER) family of receptor tyrosine kinases controls critical pathways involved in the differentiation, growth, division, and motility of normal epithelial cells [22].
  • Results from these experiments demonstrate that lipopolysaccharides (LPS) activate Toll/IL-1 signaling and IL-1 receptor-associated kinase-1 (IRAK1), a critical pathway intermediate in the heart, indicating that the function of this pathway is not limited to immune system tissues [23].

Associations of Critical Pathways with chemical compounds

  • S-Adenosylmethionine-dependent transmethylation reactions are required for many critical pathways in human cells [24].
  • Thus, PKC activation in this system is essential, one critical pathway regulated by PKC activity is the production of O2-, and continued PKC activity is required for optimal oxidation of LDL lipids [25].
  • RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A pre-post quasi-experimental study design was used to evaluate the implementation of two quality improvement interventions: 1) revision of the hospital's capillary blood glucose monitoring form into a color-coded process control chart and 2) a clinical path for type 2 diabetes as a secondary diagnosis [26].
  • A metabolic pathway critical for detoxification of 2,3-epoxy-4-hydroxynonanal involves the ring-opening by epoxide hydrolase, which abolishes its ability to form cyclic etheno DNA adducts [27].
  • The data obtained indicate that heme oxygenase, known to be a stress-inducible gene, may be involved in cellular pathways critical to the carcinogenic activity of Cr(VI) in normal human lung cells [28].

Gene context of Critical Pathways


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Critical Pathways


  1. Levels of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha during breast carcinogenesis. Bos, R., Zhong, H., Hanrahan, C.F., Mommers, E.C., Semenza, G.L., Pinedo, H.M., Abeloff, M.D., Simons, J.W., van Diest, P.J., van der Wall, E. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (2001) [Pubmed]
  2. Cutting edge: identification of c-Rel-dependent and -independent pathways of IL-12 production during infectious and inflammatory stimuli. Mason, N., Aliberti, J., Caamano, J.C., Liou, H.C., Hunter, C.A. J. Immunol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  3. HIF-1alpha, STAT3, CBP/p300 and Ref-1/APE are components of a transcriptional complex that regulates Src-dependent hypoxia-induced expression of VEGF in pancreatic and prostate carcinomas. Gray, M.J., Zhang, J., Ellis, L.M., Semenza, G.L., Evans, D.B., Watowich, S.S., Gallick, G.E. Oncogene (2005) [Pubmed]
  4. Combined targeting of epidermal growth factor receptor and MDM2 by gefitinib and antisense MDM2 cooperatively inhibit hormone-independent prostate cancer. Bianco, R., Caputo, R., Caputo, R., Damiano, V., De Placido, S., Ficorella, C., Agrawal, S., Bianco, A.R., Ciardiello, F., Tortora, G. Clin. Cancer Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  5. Amelioration of ozone-induced lung injury by anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha. Bhalla, D.K., Reinhart, P.G., Bai, C., Gupta, S.K. Toxicol. Sci. (2002) [Pubmed]
  6. Microarray-based discovery of highly expressed olfactory mucosal genes: potential roles in the various functions of the olfactory system. Genter, M.B., Van Veldhoven, P.P., Jegga, A.G., Sakthivel, B., Kong, S., Stanley, K., Witte, D.P., Ebert, C.L., Aronow, B.J. Physiol. Genomics (2003) [Pubmed]
  7. Development of clinical pathway in S-1 chemotherapy for gastric cancer. Noie, T., Konishi, T., Nara, S., Ito, K., Harihara, Y., Furushima, K. Gastric cancer : official journal of the International Gastric Cancer Association and the Japanese Gastric Cancer Association. (2003) [Pubmed]
  8. The Notch coactivator, MAML1, functions as a novel coactivator for MEF2C-mediated transcription and is required for normal myogenesis. Shen, H., McElhinny, A.S., Cao, Y., Gao, P., Liu, J., Bronson, R., Griffin, J.D., Wu, L. Genes Dev. (2006) [Pubmed]
  9. MEKKs, GCKs, MLKs, PAKs, TAKs, and tpls: upstream regulators of the c-Jun amino-terminal kinases? Fanger, G.R., Gerwins, P., Widmann, C., Jarpe, M.B., Johnson, G.L. Curr. Opin. Genet. Dev. (1997) [Pubmed]
  10. Cholecystokinin cells. Liddle, R.A. Annu. Rev. Physiol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  11. The cardiac transcription factors Nkx2-5 and GATA-4 are mutual cofactors. Durocher, D., Charron, F., Warren, R., Schwartz, R.J., Nemer, M. EMBO J. (1997) [Pubmed]
  12. Raf induces NF-kappaB by membrane shuttle kinase MEKK1, a signaling pathway critical for transformation. Baumann, B., Weber, C.K., Troppmair, J., Whiteside, S., Israel, A., Rapp, U.R., Wirth, T. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2000) [Pubmed]
  13. Transforming growth factor-beta and Smad signalling in kidney diseases. Wang, W., Koka, V., Lan, H.Y. Nephrology (Carlton, Vic.) (2005) [Pubmed]
  14. Gene expression profiles of proliferating vs. G1/G0 arrested human leukemia cells suggest a mechanism for glucocorticoid-induced apoptosis. Tonko, M., Ausserlechner, M.J., Bernhard, D., Helmberg, A., Kofler, R. FASEB J. (2001) [Pubmed]
  15. Ablation of p21waf1cip1 expression enhances the capacity of p53-deficient human tumor cells to repair UVB-induced DNA damage. Therrien, J.P., Loignon, M., Drouin, R., Drobetsky, E.A. Cancer Res. (2001) [Pubmed]
  16. Molecular cloning of the CD45-associated 30-kDa protein. Takeda, A., Maizel, A.L., Kitamura, K., Ohta, T., Kimura, S. J. Biol. Chem. (1994) [Pubmed]
  17. H-Ras-specific activation of Rac-MKK3/6-p38 pathway: its critical role in invasion and migration of breast epithelial cells. Shin, I., Kim, S., Song, H., Kim, H.R., Moon, A. J. Biol. Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  18. Promoter hypermethylation of multiple genes in nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Kwong, J., Lo, K.W., To, K.F., Teo, P.M., Johnson, P.J., Huang, D.P. Clin. Cancer Res. (2002) [Pubmed]
  19. Human T-cell clonal anergy is induced by antigen presentation in the absence of B7 costimulation. Gimmi, C.D., Freeman, G.J., Gribben, J.G., Gray, G., Nadler, L.M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1993) [Pubmed]
  20. Hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 response to injury involves a rapid decrease in DNA binding and transactivation via a JAK2 signal transduction pathway. Li, X., Salisbury-Rowswell, J., Murdock, A.D., Forse, R.A., Burke, P.A. Biochem. J. (2002) [Pubmed]
  21. The proto-oncogene Vav product is constitutively tyrosine-phosphorylated in normal human immature T cells. Gouy, H., Debré, P., Bismuth, G. Eur. J. Immunol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  22. Targeting the HER-kinase axis in cancer. Gross, M.E., Shazer, R.L., Agus, D.B. Semin. Oncol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  23. IRAK1 deletion disrupts cardiac Toll/IL-1 signaling and protects against contractile dysfunction. Thomas, J.A., Haudek, S.B., Koroglu, T., Tsen, M.F., Bryant, D.D., White, D.J., Kusewitt, D.F., Horton, J.W., Giroir, B.P. Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  24. Z-4',5'-didehydro-5'-deoxy-5'-fluoroadenosine (MDL 28,842), an irreversible inhibitor of S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase, suppresses proliferation of cultured keratinocytes and squamous carcinoma cell lines. Paller, A.S., Arnsmeier, S.L., Clark, S.H., Mirkin, B.L. Cancer Res. (1993) [Pubmed]
  25. Protein kinase C activity is required for lipid oxidation of low density lipoprotein by activated human monocytes. Li, Q., Cathcart, M.K. J. Biol. Chem. (1994) [Pubmed]
  26. Windows of opportunity to improve diabetes care when patients with diabetes are hospitalized for other conditions. Roman, S.H., Chassin, M.R. Diabetes Care (2001) [Pubmed]
  27. 2,3-epoxy-4-hydroxynonanal, a potential lipid peroxidation product for etheno adduct formation, is not a substrate of human epoxide hydrolase. Chen, H.J., Gonzalez, F.J., Shou, M., Chung, F.L. Carcinogenesis (1998) [Pubmed]
  28. Effects of Cr(VI) on the expression of the oxidative stress genes in human lung cells. Dubrovskaya, V.A., Wetterhahn, K.E. Carcinogenesis (1998) [Pubmed]
  29. Cerebellar disorganization characteristic of reeler in scrambler mutant mice despite presence of reelin. Goldowitz, D., Cushing, R.C., Laywell, E., D'Arcangelo, G., Sheldon, M., Sweet, H.O., Davisson, M., Steindler, D., Curran, T. J. Neurosci. (1997) [Pubmed]
  30. The roles of Cbl-b and c-Cbl in insulin-stimulated glucose transport. Liu, J., DeYoung, S.M., Hwang, J.B., O'Leary, E.E., Saltiel, A.R. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  31. Regulation of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (CD54) gene expression. Roebuck, K.A., Finnegan, A. J. Leukoc. Biol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  32. Role of c-jun N-terminal kinase in the induced release of GM-CSF, RANTES and IL-8 from human airway smooth muscle cells. Oltmanns, U., Issa, R., Sukkar, M.B., John, M., Chung, K.F. Br. J. Pharmacol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  33. Wnt/beta-catenin/tcf signaling: a critical pathway in gastrointestinal tumorigenesis. Kolligs, F.T., Bommer, G., Göke, B. Digestion (2002) [Pubmed]
  34. Regarding "Impact of a critical pathway on postoperative length of stay and outcomes after infrainguinal bypass". LeMaitre, G.D. J. Vasc. Surg. (1999) [Pubmed]
  35. Using outcome data and patient satisfaction surveys to develop policies regarding minimum length of hospitalization after radical prostatectomy. Kirsh, E.J., Worwag, E.M., Sinner, M., Chodak, G.W. Urology (2000) [Pubmed]
  36. Clinical pathway using rapid rehydration for children with gastroenteritis. Phin, S.J., McCaskill, M.E., Browne, G.J., Lam, L.T. Journal of paediatrics and child health. (2003) [Pubmed]
  37. How modeling and simulation have enhanced decision making in new drug development. Miller, R., Ewy, W., Corrigan, B.W., Ouellet, D., Hermann, D., Kowalski, K.G., Lockwood, P., Koup, J.R., Donevan, S., El-Kattan, A., Li, C.S., Werth, J.L., Feltner, D.E., Lalonde, R.L. Journal of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. (2005) [Pubmed]
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