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Chemical Compound Review

SILVER     silver

Synonyms: Algaedyn, Argentum, Amalgum, Epinall, Theraworx, ...
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Disease relevance of silver


Psychiatry related information on silver


High impact information on silver

  • Heterozygous missense mutations in BSCL2 are associated with distal hereditary motor neuropathy and Silver syndrome [11].
  • A deletion in the first coding exon of the agouti gene was found associated with the proposed recessive allele of agouti in the darkly pigmented Standard Silver fox (aa) [12].
  • A constitutively activating C125R mutation in the MC1R was found specifically in darkly pigmented animals carrying the Alaska Silver allele (EA) [12].
  • It has a 135,000 mol wt and contains disulfide bonded labeled polypeptide chains of 75,000 and 31,000 mol wt, which presumably represent the beta and a fragment of the alpha-chain of C3b*. Silver staining of the SDS-PAGE gels revealed other C3-derived bands with 39-42,000 mol wt [13].
  • One way that the activity of such transcription factors is controlled is by the regulation of their movement between the cytosol and nucleus (Vandromme, M., C. Gauthier-Rouviere, N. Lamb, and A. Fernandez, 1996. Trends Biochem.Sci. 21:59-64; Lei, E.P. and P.A. Silver, 2002. Dev. Cell 2:261-272) [14].

Chemical compound and disease context of silver


Biological context of silver

  • A genome-wide scan in an Austrian family with dHMN-V (ref. 4) showed linkage to the locus SPG17, which was confirmed in 16 additional families with a phenotype characteristic of dHMN or Silver syndrome [11].
  • An easy and rapid purification of T4 41 protein produced by a plasmid encoding this gene (Hinton, D. M., Silver, L. L., and Nossal, N. G. (1985) J. Biol. Chem. 260, 12851-12857) is also described [20].
  • The growth and development of children with the Silver-Russell syndrome have been studied (Silver, 1964; Tanner et al., 1975) [21].
  • Analysis of these data, in conjunction with the results of our earlier study (Magnuson, T., Epstein, C. J., Silver, L. M., and Martin, G. R. (1982), Nature (London) 298, 750-753), suggests that homozygosity for the genes found in the tw5 haplotype does not reduce cell viability [22].
  • The N-terminal amino acid sequences determined for eight different cleavage products of GPIIb alpha and GPIIb beta agree with the corresponding amino acid sequences predicted by cDNA sequence for human-erythroleukaemic-cell GPIIb [Poncz, Eisman, Heindenreich, Silver, Vilaire, Surrey, Schwartz & Bennett (1987) J. Biol. Chem. 262, 8476-8482] [23].

Anatomical context of silver

  • Previous studies from this laboratory have shown actin to be a major protein of human lymphocytes (Stark, R., Liebes, L. F., Nevrla, D., and Silber, R. Biochem. Med., 27: 200-206, 1982) [24].
  • A distal hereditary motor neuropathy type V phenotype characterized by predominant hand muscle involvement was found in 31.1%, whereas 14.5% showed typical Silver syndrome with amyotrophy of the small hand muscles and spasticity of the lower extremities [2].
  • In this study, a region of specialized neuroepithelium, originally named the "knot" in mouse by Silver (1984), has been identified at the D/T border of chick embryos [25].
  • Mutation of one of these, YRB1, results in defects in transport of macromolecules across the nuclear envelope (Schlenstedt, G., Wong, D. H., Koepp, D. M., and Silver, P. A. (1995) EMBO J. 14, 5367-5378) [26].
  • We have previously demonstrated that cytochrome P-450c and P-450d mRNAs can be induced by 3-methylcholanthrene (MCA) in primary cultures of rat hepatocytes grown in serum-free hormonally defined medium (HDM) plus minimal salts (Silver, G., and Krauter, K. S. (1988) J. Biol. Chem. 263; 11802-11807) [27].

Associations of silver with other chemical compounds

  • An enzyme extracted from aspen (Populus tremuloides) leaves was previously found to catalyze the Mg(2+)-dependent elimination of pyrophosphate from dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP) to form isoprene (Silver, G. M., and Fall, R. (1991) Plant Physiol. 97, 1588-1591) [28].
  • A novel method to synthesize polystyrene nanospheres immobilized with silver nanoparticles by using compressed CO2 [29].
  • A visual light scattering detection method of Sudan dyes is reported in food products based on the formation of silver nanoparticles (NPs) . Sudan dyes including I, II, III and IV have reducibility due to the nitrogen-nitrogen double bond and phenol group in their molecular structure, and a redox reaction could occur with AgNO3 [30].
  • The enzyme was solubilized from membranes with octylglucoside, fractionated with (NH4)2SO4, and purified in the presence of Triton X-100 by chromatography on Sephacryl S300, hydroxyapatite, heparin-Sepharose and Affi-Gel Blue. Silver-stained SDS/PAGE indicated that the enzyme was an 83 kDa polypeptide [31].
  • The N-linked glycosylation points found here in platelet GPIIb are the same as the five N-glycosylated asparagine residues suggested after cDNA sequencing of human erythroleukaemic-cell GPIIb [Poncz, Eisman, Heindenreich, Silver, Vilaire, Surrey, Schwartz & Bennett (1987) J. Biol. Chem. 262, 8476-8482] [32].

Gene context of silver

  • Congruent results demonstrating a positive role for the carboxyl-terminal domain of CDC34 in the essential function of CDC34 have also been obtained by Silver et al [33].
  • The product of the Silver gene has since been discovered numerous times in different contexts, including the initial search for the tyrosinase gene, the characterization of major melanosome constituents in various species, and the identification of tumor-associated antigens from melanoma patients [34].
  • These cells express several pigment cell-specific genes that are thought or have been shown to be activated by MITF, including dautochrome tautomerase, pMel 17/Silver and tyrosinase-related protein-1, but lack expression of the MITF target gene tyrosinase, which encodes the rate-limiting enzyme in melanin synthesis [35].
  • The localization of human protein C gene on chromosome 2 was investigated by in situ hybridization using a partial cDNA for protein C. Silver-grain analysis indicates that the protein C gene is located on 2q13-q14 [36].
  • T-box genes encode putative transcription factors implicated in diverse developmental processes (Papaioannou, V.E. and Silver, L.M., 1998. BioEssays 20, 9-19) [37].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of silver


  1. The Silver syndrome variant of hereditary spastic paraplegia maps to chromosome 11q12-q14, with evidence for genetic heterogeneity within this subtype. Patel, H., Hart, P.E., Warner, T.T., Houlston, R.S., Patton, M.A., Jeffery, S., Crosby, A.H. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (2001) [Pubmed]
  2. Phenotypes of the N88S Berardinelli-Seip congenital lipodystrophy 2 mutation. Auer-Grumbach, M., Schlotter-Weigel, B., Lochmüller, H., Strobl-Wildemann, G., Auer-Grumbach, P., Fischer, R., Offenbacher, H., Zwick, E.B., Robl, T., Hartl, G., Hartung, H.P., Wagner, K., Windpassinger, C. Ann. Neurol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  3. O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase activity in adult gliomas: relation to patient and tumor characteristics. Silber, J.R., Bobola, M.S., Ghatan, S., Blank, A., Kolstoe, D.D., Berger, M.S. Cancer Res. (1998) [Pubmed]
  4. Research into HIV and AIDS between 1981 and 1990: the epidemic curve. Elford, J., Bor, R., Summers, P. AIDS (1991) [Pubmed]
  5. Apurinic endonuclease activity in adult gliomas and time to tumor progression after alkylating agent-based chemotherapy and after radiotherapy. Bobola, M.S., Emond, M.J., Blank, A., Meade, E.H., Kolstoe, D.D., Berger, M.S., Rostomily, R.C., Silbergeld, D.L., Spence, A.M., Silber, J.R. Clin. Cancer Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  6. Surface-grafted viologen for precipitation of silver nanoparticles and their combined bactericidal activities. Shi, Z., Neoh, K.G., Kang, E.T. Langmuir : the ACS journal of surfaces and colloids. (2004) [Pubmed]
  7. Disorders of upper esophageal sphincter motility in children. Staiano, A., Cucchiara, S., De Vizia, B., Andreotti, M.R., Auricchio, S. J. Pediatr. Gastroenterol. Nutr. (1987) [Pubmed]
  8. Factors affecting the mental health of residents in a communal-housing project for seniors in Japan. Migita, R., Yanagi, H., Tomura, S. Archives of gerontology and geriatrics. (2005) [Pubmed]
  9. Re: Silber MH, Krahn LE, Olson EJ. Diagnosing narcolepsy: validity and reliability of new diagnostic criteria. Sleep Med. 2002 Mar;3(2):109-13. Lammers, G.J., Overeem, S., Bassetti, C. Sleep Med. (2002) [Pubmed]
  10. Can skills assessment on a virtual reality trainer predict a surgical trainee's talent in laparoscopic surgery? Rosenthal, R., Gantert, W.A., Scheidegger, D., Oertli, D. Surgical endoscopy. (2006) [Pubmed]
  11. Heterozygous missense mutations in BSCL2 are associated with distal hereditary motor neuropathy and Silver syndrome. Windpassinger, C., Auer-Grumbach, M., Irobi, J., Patel, H., Petek, E., Hörl, G., Malli, R., Reed, J.A., Dierick, I., Verpoorten, N., Warner, T.T., Proukakis, C., Van den Bergh, P., Verellen, C., Van Maldergem, L., Merlini, L., De Jonghe, P., Timmerman, V., Crosby, A.H., Wagner, K. Nat. Genet. (2004) [Pubmed]
  12. A non-epistatic interaction of agouti and extension in the fox, Vulpes vulpes. Våge, D.I., Lu, D., Klungland, H., Lien, S., Adalsteinsson, S., Cone, R.D. Nat. Genet. (1997) [Pubmed]
  13. Unique role of the complement receptor CR1 in the degradation of C3b associated with immune complexes. Medof, M.E., Iida, K., Mold, C., Nussenzweig, V. J. Exp. Med. (1982) [Pubmed]
  14. Nuclear export of OLIG2 in neural stem cells is essential for ciliary neurotrophic factor-induced astrocyte differentiation. Setoguchi, T., Kondo, T. J. Cell Biol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  15. Carcinoid tumors of the rectum. Silver reactions, fluorescence, and serotonin content of the cytoplasmic granules. Taxy, J.B., Mendelsohn, G., Gupta, P.K. Am. J. Clin. Pathol. (1980) [Pubmed]
  16. A second gene in the Staphylococcus aureus cadA cadmium resistance determinant of plasmid pI258. Yoon, K.P., Silver, S. J. Bacteriol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  17. Relation between gallbladder neoplasm and helicobacter hepaticus infection. Pradhan, S.B., Dali, S. Kathmandu University medical journal (KUMJ). (2004) [Pubmed]
  18. Proteomic analysis of Deinococcus radiodurans recovering from gamma-irradiation. Zhang, C., Wei, J., Zheng, Z., Ying, N., Sheng, D., Hua, Y. Proteomics (2005) [Pubmed]
  19. Construction of antibacterial multilayer films containing nanosilver via layer-by-layer assembly of heparin and chitosan-silver ions complex. Fu, J., Ji, J., Fan, D., Shen, J. Journal of biomedical materials research. Part A. (2006) [Pubmed]
  20. Trypsin cleavage in the COOH terminus of the bacteriophage T4 gene 41 DNA helicase alters the primase-helicase activities of the T4 replication complex in vitro. Richardson, R.W., Nossal, N.G. J. Biol. Chem. (1989) [Pubmed]
  21. Reproductive ability of an adult female with Silver-Russell syndrome. Abramowicz, H.K., Nitowsky, H.M. J. Med. Genet. (1977) [Pubmed]
  22. Establishment of embryonic stem cell lines from preimplantation mouse embryos homozygous for lethal mutations in the t-complex. Martin, G.R., Silver, L.M., Fox, H.S., Joyner, A.L. Dev. Biol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  23. Interchain and intrachain disulphide bonds in human platelet glycoprotein IIb. Localization of the epitopes for several monoclonal antibodies. Calvete, J.J., Alvarez, M.V., Rivas, G., Hew, C.L., Henschen, A., González-Rodríguez, J. Biochem. J. (1989) [Pubmed]
  24. Purification and characterization of actin from normal and chronic lymphocytic leukemia lymphocytes. Liebes, L.F., Stark, R., Nevrla, D., Grusky, G., Zucker-Franklin, D., Silber, R. Cancer Res. (1983) [Pubmed]
  25. Axon pathway boundaries in the developing brain. I. Cellular and molecular determinants that separate the optic and olfactory projections. Silver, J., Poston, M., Rutishauser, U. J. Neurosci. (1987) [Pubmed]
  26. Yrb2p is a nuclear protein that interacts with Prp20p, a yeast Rcc1 homologue. Taura, T., Schlenstedt, G., Silver, P.A. J. Biol. Chem. (1997) [Pubmed]
  27. Dexamethasone-mediated regulation of 3-methylcholanthrene-induced cytochrome P-450d mRNA accumulation in primary rat hepatocyte cultures. Silver, G., Reid, L.M., Krauter, K.S. J. Biol. Chem. (1990) [Pubmed]
  28. Characterization of aspen isoprene synthase, an enzyme responsible for leaf isoprene emission to the atmosphere. Silver, G.M., Fall, R. J. Biol. Chem. (1995) [Pubmed]
  29. A novel method to synthesize polystyrene nanospheres immobilized with silver nanoparticles by using compressed CO2. Zhang, J., Liu, Z., Han, B., Liu, D., Chen, J., He, J., Jiang, T. Chemistry (Weinheim an der Bergstrasse, Germany) (2004) [Pubmed]
  30. Visual detection of Sudan dyes based on the plasmon resonance light scattering signals of silver nanoparticles. Wu, L.P., Li, Y.F., Huang, C.Z., Zhang, Q. Anal. Chem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  31. Purification and characterization of N-ethylmaleimide-insensitive phosphatidic acid phosphohydrolase (PAP2) from rat liver. Fleming, I.N., Yeaman, S.J. Biochem. J. (1995) [Pubmed]
  32. Complete localization of the intrachain disulphide bonds and the N-glycosylation points in the alpha-subunit of human platelet glycoprotein IIb. Calvete, J.J., Henschen, A., González-Rodríguez, J. Biochem. J. (1989) [Pubmed]
  33. Identification of a portable determinant of cell cycle function within the carboxyl-terminal domain of the yeast CDC34 (UBC3) ubiquitin conjugating (E2) enzyme. Kolman, C.J., Toth, J., Gonda, D.K. EMBO J. (1992) [Pubmed]
  34. The Silver locus product Pmel17/gp100/Silv/ME20: controversial in name and in function. Theos, A.C., Truschel, S.T., Raposo, G., Marks, M.S. Pigment Cell Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  35. Signaling and transcriptional regulation in the neural crest-derived melanocyte lineage: interactions between KIT and MITF. Hou, L., Panthier, J.J., Arnheiter, H. Development (2000) [Pubmed]
  36. Sublocalization of the human protein C gene on chromosome 2q13-q14. Patracchini, P., Aiello, V., Palazzi, P., Calzolari, E., Bernardi, F. Hum. Genet. (1989) [Pubmed]
  37. Expression of T-box genes Tbx2-Tbx5 during chick organogenesis. Gibson-Brown, J.J., I Agulnik S, n.u.l.l., Silver, L.M., Papaioannou, V.E. Mech. Dev. (1998) [Pubmed]
  38. A nanoscale optical biosensor: sensitivity and selectivity of an approach based on the localized surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy of triangular silver nanoparticles. Haes, A.J., Van Duyne, R.P. J. Am. Chem. Soc. (2002) [Pubmed]
  39. Photochemical incorporation of silver quantum dots in monodisperse silica colloids for photonic crystal applications. Wang, W., Asher, S.A. J. Am. Chem. Soc. (2001) [Pubmed]
  40. Syntheses and phase-transfer properties of dendritic nanocarriers that contain perfluorinated shell structures. Garcia-Bernabé, A., Krämer, M., Olàh, B., Haag, R. Chemistry (Weinheim an der Bergstrasse, Germany) (2004) [Pubmed]
  41. Cathepsin G, acid phosphatase, and alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor messenger RNA levels in keratoconus corneas. Whitelock, R.B., Fukuchi, T., Zhou, L., Twining, S.S., Sugar, J., Feder, R.S., Yue, B.Y. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (1997) [Pubmed]
  42. A modified silver staining protocol for visualization of proteins compatible with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization and electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry. Yan, J.X., Wait, R., Berkelman, T., Harry, R.A., Westbrook, J.A., Wheeler, C.H., Dunn, M.J. Electrophoresis (2000) [Pubmed]
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