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Chemical Compound Review

MALEIC HYDRAZIDE     1,2-dihydropyridazine-3,6- dione

Synonyms: Antergon, Antyrost, Burtolin, Malazide, Stuntman, ...
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Disease relevance of Maleic acid hydrazide


Psychiatry related information on Maleic acid hydrazide

  • Being an extension of a previous study [Am. J. Mental Retard. 106 (2001) 209], the significant decrease of the mean number of toileting accidents in function of initiating the procedure offers a further contribution to the validity of response restriction as a method for toilet training [6].

High impact information on Maleic acid hydrazide

  • After baseline evaluation, consisting of an exercise test and a questionnaire investigating patients' anginal symptoms, the patients were randomly allocated to double-blind treatment for 6 weeks with either metoprolol (Controlled Release, 200 mg once daily) or nifedipine (Retard, 20 mg twice daily) according to a parallel group design [7].
  • Higher efficiency was also demonstrated when the MCN frequencies were scored from the F1 cells in both Allium and Vicia treated with formaldehyde (FA), mitomycin C (MMC), and maleic hydrazide (MH) [8].
  • For the Vicia faba assay, all laboratories reported a positive response for MNU, AG, and MH, whereas two of the six laboratories reported a negative response for NaN3 [9].
  • Bunazosin Retard was associated with increases in GFR and ERPF in both normal and renally impaired groups; the increases were statistically significant in the renally impaired group (n = 14) [10].
  • MH treatment resulted in aberration yields comparable to those observed in Vicia faba, MMC and TEM were less efficient aberration inducers in P. abies [11].

Chemical compound and disease context of Maleic acid hydrazide


Biological context of Maleic acid hydrazide

  • The mean bioavailability of CBZ from Neurotol slow was 11% (P = 0.002) higher than from Tegretol Retard. Owing to the better bioavailability, the peak (Cmax), lowest (Cmin) and mean (Css) concentrations of CBZ were also significantly higher during Neurotol slow treatment [2].
  • Variation of the time span between heat shock (hs) and clastogen treatment of V. faba root tip meristems showed that hs protection is a very quick response (effective after less than 10 min) and lasting for up to 240 min in the case of induction of chromatid aberrations by maleic hydrazide (MH) [15].
  • Effect of Bellergal Retard on climacteric complaints: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study [16].
  • 6. At pH 7.6, MH at 1 x 10(-3)M without S-9 mix inhibited cell multiplication, but did not cause a significant increase of SCEs per cell [17].

Anatomical context of Maleic acid hydrazide

  • Addition of insulin and dbcAMP was required to maintain 3 beta-HSD activity in cells cultured for more than 3 days [18].
  • The olfactory bulb (OB), anterior olfactory nucleus (AON) and prepyriform cortex (PC) maintain 3 kinds of feedback among their populations of excitatory and inhibitory neurons: negative feedback, mutual excitation, and mutual inhibition [19].
  • The clinical characteristics of highly purified porcine NPH-insulin (Insulin Retard RI) were investigated, including absorption from the subcutaneous tissue, blood glucose-lowering effect, stability of mixtures of NPH and regular insulin and measurement of circulating porcine proinsulin and insulin antibodies in diabetes [20].
  • The results showed higher sensitivity of the nuclei of leukocytes as compared to the nuclei of plant cells to mutagenic treatment with the applied doses of MH and MNU [21].
  • Metabolism of maleic hydrazide (MH) by hepatic microsomes from phenobarbital induced rats [22].

Associations of Maleic acid hydrazide with other chemical compounds


Gene context of Maleic acid hydrazide

  • One humic acid (HA) and two fulvic acids (FAs) of aquatic origin have been tested for their capacity to inhibit clastogenic events caused by maleic hydrazide (MH) in germinating seeds of the herbaceous plant species Allium cepa and Vicia faba [28].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Maleic acid hydrazide

  • The relative efficacy of two twice-daily insulin regimens using highly purified insulins, once daily Ultratard with twice daily Actrapid (ultralente/soluble) and twice daily Actrapid with twice daily Retard (soluble/isophane), has been studied in 12 diabetics in a cross-over study [29].
  • The evaluation of genotoxic activity was made by counting micronuclei (MN) and aberrant anatelophases (AT) in root tip cells after treatment with HA or FA alone, MH alone, and interacted HA + MH and FA + MH [28].
  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate the differences in serum theophylline concentration (STC) caused by morning or evening dosing of Euphyllin Retard, a brand of SRT, for a period of 36 hours following oral administration [30].
  • Allergy evaluation revealed intense positive responses to intradermal tests with bezafibrate active component and Eulitop Retard (skin tests in control subjects were negative) [31].
  • A multicentre study of diclofenac sodium slow-release (Voltaren Retard) in the treatment of rheumatic disorders in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia [32].


  1. Transformed roots of Crepis capillaris--a [corrected] sensitive system for the evaluation of the clastogenicity of abiotic agents. Juchimiuk, J., Maluszynska, J. Mutat. Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  2. Comparative bioavailability of carbamazepine from two slow-release preparations. Reunanen, M., Heinonen, E.H., Nyman, L., Anttila, M. Epilepsy Res. (1992) [Pubmed]
  3. Long-term administration of theophylline and glucose recovery after hypoglycaemia in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Hvidberg, A., Rosenfalck, A., Christensen, N.J., Hilsted, J. Diabet. Med. (1998) [Pubmed]
  4. Trough-to-peak ratio and circadian blood pressure profile after treatment with once-daily extended-release diltiazem, 240 mg, in patients with mild-to-moderate essential hypertension. Coca, A., Sobrino, J., Soler, J., Módol, J., Palos, M.A., Mínguez, A., Esqúe, J., Plana, J., Cases, M., Closas, J., de la Sierra, A. J. Cardiovasc. Pharmacol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  5. Neurobehavioral phenotype of Klinefelter syndrome. Geschwind, D.H., Boone, K.B., Miller, B.L., Swerdloff, R.S. Mental retardation and developmental disabilities research reviews. (2000) [Pubmed]
  6. Establishing diurnal bladder control with the response restriction method: extended study on its effectiveness. Averink, M., Melein, L., Duker, P.C. Research in developmental disabilities. (2005) [Pubmed]
  7. Selection of medical treatment in stable angina pectoris: results of the International Multicenter Angina Exercise (IMAGE) Study. Ardissino, D., Savonitto, S., Egstrup, K., Rasmussen, K., Bae, E.A., Omland, T., Schjelderup-Mathiesen, P.M., Marraccini, P., Merlini, P.A., Wahlqvist, I. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  8. The improved Allium/Vicia root tip micronucleus assay for clastogenicity of environmental pollutants. Ma, T.H., Xu, Z., Xu, C., McConnell, H., Rabago, E.V., Arreola, G.A., Zhang, H. Mutat. Res. (1995) [Pubmed]
  9. Environmental monitoring for genotoxicity with plant systems. Results and recommendations. Sandhu, S.S., de Serres, F.J., Gopalan, H.N., Grant, W.F., Svendsgaard, D., Velemínský, J., Becking, G.C. Mutat. Res. (1994) [Pubmed]
  10. Renal haemodynamic effects of bunazosin retard and prazosin in mild to moderately hypertensive patients with normal or moderately impaired renal function. Anderton, J.L., Gill, M., Notghi, A. Nephrol. Dial. Transplant. (1994) [Pubmed]
  11. Sister-chromatid exchanges in Picea abies--a test for genotoxicity in forest trees. Schubert, I., Rieger, R. Mutat. Res. (1994) [Pubmed]
  12. Vicia faba chromosomal aberration assay. Kanaya, N., Gill, B.S., Grover, I.S., Murin, A., Osiecka, R., Sandhu, S.S., Andersson, H.C. Mutat. Res. (1994) [Pubmed]
  13. Investigation into the duration of action of sustained-release ibuprofen in osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. Fernandes, L., Jenkins, R. Current medical research and opinion. (1994) [Pubmed]
  14. Calcium antagonists, a useful additional therapy in treatment resistant hypertension: comparison of felodipine ER and nifedipine Retard by 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. Dees, A., Kremer Hovinga, T., Breed, J.G., Verstappen, V.M., Puister, S.M., Meems, L. The Netherlands journal of medicine. (1997) [Pubmed]
  15. Heat shock protection against induction of chromatid aberrations is dependent on the time span between heat shock and clastogen treatment of Vicia faba root tip meristem cells. Rieger, R., Michaelis, A. Mutat. Res. (1988) [Pubmed]
  16. Effect of Bellergal Retard on climacteric complaints: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Bergmans, M.G., Merkus, J.M., Corbey, R.S., Schellekens, L.A., Ubachs, J.M. Maturitas. (1987) [Pubmed]
  17. Induction of sister chromatid exchanges in human diploid fibroblasts by mutagens with and without rat liver microsomal activation. Yang, D.P., Graupensperger, F., Minecci, L.C., Rubin, B.A. Environmental mutagenesis. (1981) [Pubmed]
  18. Characteristics of bovine luteal cells in culture: morphology, proliferation and progesterone secretion in different media and effects of LH, dibutyryl cyclic AMP, antioxidants and insulin. O'Shaughnessy, P.J., Wathes, D.C. J. Endocrinol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  19. Petit mal seizure spikes in olfactory bulb and cortex caused by runaway inhibition after exhaustion of excitation. Freeman, W.J. Brain Res. (1986) [Pubmed]
  20. Absorption, effectiveness and side effects of highly purified porcine NPH-insulin preparations (Leo). Kølendorf, K., Aaby, P., Westergaard, S., Deckert, T. Eur. J. Clin. Pharmacol. (1978) [Pubmed]
  21. DNA damage induced by mutagens in plant and human cell nuclei in acellular comet assay. Juchimiuk, J., Gnys, A., Maluszynska, J. Folia Histochem. Cytobiol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  22. Metabolism of maleic hydrazide (MH) by hepatic microsomes from phenobarbital induced rats. Nelson, J.O., Kearney, P.C. Bulletin of environmental contamination and toxicology. (1977) [Pubmed]
  23. Effects of novobiocin on heat shock protection against chromatid aberration induction by triethylenemelamine (TEM) and maleic hydrazide (MH) in Vicia faba. Nicoloff, H., Rieger, R., Michaelis, A. Mutat. Res. (1988) [Pubmed]
  24. Effects of benzamide pretreatment on clastogenic adaptation of Vicia faba root-tip meristem cells to triethylenemelamine (TEM) and maleic hydrazide (MH). Rieger, R., Michaelis, A., Aurich, O. Mutat. Res. (1987) [Pubmed]
  25. Prediction and optimisation of the antihypertensive response to nifedipine. Meredith, P.A., Donnelly, R., Elliott, H.L. Blood Press. (1994) [Pubmed]
  26. Comparative study of in-vitro release and bioavailability of sustained release diclofenac sodium from certain hydrophilic polymers and commercial tablets in beagle dogs. Hosny, E.A., al-Helw, A.R., al-Dardiri, M.A. Pharmaceutica acta Helvetiae. (1997) [Pubmed]
  27. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of three sustained-release theophylline preparations (350 mg Theograd, 350 mg Theolair Retard and 300 mg Theodur) in steady state in healthy volunteers and asthmatics--Part I: Theophylline plasma levels. van der Vet, A.P., Drost, R.H., Kreukniet, J., Maes, R.A. International journal of clinical pharmacology, therapy, and toxicology. (1984) [Pubmed]
  28. Aquatic humic substances inhibit clastogenic events in germinating seeds of herbaceous plants. Ferrara, G., Loffredo, E., Senesi, N. J. Agric. Food Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  29. Comparison of two twice-daily insulin regimens: ultralente/soluble and soluble/isophane. Ward, G.M., Simpson, R.W., Ward, E.A., Turner, R.C. Diabetologia (1981) [Pubmed]
  30. Influence of morning or evening administration on absorption of theophylline. Su, Y.M., Cheng, T.P., Yeh, T.W., Wen, C.Y., Wang, D.I. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi (Taipei) (2000) [Pubmed]
  31. Bezafibrate-induced anaphylactic shock: unusual clinical presentation. de Barrio, M., Matheu, V., Baeza, M.L., Tornero, P., Rubio, M., Zubeldia, J.M. Journal of investigational allergology & clinical immunology : official organ of the International Association of Asthmology (INTERASMA) and Sociedad Latinoamericana de Alergia e Inmunología. (2001) [Pubmed]
  32. A multicentre study of diclofenac sodium slow-release (Voltaren Retard) in the treatment of rheumatic disorders in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Al-Sharkawi, M.S. J. Int. Med. Res. (1984) [Pubmed]
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