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Gene Review

Nos1  -  nitric oxide synthase 1, neuronal

Mus musculus

Synonyms: 2310005C01Rik, Constitutive NOS, N-NOS, NC-NOS, NO, ...
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Disease relevance of Nos1

  • For example, after cerebral ischemia, the nNOS isoform is involved in tissue injury, whereas the eNOS isoform is important in maintaining blood flow [1].
  • Furthermore, our results provide further evidence that a combination of nNOS inhibitors, iNOS inhibitors and free radical scavengers may be effective in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases [2].
  • To investigate whether nNOS plays a role in other forms of muscular dystrophy, we analyzed protein expression of nNOS in several sarcoglycan-deficient animal models of muscular dystrophy as well as patients with primary mutations in the sarcoglycan genes [3].
  • Immunohistochemistry demonstrated no change in lung iNOS or nNOS staining in either central or peripheral areas, but suggested increased eNOS in the periphery following hypoxia [4].
  • CONCLUSION: These findings demonstrate that the nNOS isoform may be involved in airway obstruction in mice exposed to ozone [5].

Psychiatry related information on Nos1


High impact information on Nos1


Chemical compound and disease context of Nos1


Biological context of Nos1


Anatomical context of Nos1

  • The frequency of attacking males was identical in the homozygous carriers of the disrupted gene, in the mixed C57BL/6J-129 background, and in the 129/SvPas, which approximates the 129/SvJae strain from which the stem cells were derived to produce the disrupted Nos1 gene [22].
  • Neither nNOS nor iNOS were present in the mitochondria [23].
  • METHODS: Regional CBF (rCBF) in the cerebral cortex was measured with laser-Doppler flowmetry in wild-type mice (129/SV or C57BL/6) and nNOS knockout mice during stepwise increases in the inspired concentration of isoflurane from 0.6 vol% to 1.2, 1.8, and 2.4 vol% [21].
  • NK1-immunoreactive (NK1-IR) neurons were seen in the myenteric ganglia and NK1/nNOS double labeling revealed that some neurons were both NK1-IR and nNOS-IR [24].
  • In spinal cord slices from either nNOS or HO-2 null-mutant animals morphine did not stimulate cGMP production [25].

Associations of Nos1 with chemical compounds

  • Carbon monoxide (CO) synthesized by heme oxygenase 2 (HO2) and nitric oxide (NO) produced by neuronal NO synthase (nNOS) mediate nonadrenergic/noncholinergic (NANC) intestinal relaxation [26].
  • RESULTS: Retinal ganglion cells in the nNOS(-/-) mouse were relatively resistant to gp120, manifesting attenuation of gp120-induced injury compared with wild-type mice [27].
  • In nNOS knockout mice, isoflurane increased rCBF by 67 +/- 8%, 88 +/- 12%, and 112 +/- 18% at 1.2, 1.8, and 2.4 vol%, respectively [21].
  • Protein secretion, which was maximal at 100 carbachol, was reduced by NOS blockade and eNOS deletion but unaffected by nNOS deletion [28].
  • A similar redistribution pattern in the ipsilateral AVCN for the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor was also observed at POD 4, corresponding to the fact that the activation of nNOS is coupled to calcium influx via the NMDA-receptor [29].

Physical interactions of Nos1


Co-localisations of Nos1

  • Neuronal NOS was exclusively colocalized with OT in the PVN and the SON, suggesting that NO is mainly synthesized by oxytocinergic neurons in mice [32].

Regulatory relationships of Nos1

  • Our results suggest that NO synthesized by both nNOS and iNOS plays a role in virus-induced sleep changes and that nNOS may modulate cytokine expression in the brain [33].
  • We conclude that NO derived from nNOS promotes an inflammatory response in the cerebrovascular microcirculation after short-term EH and that NO produced by eNOS blunts the extent of this response and exerts neuroprotective effects [34].
  • Differences in the Fos response between the two groups were observed in a limited set (6 out of 42) of these brain areas only: nNOS-/- mice displayed increased stressor-induced Fos expression in the medial amygdala, periventricular hypothalamic nucleus, supraoptic nucleus, CA1 field of the hippocampus, dentate gyrus and infralimbic cortex [35].
  • Treatment with BDNF has previously been shown to induce neuronal NOS (nNOS) [36].
  • These results demonstrate that PACAP might promote the functional coupling of neuronal NOS to NMDA receptors for both inflammatory and neuropathic pain to occur [37].

Other interactions of Nos1

  • All three isoforms are expressed in the respiratory tract, but only the nNOS isoform appears to be involved in modulating airway responsiveness and only the inducible NOS isoform appears to respond to antigen stimulation [1].
  • Two other genes, Adrbk2 at 60 cM and Nos1 at 65 cM, have biological plausibility in mechanisms of upper airway patency and chemosensitivity, respectively [38].
  • Lack of neuronal NOS has consequences for the expression of POMC and POMC-derived peptides in the mouse pituitary [39].
  • In the present study, a unilateral cochleotomy was performed in adult mice to examine the relationship between the reemergence of GAP-43 and the expression pattern of nNOS [29].
  • A lack of dystrophin and changes in the expression or activity of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (NOS-I) affect the timing of activation in vivo [40].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Nos1


  1. Mouse models of nitric oxide synthase deficiency. Huang, P.L. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  2. Neuroprotective effect of arundic acid, an astrocyte-modulating agent, in mouse brain against MPTP (1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine) neurotoxicity. Himeda, T., Kadoguchi, N., Kamiyama, Y., Kato, H., Maegawa, H., Araki, T. Neuropharmacology (2006) [Pubmed]
  3. Loss of sarcolemma nNOS in sarcoglycan-deficient muscle. Crosbie, R.H., Barresi, R., Campbell, K.P. FASEB J. (2002) [Pubmed]
  4. Upregulation of nitric oxide synthase in mice with severe hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension. Fagan, K.A., Morrissey, B., Fouty, B.W., Sato, K., Harral, J.W., Morris, K.G., Hoedt-Miller, M., Vidmar, S., McMurtry, I.F., Rodman, D.M. Respir. Res. (2001) [Pubmed]
  5. Neuronal nitric oxide synthase is associated with airway obstruction in BALB/c mice exposed to ozone. Jang, A.S., Choi, I.S., Lee, J.U. Respiration; international review of thoracic diseases. (2003) [Pubmed]
  6. Nocturnal motor coordination deficits in neuronal nitric oxide synthase knock-out mice. Kriegsfeld, L.J., Eliasson, M.J., Demas, G.E., Blackshaw, S., Dawson, T.M., Nelson, R.J., Snyder, S.H. Neuroscience (1999) [Pubmed]
  7. Altered neuronal nitric oxide synthase expression contributes to disease progression in Huntington's disease transgenic mice. Deckel, A.W., Tang, V., Nuttal, D., Gary, K., Elder, R. Brain Res. (2002) [Pubmed]
  8. The distribution of nitric oxide synthase-I and NADPH-diaphorase containing neurons in the cerebral cortex of different strains of mice and its association with learning and memory. Oermann, E., Bidmon, H.J., Schleicher, A., Mayer, B., Schwegler, H., Zilles, K. Journal für Hirnforschung. (1998) [Pubmed]
  9. Long-term effects of high doses of nicotine on feeding behavior and brain nitric oxide synthase activity in female mice. Mannucci, C., Catania, M.A., Adamo, E.B., Bellomo, M., Caputi, A.P., Calapai, G. J. Pharmacol. Sci. (2005) [Pubmed]
  10. Long-term potentiation is reduced in mice that are doubly mutant in endothelial and neuronal nitric oxide synthase. Son, H., Hawkins, R.D., Martin, K., Kiebler, M., Huang, P.L., Fishman, M.C., Kandel, E.R. Cell (1996) [Pubmed]
  11. Nitric oxide synthase complexed with dystrophin and absent from skeletal muscle sarcolemma in Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Brenman, J.E., Chao, D.S., Xia, H., Aldape, K., Bredt, D.S. Cell (1995) [Pubmed]
  12. Targeted disruption of the neuronal nitric oxide synthase gene. Huang, P.L., Dawson, T.M., Bredt, D.S., Snyder, S.H., Fishman, M.C. Cell (1993) [Pubmed]
  13. Ejaculatory abnormalities in mice with targeted disruption of the gene for heme oxygenase-2. Burnett, A.L., Johns, D.G., Kriegsfeld, L.J., Klein, S.L., Calvin, D.C., Demas, G.E., Schramm, L.P., Tonegawa, S., Nelson, R.J., Snyder, S.H., Poss, K.D. Nat. Med. (1998) [Pubmed]
  14. Gastric stasis in neuronal nitric oxide synthase-deficient knockout mice. Mashimo, H., Kjellin, A., Goyal, R.K. Gastroenterology (2000) [Pubmed]
  15. Effects of nitric oxide synthase inhibition on brain infarction in SOD-1-transgenic mice following transient focal cerebral ischemia. Kamii, H., Mikawa, S., Murakami, K., Kinouchi, H., Yoshimoto, T., Reola, L., Carlson, E., Epstein, C.J., Chan, P.H. J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. (1996) [Pubmed]
  16. Enhanced susceptibility to 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine neurotoxicity in high-fat diet-induced obesity. Choi, J.Y., Jang, E.H., Park, C.S., Kang, J.H. Free Radic. Biol. Med. (2005) [Pubmed]
  17. Inhibition of neuronal nitric oxide synthase reduces isoflurane MAC and motor activity even in nNOS knockout mice. Engelhardt, T., Lowe, P.R., Galley, H.F., Webster, N.R. British journal of anaesthesia. (2006) [Pubmed]
  18. Oxygen seizure latency and peroxynitrite formation in mice lacking neuronal or endothelial nitric oxide synthases. Demchenko, I.T., Atochin, D.N., Boso, A.E., Astern, J., Huang, P.L., Piantadosi, C.A. Neurosci. Lett. (2003) [Pubmed]
  19. Mice with gene disruption of both endothelial and neuronal nitric oxide synthase exhibit insulin resistance. Shankar, R.R., Wu, Y., Shen, H.Q., Zhu, J.S., Baron, A.D. Diabetes (2000) [Pubmed]
  20. The orphan nuclear receptor, steroidogenic factor 1, regulates neuronal nitric oxide synthase gene expression in pituitary gonadotropes. Wei, X., Sasaki, M., Huang, H., Dawson, V.L., Dawson, T.M. Mol. Endocrinol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  21. Isoflurane-induced cerebral hyperemia in neuronal nitric oxide synthase gene deficient mice. Okamoto, H., Meng, W., Ma, J., Ayata, C., Roman, R.J., Bosnjak, Z.J., Kampine, J.P., Huang, P.L., Moskowitz, M.A., Hudetz, A.G. Anesthesiology (1997) [Pubmed]
  22. Loss of aggression, after transfer onto a C57BL/6J background, in mice carrying a targeted disruption of the neuronal nitric oxide synthase gene. Le Roy, I., Pothion, S., Mortaud, S., Chabert, C., Nicolas, L., Cherfouh, A., Roubertoux, P.L. Behav. Genet. (2000) [Pubmed]
  23. Mitochondrial nitric oxide synthase is not eNOS, nNOS or iNOS. Lacza, Z., Snipes, J.A., Zhang, J., Horváth, E.M., Figueroa, J.P., Szabó, C., Busija, D.W. Free Radic. Biol. Med. (2003) [Pubmed]
  24. Role of NK1 and NK2 receptors in mouse gastric mechanical activity. Mulè, F., Amato, A., Vannucchi, M.G., Faussone-Pellegrini, M.S., Serio, R. Br. J. Pharmacol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  25. Spinal cord nitric oxide synthase and heme oxygenase limit morphine induced analgesia. Li, X., Clark, J.D. Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res. (2001) [Pubmed]
  26. Carbon monoxide mediates vasoactive intestinal polypeptide-associated nonadrenergic/noncholinergic neurotransmission. Watkins, C.C., Boehning, D., Kaplin, A.I., Rao, M., Ferris, C.D., Snyder, S.H. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2004) [Pubmed]
  27. The contribution of various NOS gene products to HIV-1 coat protein (gp120)-mediated retinal ganglion cell injury. Dreyer, E.B., Zurakowski, D., Gorla, M., Vorwerk, C.K., Lipton, S.A. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (1999) [Pubmed]
  28. Secretagogue-stimulated pancreatic secretion is differentially regulated by constitutive NOS isoforms in mice. DiMagno, M.J., Hao, Y., Tsunoda, Y., Williams, J.A., Owyang, C. Am. J. Physiol. Gastrointest. Liver Physiol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  29. Co-induction of growth-associated protein GAP-43 and neuronal nitric oxide synthase in the cochlear nucleus following cochleotomy. Chen, T.J., Huang, C.W., Wang, D.C., Chen, S.S. Experimental brain research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation cérébrale. (2004) [Pubmed]
  30. Kinetics of CO binding to the haem domain of murine inducible nitric oxide synthase: differential effects of haem domain ligands. Stevenson, T.H., Gutierrez, A.F., Alderton, W.K., Lian , L., Scrutton, N.S. Biochem. J. (2001) [Pubmed]
  31. Regulation of beta cell glucokinase by S-nitrosylation and association with nitric oxide synthase. Rizzo, M.A., Piston, D.W. J. Cell Biol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  32. The effects of nitric oxide on magnocellular neurons could involve multiple indirect cyclic GMP-dependent pathways. Vacher, C.M., Hardin-Pouzet, H., Steinbusch, H.W., Calas, A., De Vente, J. Eur. J. Neurosci. (2003) [Pubmed]
  33. Influenza virus-induced sleep responses in mice with targeted disruptions in neuronal or inducible nitric oxide synthases. Chen, L., Duricka, D., Nelson, S., Mukherjee, S., Bohnet, S.G., Taishi, P., Majde, J.A., Krueger, J.M. J. Appl. Physiol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  34. Cerebrovascular inflammation after brief episodic hypoxia: modulation by neuronal and endothelial nitric oxide synthase. Altay, T., Gonzales, E.R., Park, T.S., Gidday, J.M. J. Appl. Physiol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  35. Genetic functional inactivation of neuronal nitric oxide synthase affects stress-related Fos expression in specific brain regions. Salchner, P., Lubec, G., Engelmann, M., Orlando, G.F., Wolf, G., Sartori, S.B., Hoeger, H., Singewald, N. Cell. Mol. Life Sci. (2004) [Pubmed]
  36. The role of NADPH oxidase, neuronal nitric oxide synthase and poly(ADP ribose) polymerase in oxidative neuronal death induced in cortical cultures by brain-derived neurotrophic factor and neurotrophin-4/5. Hwang, J.J., Choi, S.Y., Koh, J.Y. J. Neurochem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  37. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide is required for the development of spinal sensitization and induction of neuropathic pain. Mabuchi, T., Shintani, N., Matsumura, S., Okuda-Ashitaka, E., Hashimoto, H., Muratani, T., Minami, T., Baba, A., Ito, S. J. Neurosci. (2004) [Pubmed]
  38. Hypercapnic duty cycle is an intermediate physiological phenotype linked to mouse chromosome 5. Schneider, H., Patil, S.P., Canisius, S., Gladmon, E.A., Schwartz, A.R., O'Donnell, C.P., Smith, P.L., Tankersley, C.G. J. Appl. Physiol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  39. Lack of neuronal NOS has consequences for the expression of POMC and POMC-derived peptides in the mouse pituitary. Keilhoff, G., Seidel, B., Reiser, M., Stanarius, A., Huang, P.L., Bogerts, B., Wolf, G., Bernstein, H.G. Acta Histochem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  40. Correlated NOS-Imu and myf5 expression by satellite cells in mdx mouse muscle regeneration during NOS manipulation and deflazacort treatment. Anderson, J.E., Vargas, C. Neuromuscul. Disord. (2003) [Pubmed]
  41. Constitutive nitric oxide synthase activity is required to trigger ischemic tolerance in mouse retina. Zhu, Y., Ohlemiller, K.K., McMahan, B.K., Park, T.S., Gidday, J.M. Exp. Eye Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  42. Partial cloning of constitutive and inducible nitric oxide synthases and detailed neuronal expression of NOS mRNA in the cerebellum and optic tectum of adult Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Oyan, A.M., Nilsen, F., Goksøyr, A., Holmqvist, B. Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res. (2000) [Pubmed]
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