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Chemical Compound Review

Anthranol     anthracen-9-ol

Synonyms: CHEBI:40753, NSC-39886, AC1L1VTQ, NSC39886, CTK1H1705, ...
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Disease relevance of Anthranol

  • Thus, the N-terminus and a 4,000-MW peptide from the midportion of the N-terminus of pro-ANF as well as ANF circulate normally and increased proportionately to the increasing severity of congestive heart failure [1].
  • In a separate group of hypertensive patients with left ventricular hypertrophy, exogenous infusion of ANF induced an increase in venous irANF plasma levels of the same magnitude of the decrease evoked by LBNP and significantly reduced forearm vascular resistance [2].
  • CONCLUSIONS. beta-ANF is the principal form of circulating ANF in patients with severe CHF and correlates with the degree of left ventricular dysfunction. beta-ANF is not generated from alpha-ANF and may be degraded rapidly in atrial tissue to smaller peptide fragments that do not occur in plasma [3].
  • The expressions of both ANF and collagen III, molecular markers of cardiac hypertrophy, were also increased in banded transgenic rats compared with banded control [4].
  • Thus the role of ANF in cirrhosis is primarily beneficial in that it successfully attenuates the antinatriuretic forces in the compensated stage [5].

Psychiatry related information on Anthranol

  • We have studied 44 sera of patients with uveitis, and controls for the presence of ANF and other antinuclear antibodies (ss-DNA, ds-DNA, Poly (I), Poly (G), RNP, Sm, histones) and for the presence of a common anti-DNA idiotype (16/6 Id) employing the ELISA method [6].
  • ANF project addresses HIV, mental health link [7].

High impact information on Anthranol

  • In view of its potent effects on salt metabolism in the kidney and on vascular smooth muscle, ANF is considered to play an important part in the control of fluid volume and vascular function [8].
  • This sequence contains the amino acid sequences of all the ANF peptides reported to date [8].
  • To examine this hypothesis, we have cloned cDNAs of the ANF precursor using rat atrial mRNA, determined its nucleotide sequence and deduced its amino acid sequence [8].
  • This new class of receptors may serve as specific peripheral storage-clearance binding sites, acting as a hormonal buffer system to modulate plasma levels of ANF [9].
  • The human, mouse, and rat genomes each contain a single ANF gene which is highly conserved [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of Anthranol

  • Two groups of Wistar male rats underwent a right nephrectomy and a left renal artery occlusion for 30 min and were infused for 2 hr after ischemia with isotonic saline or rat atrial natriuretic peptides (alpha ANF: 28 amino acids (AP 28) and atriopeptin III (AP 24): 24 amino acids) [11].
  • Thus, ANF has no major direct effect on bone resorption or formation, but it is possible that ANF modulates the local regulatory function of PGE2 in bone [12].
  • These findings establish that E. coli may be utilized as an effective heterologous model system to delineate the structure-function analysis of guanylate cyclase-coupled ANF receptor molecules [13].
  • These patterns distinguished this patient from those with a milder form of idiopathic edema who did not abuse diuretics and had, in comparison with controls, marginally decreased urinary sodium and dopamine responses but normal aldosterone suppressibility and ANF stimulability [14].
  • Perfusion with 1 X 10(-7) mol/l ANF, in contrast, gave protection against ventricular fibrillation and prevented Ang II-induced aggravation of ventricular fibrillation [15].

Biological context of Anthranol

  • These results define the critical role of Leu364 in ANF signal transduction [16].
  • They also suggest that in these patients inhibition of ANF secretion may play a role in the response to a low level of LBNP so that the peripheral vasoconstriction induced by cardiopulmonary receptor unloading is comparable to that observed in normal subjects despite the lack of appropriate sympathetic reflex vasoconstriction [2].
  • High-performance liquid chromatography of plasma from the control groups indicated that most of the released ANF during blood volume expansion corresponded to a high molecular weight peptide [17].
  • In early compensated cirrhosis, ANF may maintain sodium homeostasis despite the presence of mild antinatriuretic factors [5].
  • First, ANF may exacerbate arterial vasodilation, leading to further sodium retention [5].

Anatomical context of Anthranol

  • To visualize this process, GFP-tagged preproatrial natriuretic factor (ANF) was expressed in nerve growth factor-treated PC12 cells [18].
  • In Hey2-deficient fetal hearts we observed elevated mRNA levels of ANF and CARP [19].
  • In such heart, left ventricle (LV)-specific ANF gene was induced [20].
  • ANF is known to reduce plasma volume in anephric animals and to increase the ultrafiltration coefficients of isolated capillaries [5].
  • Although some biochemical markers of differentiating ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm were expressed, all the cardiac-specific markers were absent from day E8.7 embryos: (&agr;)MHC, betaMHC, MLC2A, MLC2V and ANF, whereas they were expressed in wild-type embryos [21].

Associations of Anthranol with other chemical compounds

  • Moreover, the extensive distribution of 125I-ANP binding sites in mammalian brain suggests that the possible roles of ANP/ANF-like peptides in brain are not restricted to the central regulation of cardiovascular parameters [22].
  • Neither dose affected LV ACE activity and ACE mRNA levels as determined by competitive polymerase chain reaction, whereas LV ANF mRNA levels were significantly reduced by high-dose lisinopril [23].
  • At the lowest infusion rate, circulating ANF increased 31 +/- 3 pg/ml, resulting in a significant increase in absolute sodium excretion, fractional excretion of sodium, and fractional excretion of lithium, and a significant decrease in urine osmolality [24].
  • These data demonstrate that the increase in particulate guanylate cyclase activity observed during liver regeneration is due to an increase in the 116-kDa ANF receptor-associated activity [25].
  • Plasma components of the renin angiotensin system, catecholamines and ANF were measured together with haemodynamics both at rest and during exercise [26].

Gene context of Anthranol

  • We conclude that Otx2 and Pax6 are key molecules involved in conserved mechanisms of ANF gene regulation [27].
  • The spatiodevelopmental pattern of Irx5 matched that of ANF, a marker for the forming working myocardium of the chambers [28].
  • The induction of caveolin-1 and the reciprocal suppression of ANF suggest that the changes in the expression of both genes are linked to decreased hemodynamic load [29].
  • The activation of CYP3A4 enzyme activities by ANF and its metabolites was also investigated [30].
  • Stimulation of guanylyl cyclase by ANF and C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) confirmed the presence of NPR-A and NPR-B [31].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Anthranol

  • As judged from reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography of extracted plasma and radioimmunoassay of collected fractions, the circulating physiologically important ANP's in the conscious rodent appear to be alpha-rANP(5-28) (atriopeptin III) and either alpha-rANP(3-28) [ANF(8-33)] or alpha-rANP(1-28) (ANF) [32].
  • Total plasma ANF was measured by radioimmunoassay. alpha-ANF and beta-ANF in nonextracted plasma were separated by gel filtration chromatography using a P-6 column [3].
  • To determine the importance of Gln338 and Leu364 in ANF signaling, the GC alpha cDNA regions encoding amino acid residues 338 and 364 were remodeled by oligonucleotide-directed mutagenesis [16].
  • Previously, we demonstrated that, 48 hours after partial hepatectomy, in the regenerating liver the number of both atrial natriuretic hormone (ANF) receptor subtypes, the guanylyl cyclase-linked and ANF-C receptors, is increased twofold [33].
  • Reversed-phase and ion-exchange HPLC, coupled with immunoprecipitation of biosynthetically labeled ANF, showed that the stored peptide, pro-ANF, was cleaved between residues 98 and 99 such that ANF-(1-98) and (99-126) accumulated in the medium [34].


  1. The N-terminus and a 4,000-MW peptide from the midportion of the N-terminus of the atrial natriuretic factor prohormone each circulate in humans and increase in congestive heart failure. Winters, C.J., Sallman, A.L., Baker, B.J., Meadows, J., Rico, D.M., Vesely, D.L. Circulation (1989) [Pubmed]
  2. Blunted sympathetic response to cardiopulmonary receptor unloading in hypertensive patients with left ventricular hypertrophy. A possible compensatory role of atrial natriuretic factor. Trimarco, B., Lembo, G., De Luca, N., Volpe, M., Ricciardelli, B., Condorelli, G., Rosiello, G., Condorelli, M. Circulation (1989) [Pubmed]
  3. Circulating beta-atrial natriuretic factor in congestive heart failure in humans. Wei, C.M., Kao, P.C., Lin, J.T., Heublein, D.M., Schaff, H.V., Burnett, J.C. Circulation (1993) [Pubmed]
  4. Over-expression of angiotensin converting enzyme-1 augments cardiac hypertrophy in transgenic rats. Tian, X.L., Pinto, Y.M., Costerousse, O., Franz, W.M., Lippoldt, A., Hoffmann, S., Unger, T., Paul, M. Hum. Mol. Genet. (2004) [Pubmed]
  5. Atrial natriuretic factor and liver disease. Warner, L., Skorecki, K., Blendis, L.M., Epstein, M. Hepatology (1993) [Pubmed]
  6. Antinuclear autoantibodies in uveitis. Hundert, I., Bakimer, R., Amital-Teplizki, H., Slor, H., Yassur, Y., Palestine, A., Nussenblatt, R.B., Shoenfeld, Y. Clinical and experimental rheumatology. (1989) [Pubmed]
  7. ANF project addresses HIV, mental health link. Halloran, J. The American nurse. (1996) [Pubmed]
  8. Structure of rat atrial natriuretic factor precursor deduced from cDNA sequence. Maki, M., Takayanagi, R., Misono, K.S., Pandey, K.N., Tibbetts, C., Inagami, T. Nature (1984) [Pubmed]
  9. Physiological role of silent receptors of atrial natriuretic factor. Maack, T., Suzuki, M., Almeida, F.A., Nussenzveig, D., Scarborough, R.M., McEnroe, G.A., Lewicki, J.A. Science (1987) [Pubmed]
  10. The structure of rat preproatrial natriuretic factor as defined by a complementary DNA clone. Seidman, C.E., Duby, A.D., Choi, E., Graham, R.M., Haber, E., Homcy, C., Smith, J.A., Seidman, J.G. Science (1984) [Pubmed]
  11. Beneficial effect of atrial natriuretic factor on ischemically injured kidneys in the rat. A new approach to improve early renal function. Gianello, P., Poelaert, D., Ramboux, A., Squifflet, J.P., Berbinschi, A., Donckier, J., Ketelslegers, J.M., Lambotte, L., Alexandre, G. Transplantation (1988) [Pubmed]
  12. Effects of atrial natriuretic factor on cyclic nucleotides, bone resorption, collagen and deoxyribonucleic acid synthesis, and prostaglandin E2 production in fetal rat bone cultures. Vargas, S.J., Holden, S.N., Fall, P.M., Raisz, L.G. Endocrinology (1989) [Pubmed]
  13. Expression of extracellular ligand-binding domain of murine guanylate cyclase/atrial natriuretic factor receptor cDNA in Escherichia coli. Pandey, K.N., Kanungo, J. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1993) [Pubmed]
  14. Responses of plasma immunoreactive atrial natriuretic factor, aldosterone and urinary dopamine to salt-loading in a patient with severe idiopathic edema. Kuchel, O., Gutkowska, J., Buu, N.T., Cantin, M., Genest, J. Horm. Metab. Res. (1987) [Pubmed]
  15. Atrial natriuretic factor protects the isolated working ischaemic rat heart against the action of angiotensin II. Linz, W., Schölkens, B.A., Albus, U., Petry, P., Breipohl, G., Knolle, J. Journal of hypertension. Supplement : official journal of the International Society of Hypertension. (1988) [Pubmed]
  16. Site-directed mutational analysis of a membrane guanylate cyclase cDNA reveals the atrial natriuretic factor signaling site. Duda, T., Goraczniak, R.M., Sharma, R.K. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1991) [Pubmed]
  17. Role of right and left atria in natriuresis and atrial natriuretic factor release during blood volume changes in the conscious rat. Garcia, R., Cantin, M., Thibault, G. Circ. Res. (1987) [Pubmed]
  18. Neuronal peptide release is limited by secretory granule mobility. Burke, N.V., Han, W., Li, D., Takimoto, K., Watkins, S.C., Levitan, E.S. Neuron (1997) [Pubmed]
  19. Hey basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors are repressors of GATA4 and GATA6 and restrict expression of the GATA target gene ANF in fetal hearts. Fischer, A., Klattig, J., Kneitz, B., Diez, H., Maier, M., Holtmann, B., Englert, C., Gessler, M. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  20. Tbx5 specifies the left/right ventricles and ventricular septum position during cardiogenesis. Takeuchi, J.K., Ohgi, M., Koshiba-Takeuchi, K., Shiratori, H., Sakaki, I., Ogura, K., Saijoh, Y., Ogura, T. Development (2003) [Pubmed]
  21. Abrogation of the Cripto gene in mouse leads to failure of postgastrulation morphogenesis and lack of differentiation of cardiomyocytes. Xu, C., Liguori, G., Persico, M.G., Adamson, E.D. Development (1999) [Pubmed]
  22. Characterization and distribution of receptors for the atrial natriuretic peptides in mammalian brain. Quirion, R., Dalpé, M., Dam, T.V. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1986) [Pubmed]
  23. Survival after myocardial infarction in the rat. Role of tissue angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition. Wollert, K.C., Studer, R., von Bülow, B., Drexler, H. Circulation (1994) [Pubmed]
  24. Cardio-renal-endocrine dynamics during stepwise infusion of physiologic and pharmacologic concentrations of atrial natriuretic factor in the dog. Zimmerman, R.S., Schirger, J.A., Edwards, B.S., Schwab, T.R., Heublein, D.M., Burnett, J.C. Circ. Res. (1987) [Pubmed]
  25. Increase in the number of atrial natriuretic hormone receptors in regenerating rat liver. Nair, B.G., Steinke, L., Yu, Y.M., Rashed, H.M., Seyer, J.M., Patel, T.B. J. Biol. Chem. (1991) [Pubmed]
  26. Dose-related effects of ACE inhibition in man: quinapril in patients with moderate congestive heart failure. The Study Group on Neurohormonal Regulation in Congestive Heart Failure: Lausanne, Switzerland; Berlin, Düsseldorf, Munich, Germany. Nussberger, J., Fleck, E., Bahrmann, H., Delius, W., Schultheiss, H.P., Brunner, H.R. Eur. Heart J. (1994) [Pubmed]
  27. Involvement of Pax6 and Otx2 in the forebrain-specific regulation of the vertebrate homeobox gene ANF/Hesx1. Spieler, D., Bäumer, N., Stebler, J., Köprunner, M., Reichman-Fried, M., Teichmann, U., Raz, E., Kessel, M., Wittler, L. Dev. Biol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  28. Patterning the embryonic heart: identification of five mouse Iroquois homeobox genes in the developing heart. Christoffels, V.M., Keijser, A.G., Houweling, A.C., Clout, D.E., Moorman, A.F. Dev. Biol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  29. Mechanical unloading increases caveolin expression in the failing human heart. Uray, I.P., Connelly, J.H., Frazier, O.H., Taegtmeyer, H., Davies, P.J. Cardiovasc. Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  30. Modulation of cytochrome P450 activities by 7,8-benzoflavone and its metabolites. Lee, H.S., Jin, C., Park, J., Kim, D.H. Biochem. Mol. Biol. Int. (1994) [Pubmed]
  31. Alteration of lung atrial natriuretic peptide receptors in genetic cardiomyopathy. Mukaddam-Daher, S., Tremblay, J., Fujio, N., Koch, C., Jankowski, M., Quillen, E.W., Gutkowska, J. Am. J. Physiol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  32. Circulating atrial natriuretic peptides in conscious rats: regulation of release by multiple factors. Eskay, R., Zukowska-Grojec, Z., Haass, M., Dave, J.R., Zamir, N. Science (1986) [Pubmed]
  33. Alterations in messenger RNA encoding atrial natriuretic hormone receptor A and C subtypes during hepatic regeneration. Patel, T.B., Nair, B.G., Padmini, E., Rashed, H.M., Sun, H. Hepatology (1995) [Pubmed]
  34. The cosecretional maturation of atrial natriuretic factor by primary atrial myocytes. Sei, C.A., Hand, G.L., Murray, S.F., Glembotski, C.C. Mol. Endocrinol. (1992) [Pubmed]
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