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Chemical Compound Review

Emilace     N-[(2R,3R)-1-benzyl-2-methyl- pyrrolidin-3...

Synonyms: Emonapride, nemonapride, Emilace (TN), AG-K-19809, SureCN1649724, ...
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Disease relevance of nemonapride


Psychiatry related information on nemonapride


High impact information on nemonapride

  • The present results suggest that the Taq1 A DRD2 polymorphism is related to early therapeutic response to nemonapride in schizophrenic patients, possibly by modifying the efficiency of DRD2 antagonism of the drug in the central nervous system [9].
  • The relationship between dopamine D2 receptor polymorphism at the Taq1 A locus and therapeutic response to nemonapride, a selective dopamine antagonist, in schizophrenic patients [9].
  • Therapeutic spectrum of nemonapride and its relationship with plasma concentrations of the drug and prolactin [10].
  • The therapeutic spectrum of nemonapride, a new substituted benzamide, and its relationship with plasma concentrations of the drug and prolactin were investigated by a fixed-dose study (18 mg/day for 3 weeks) in 31 patients with acutely exacerbated schizophrenia [10].
  • Characteristics and risk factors of acute dystonia in schizophrenic patients treated with nemonapride, a selective dopamine antagonist [11].

Chemical compound and disease context of nemonapride

  • Blockade of the dopamine D1 or D2 receptor with (+)-SCH 23390 (0.25 mg/kg s.c.) or YM-09151-2 (cis-N-(1-benzyl-2-methylpyrrolidin-3-yl)-5-chloro-2-methoxy-4- methylaminobenzamide) (0.5 mg/kg s.c.), respectively antagonized the increase of waking and reduction of slow wave sleep induced by m-chloro-phenylbiguanide (10.0 micrograms) [12].
  • Pretreatment with WAY 100635 (0.63 mg/kg) reinstated catalepsy at higher doses of nemonapride, indicating that the 5-HT1A receptor agonist properties of nemonapride are responsible for its inability to produce catalepsy at high doses [13].
  • In this paper, the effects of three antipsychotic agents using the avian species laboratory model are described. d-Amphetamine (2-5 mg/kg, s.c.) dose-dependently antagonized catalepsy induced by haloperidol (0.25 mg/kg, i.p.), YM-09151-2 (0.02-0.04 mg/kg, i.p.) and (-)-sulpiride (20-40 mg/kg, i.p.) in rats [7].

Biological context of nemonapride


Anatomical context of nemonapride


Associations of nemonapride with other chemical compounds


Gene context of nemonapride

  • In the present study, the relationship between this polymorphism and prolactin response to nemonapride, an antipsychotic drug with selective and potent DRD2 antagonistic property, was investigated in 25 Japanese schizophrenic inpatients (13 males, 12 females) [3].
  • This inhibitory effect of SND 919 was blocked by concurrent application of a dopamine D-2 receptor antagonist, YM-09151-2 [24].
  • After subcutaneous injection of YM-43611 (1 or 5 mg/kg), nemonapride (4 mg/kg), haloperidol (1 mg/kg), or clozapine (25 mg/kg), Fos immunocytochemistry was employed, and the distributions of Fos-like immunoreactive neurons were compared [15].
  • Based on our study we conclude that nemonapride probably binds to nondopaminergic sites that if not properly blocked may lead to overestimations of D4R levels [25].
  • However, topographical effects of 0.005 to 0.625 mg/kg YM 09151-2, namely, reduction in sniffing, locomotion, rearing, grooming, and chewing but not sifting, were essentially absent in DARPP-32 mutants [26].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of nemonapride

  • The microinjection of YM-09151-2 (10 microg), a D2 antagonist, into these regions could not stop SIB [27].
  • The duration of the afterdischarge induced by electrical stimulation of the amygdaloid nucleus was initially shortened and thereafter prolonged by both YM-09151-2 and haloperidol [28].
  • The D2 antagonist YM-09151-2 showed a similar profile, increasing cocaine self-administration at 0.01 and 0.016 mumol/kg, SC and suppressing responding by most animals at the dose of 0.03 mumol/kg, SC [29].
  • cis-N-(1-Benzyl-2-methylpyrrolidine-3-yl)-5-iodo-2-methoxy-4-(methylamin o) benzamide (IYM), a YM-09151-2 analog iodinated at the 5-position of the benzoyl moiety, was synthesized and evaluated as a potential radiopharmaceutical for investigating brain dopamine D2 receptors by single photon emission computer tomography (SPECT) [30].
  • Dopamine antagonists, such as haloperidol (0.3-1 mg/kg IP), and nemonapride (0.3-1 mg/kg IP), reversed the dissociation between the cortical and hippocampal EEG in ketamine (60 mg/kg IP)-treated rats [31].


  1. Synergistic effects between D-1 and D-2 dopamine antagonists on catalepsy in rats. Wanibuchi, F., Usuda, S. Psychopharmacology (Berl.) (1990) [Pubmed]
  2. Suppression of cocaine- and food-maintained behavior by the D2-like receptor partial agonist terguride in squirrel monkeys. Platt, D.M., Rodefer, J.S., Rowlett, J.K., Spealman, R.D. Psychopharmacology (Berl.) (2003) [Pubmed]
  3. Prolactin response to nemonapride, a selective antagonist for D2 like dopamine receptors, in schizophrenic patients in relation to Taq1A polymorphism of DRD2 gene. Mihara, K., Kondo, T., Suzuki, A., Yasui, N., Nagashima, U., Ono, S., Otani, K., Kaneko, S. Psychopharmacology (Berl.) (2000) [Pubmed]
  4. Effects on body temperature in mice differentiate between dopamine D2 receptor agonists with high and low efficacies. Sánchez, C., Arnt, J. Eur. J. Pharmacol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  5. Two directions of dopamine D1/D2 receptor interaction in studies of behavioural regulation: a finding generic to four new, selective dopamine D1 receptor antagonists. Daly, S.A., Waddington, J.L. Eur. J. Pharmacol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  6. Effects of the selective dopamine D-2 receptor agonist, quinpirole on sleep and wakefulness in the rat. Monti, J.M., Jantos, H., Fernández, M. Eur. J. Pharmacol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  7. Influence of (-)-sulpiride and YM-09151-2 on stereotyped behavior in chicks and catalepsy in rats. Wambebe, C. Jpn. J. Pharmacol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  8. Associations between side effects of nemonapride and plasma concentrations of the drug and prolactin. Kondo, T., Ishida, M., Tokinaga, N., Mihara, K., Yasui-Furukori, N., Ono, S., Kaneko, S. Prog. Neuropsychopharmacol. Biol. Psychiatry (2002) [Pubmed]
  9. The relationship between dopamine D2 receptor polymorphism at the Taq1 A locus and therapeutic response to nemonapride, a selective dopamine antagonist, in schizophrenic patients. Suzuki, A., Mihara, K., Kondo, T., Tanaka, O., Nagashima, U., Otani, K., Kaneko, S. Pharmacogenetics (2000) [Pubmed]
  10. Therapeutic spectrum of nemonapride and its relationship with plasma concentrations of the drug and prolactin. Kondo, T., Mihara, K., Yasui, N., Nagashima, U., Ono, S., Kaneko, S., Ohkubo, T., Osanai, T., Sugawara, K., Otani, K. Journal of clinical psychopharmacology. (2000) [Pubmed]
  11. Characteristics and risk factors of acute dystonia in schizophrenic patients treated with nemonapride, a selective dopamine antagonist. Kondo, T., Otani, K., Tokinaga, N., Ishida, M., Yasui, N., Kaneko, S. Journal of clinical psychopharmacology. (1999) [Pubmed]
  12. Increased waking after intra-accumbens injection of m-chlorophenylbiguanide: prevention with serotonin or dopamine receptor antagonists. Ponzoni, A., Monti, J.M., Jantos, H., Altier, H., Monti, D. Eur. J. Pharmacol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  13. The cataleptogenic effects of the neuroleptic nemonapride are attenuated by its 5-HT1A receptor agonist properties. Prinssen, E.P., Kleven, M.S., Koek, W. Eur. J. Pharmacol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  14. YM-09151-2 but not l-sulpiride induces transient dopamine release in rat striatum via a tetrodotoxin-insensitive mechanism. Tomiyama, K., Noguchi, M., Koshikawa, N., Kobayashi, M. J. Neurochem. (1993) [Pubmed]
  15. Effects of YM-43611, a novel dopamine D2-like receptor antagonist, on immediate early gene expression in the rat forebrain. Kurokawa, K., Narita, M., Koshiya, K., Hidaka, K., Ohmori, J., Satoh, K. Neuropsychopharmacology (1997) [Pubmed]
  16. Potent lipophilic substituted benzamide drugs are not selective D-1 dopamine receptor antagonists in the rat. Fleminger, S., van de Waterbeemd, H., Rupniak, N.M., Reavill, C., Testa, B., Jenner, P., Marsden, C.D. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. (1983) [Pubmed]
  17. High-performance liquid chromatographic determination of nemonapride and desmethylnemonapride in human plasma using an electrochemical detection. Nagasaki, T., Ohkubo, T., Sugawar, K., Yasui, N., Ohtani, K., Kaneko, S. J. Chromatogr. B Biomed. Sci. Appl. (1998) [Pubmed]
  18. Dopamine D2-like receptors labeled by [3H]YM-09151-2 in the rat hippocampus: characterization and autoradiographic distribution. Yokoyama, C., Okamura, H., Ibata, Y. Brain Res. (1995) [Pubmed]
  19. Is alpha1D-adrenoceptor protein detectable in rat tissues? Yang, M., Verfürth, F., Büscher, R., Michel, M.C. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch. Pharmacol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  20. Dopamine D1, D2 and serotonin2 receptor occupation by typical and atypical antipsychotic drugs in vivo. Matsubara, S., Matsubara, R., Kusumi, I., Koyama, T., Yamashita, I. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. (1993) [Pubmed]
  21. The effects of SCH 23390, YM 09151-2, (+)- and (-)-3-PPP and some classical neuroleptics on D-1 and D-2 receptors in rat neostriatum in vitro. Plantjé, J.F., Hansen, H.A., Daus, F.J., Stoof, J.C. Eur. J. Pharmacol. (1984) [Pubmed]
  22. No relationship between Taq1 a polymorphism of dopamine D(2) receptor gene and extrapyramidal adverse effects of selective dopamine D(2) antagonists, bromperidol, and nemonapride in schizophrenia: a preliminary study. Mihara, K., Suzuki, A., Kondo, T., Nagashima, U., Ono, S., Otani, K., Kaneko, S. Am. J. Med. Genet. (2000) [Pubmed]
  23. Novel antipsychotics activate recombinant human and native rat serotonin 5-HT1A receptors: affinity, efficacy and potential implications for treatment of schizophrenia. Newman-Tancredi, A., Assié, M.B., Leduc, N., Ormière, A.M., Danty, N., Cosi, C. Int. J. Neuropsychopharmacol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  24. Decrease of prolactin secretion via stimulation of pituitary dopamine D-2 receptors after application of talipexole and SND 919. Domae, M., Yamada, K., Hanabusa, Y., Matsumoto, S., Furukawa, T. Eur. J. Pharmacol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  25. Quantitative analysis of the dopamine D4 receptor in the mouse brain. Defagot, M.C., Falzone, T.L., Low, M.J., Grandy, D.K., Rubinstein, M., Antonelli, M.C. J. Neurosci. Res. (2000) [Pubmed]
  26. Ethologically based resolution of D2-like dopamine receptor agonist-versus antagonist-induced behavioral topography in dopamine- and adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate-regulated phosphoprotein of 32 kDa "knockout" mutants congenic on the C57BL/6 genetic background. Nally, R.E., Kinsella, A., Tighe, O., Croke, D.T., Fienberg, A.A., Greengard, P., Waddington, J.L. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. (2004) [Pubmed]
  27. Self-injurious behavior and dopaminergic neuron system in neonatal 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rat: 2. Intracerebral microinjection of dopamine agonists and antagonists. Okamura, H., Murakami, T., Yokoyama, C., Nakamura, T., Ibata, Y. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. (1997) [Pubmed]
  28. Pharmacological studies on a new benzamide derivative, YM-09151-2, with potential neuroleptic properties. Yamamoto, M., Usuda, S., Tachikawa, S., Maeno, H. Neuropharmacology (1982) [Pubmed]
  29. Evidence for involvement of both D1 and D2 receptors in maintaining cocaine self-administration. Britton, D.R., Curzon, P., Mackenzie, R.G., Kebabian, J.W., Williams, J.E., Kerkman, D. Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. (1991) [Pubmed]
  30. Synthesis, in vitro binding profile and biodistribution of a 125I-labeled N-benzyl pyrrolidinyl benzamide derivative: a potential radioligand for mapping dopamine D2 receptors. Saji, H., Tanahashi, K., Kinoshita, T., Iida, Y., Magata, Y., Yokoyama, A. Nucl. Med. Biol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  31. Effects of dopamine antagonists on changes in spontaneous EEG and locomotor activity in ketamine-treated rats. Yamamoto, M., Mizuki, Y., Suetsugi, M., Ozawa, Y., Ooyama, M., Suzuki, M. Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. (1997) [Pubmed]
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