The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)



Gene Review

Sst  -  somatostatin

Mus musculus

Synonyms: SOM, SRIF, SS, Smst, Somatostatin, ...
Welcome! If you are familiar with the subject of this article, you can contribute to this open access knowledge base by deleting incorrect information, restructuring or completely rewriting any text. Read more.

Disease relevance of Sst


Psychiatry related information on Sst


High impact information on Sst


Chemical compound and disease context of Sst


Biological context of Sst

  • Inhibition of cell proliferation associated with increased secretion of somatostatin-like immunoreactivity was also observed after expression of sst2 in human pancreatic tumor cells BxPC3 devoid of endogenous receptors [19].
  • Selective expression of neuropeptides in the rat mammary gland: somatostatin gene is expressed during lactation [20].
  • In MIN-6 cells, glucose-induced electrical activity was potently (pEC50 = 12.7) and irreversibly reduced by somatostatin (SRIF-14); this was associated with hyperpolarization of the membrane potential (pEC50 = 11.2) and a decrease in the input resistance (pEC50 = 12.7) [21].
  • We conclude that endogenous SST inhibits basal ghrelin gene expression in a tissue specific manner and independently and directly inhibits pituitary ACTH synthesis and release [22].
  • These data suggest that somatostatin regulates ductal bile formation in mice not only by inhibition of ductal fluid secretion but also by stimulation of ductal fluid absorption via interacting with SSTR2 on cholangiocytes, a process involving the intracellular cAMP/cGMP second messengers [23].

Anatomical context of Sst


Associations of Sst with chemical compounds


Physical interactions of Sst

  • Several regions of the brain reported to contain dense somatostatin-like immunoreactive terminal fields and receptor binding sites were devoid of both SSTR1 and SSTR2 mRNA, suggesting the existence of additional SSTR subtypes [31].
  • Membranes from these cells were used to compare the inhibitory effects of somatostatin and G protein beta gamma complex to determine under what conditions beta gamma is likely to be a mediator of somatostatin action [32].
  • Finally a good correlation was found between the order of potencies of somatostatin analogs evaluated from binding experiments and adenylate cyclase assays, suggesting the presence of the same receptor observed under two different affinity states [33].

Regulatory relationships of Sst


Other interactions of Sst

  • 2. Cells from two different noninsulinoma tumors, when adapted to culture, began to express either insulin, glucagon, or somatostatin [38].
  • Neuropeptide Y and somatostatin were less frequently found and both were partially co-expressed with GABA and with one another [39].
  • The SST and CR colocalized cells were concentrated in layer 2/3 [40].
  • Despite the increase in total ghrelin levels, circulating levels of n-octanoyl ghrelin were not altered in Sst-/- mice [22].
  • Somatostatin antibody injected i.v. increased acid secretion by 3.5-fold over basal levels but did not modify the antisecretory effects of galanin [34].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Sst


  1. Somatostatin inhibits multireceptor stimulation of cyclic AMP formation and corticotropin secretion in mouse pituitary tumor cells. Heisler, S., Reisine, T.D., Hook, V.Y., Axelrod, J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1982) [Pubmed]
  2. Substance P modulates antigen-induced, IFN-gamma production in murine Schistosomiasis mansoni. Blum, A.M., Metwali, A., Cook, G., Mathew, R.C., Elliott, D., Weinstock, J.V. J. Immunol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  3. Mutation of an aspartate at residue 89 in somatostatin receptor subtype 2 prevents Na+ regulation of agonist binding but does not alter receptor-G protein association. Kong, H., Raynor, K., Yasuda, K., Bell, G.I., Reisine, T. Mol. Pharmacol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  4. Gene therapy for pancreatic carcinoma: local and distant antitumor effects after somatostatin receptor sst2 gene transfer. Rochaix, P., Delesque, N., Estève, J.P., Saint-Laurent, N., Voight, J.J., Vaysse, N., Susini, C., Buscail, L. Hum. Gene Ther. (1999) [Pubmed]
  5. Human ovarian cancers express somatostatin receptors. Halmos, G., Sun, B., Schally, A.V., Hebert, F., Nagy, A. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2000) [Pubmed]
  6. Recovery and measurement of specific RNA species from postmortem brain tissue: a general reduction in Alzheimer's disease detected by molecular hybridization. Taylor, G.R., Carter, G.I., Crow, T.J., Johnson, J.A., Fairbairn, A.F., Perry, E.K., Perry, R.H. Exp. Mol. Pathol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  7. Cortistatin overexpression in transgenic mice produces deficits in synaptic plasticity and learning. Tallent, M.K., Fabre, V., Qiu, C., Calbet, M., Lamp, T., Baratta, M.V., Suzuki, C., Levy, C.L., Siggins, G.R., Henriksen, S.J., Criado, J.R., Roberts, A., de Lecea, L. Mol. Cell. Neurosci. (2005) [Pubmed]
  8. Somatostatin content increases following norepinephrine depletion in frontal cortex of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine-treated mice. Mitsuo, K., Schwartz, J.P. J. Neurochem. (1992) [Pubmed]
  9. Cortistatin and somatostatin mRNAs are differentially regulated in response to kainate. Calbet, M., Guadaño-Ferraz, A., Spier, A.D., Maj, M., Sutcliffe, J.G., Przewłocki, R., de Lecea, L. Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res. (1999) [Pubmed]
  10. Effect of somatostatin and its antagonist on morphine analgesia in mice. Capasso, A. Zhongguo yao li xue bao = Acta pharmacologica Sinica. (1999) [Pubmed]
  11. Tissue-specific posttranslational processing of pre-prosomatostatin encoded by a metallothionein-somatostatin fusion gene in transgenic mice. Low, M.J., Hammer, R.E., Goodman, R.H., Habener, J.F., Palmiter, R.D., Brinster, R.L. Cell (1985) [Pubmed]
  12. Letter: Somatostatin, growth hormone and parkinsonism. Cotzias, G.C., Papavasiliou, P.S. N. Engl. J. Med. (1976) [Pubmed]
  13. Somatostatin regulates brain amyloid beta peptide Abeta42 through modulation of proteolytic degradation. Saito, T., Iwata, N., Tsubuki, S., Takaki, Y., Takano, J., Huang, S.M., Suemoto, T., Higuchi, M., Saido, T.C. Nat. Med. (2005) [Pubmed]
  14. NeuroD-betacellulin gene therapy induces islet neogenesis in the liver and reverses diabetes in mice. Kojima, H., Fujimiya, M., Matsumura, K., Younan, P., Imaeda, H., Maeda, M., Chan, L. Nat. Med. (2003) [Pubmed]
  15. Sequential expression of the neuropeptides substance P and somatostatin in granulomas associated with murine cysticercosis. Robinson, P., White, A.C., Lewis, D.E., Thornby, J., David, E., Weinstock, J. Infect. Immun. (2002) [Pubmed]
  16. Somatostatin receptor subtypes sst1 and sst2 elicit opposite effects on the response to glutamate of mouse hypothalamic neurones: an electrophysiological and single cell RT-PCR study. Lanneau, C., Viollet, C., Faivre-Bauman, A., Loudes, C., Kordon, C., Epelbaum, J., Gardette, R. Eur. J. Neurosci. (1998) [Pubmed]
  17. Somatostatin receptors in wildtype and somatostatin deficient mice and their involvement in nitric oxide physiology in the retina. Mastrodimou, N., Vasilaki, A., Papadioti, A., Low, M.J., Hoyer, D., Thermos, K. Neuropeptides (2006) [Pubmed]
  18. Thyroid hormone-responsive pituitary hyperplasia independent of somatostatin receptor 2. Brinkmeier, M.L., Stahl, J.H., Gordon, D.F., Ross, B.D., Sarapura, V.D., Dowding, J.M., Kendall, S.K., Lloyd, R.V., Ridgway, E.C., Camper, S.A. Mol. Endocrinol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  19. Induction of a negative autocrine loop by expression of sst2 somatostatin receptor in NIH 3T3 cells. Rauly, I., Saint-Laurent, N., Delesque, N., Buscail, L., Estéve, J.P., Vaysse, N., Susini, C. J. Clin. Invest. (1996) [Pubmed]
  20. Selective expression of neuropeptides in the rat mammary gland: somatostatin gene is expressed during lactation. Chen, A., Laskar-Levy, O., Koch, Y. Endocrinology (1999) [Pubmed]
  21. Somatostatin activates two types of inwardly rectifying K+ channels in MIN-6 cells. Smith, P.A., Sellers, L.A., Humphrey, P.P. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (2001) [Pubmed]
  22. Evidence that endogenous SST inhibits ACTH and ghrelin expression by independent pathways. Luque, R.M., Gahete, M.D., Hochgeschwender, U., Kineman, R.D. Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab. (2006) [Pubmed]
  23. Somatostatin stimulates ductal bile absorption and inhibits ductal bile secretion in mice via SSTR2 on cholangiocytes. Gong, A.Y., Tietz, P.S., Muff, M.A., Splinter, P.L., Huebert, R.C., Strowski, M.Z., Chen, X.M., LaRusso, N.F. Am. J. Physiol., Cell Physiol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  24. High basal gastric acid secretion in somatostatin receptor subtype 2 knockout mice. Martinez, V., Curi, A.P., Torkian, B., Schaeffer, J.M., Wilkinson, H.A., Walsh, J.H., Taché, Y. Gastroenterology (1998) [Pubmed]
  25. Expression of peptide YY in all four islet cell types in the developing mouse pancreas suggests a common peptide YY-producing progenitor. Upchurch, B.H., Aponte, G.W., Leiter, A.B. Development (1994) [Pubmed]
  26. Somatostatin is expressed in the murine thymus and enhances thymocyte development. Solomou, K., Ritter, M.A., Palmer, D.B. Eur. J. Immunol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  27. Sexually dimorphic distribution of sst2A somatostatin receptors on growth hormone-releasing hormone neurons in mice. Bouyer, K., Loudes, C., Robinson, I.C., Epelbaum, J., Faivre-Bauman, A. Endocrinology (2006) [Pubmed]
  28. Glucose inhibits glucagon secretion by a direct effect on mouse pancreatic alpha cells. Vieira, E., Salehi, A., Gylfe, E. Diabetologia (2007) [Pubmed]
  29. Somatostatin inhibits corticotropin-releasing factor-stimulated adrenocorticotropin release, adenylate cyclase, and activation of adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate-dependent protein kinase isoenzymes in AtT20 cells. Litvin, Y., Leiser, M., Fleischer, N., Erlichman, J. Endocrinology (1986) [Pubmed]
  30. R-type Ca(2+)-channel-evoked CICR regulates glucose-induced somatostatin secretion. Zhang, Q., Bengtsson, M., Partridge, C., Salehi, A., Braun, M., Cox, R., Eliasson, L., Johnson, P.R., Renström, E., Schneider, T., Berggren, P.O., Göpel, S., Ashcroft, F.M., Rorsman, P. Nat. Cell Biol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  31. Differential expression of somatostatin receptor subtypes in brain. Breder, C.D., Yamada, Y., Yasuda, K., Seino, S., Saper, C.B., Bell, G.I. J. Neurosci. (1992) [Pubmed]
  32. Hormone inhibition of adenylyl cyclase. Differences in the mechanisms for inhibition by hormones and G protein beta gamma. Hildebrandt, J.D., Kohnken, R.E. J. Biol. Chem. (1990) [Pubmed]
  33. Somatostatin receptors on cortical neurones and adenohypophysis: comparison between specific binding and adenylate cyclase inhibition. Chneiweiss, H., Bertrand, P., Epelbaum, J., Kordon, C., Glowinski, J., Premont, J., Enjalbert, A. Eur. J. Pharmacol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  34. Galanin inhibits gastric acid secretion through a somatostatin-independent mechanism in mice. Piqueras, L., Taché, Y., Martinez, V. Peptides (2004) [Pubmed]
  35. Influences of gastro-intestinal polypeptides and glucose on glucagon secretion induced by cholinergic stimulation. Ahrén, B., Lundquist, I. Horm. Metab. Res. (1982) [Pubmed]
  36. Interaction of glucagon-like peptide-I (7-37) and somatostatin-14 on signal transduction and proinsulin gene expression in beta TC-1 cells. Fehmann, H.C., Strowski, M., Göke, B. Metab. Clin. Exp. (1994) [Pubmed]
  37. Somatostatin controls LFA-1 gene expression by altering neuraminidase expression in spleen cells. Yoon, W.K., Kim, H.J., Son, H.Y., Jeong, K.S., Park, S.J., Kim, T.H., Kim, S.H., Kim, S.R., Ryu, S.Y. Anticancer Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  38. Targeted oncogenesis of hormone-negative pancreatic islet progenitor cells. Jetton, T.L., Moates, J.M., Lindner, J., Wright, C.V., Magnuson, M.A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1998) [Pubmed]
  39. Neurons derived from P19 embryonal carcinoma cells have varied morphologies and neurotransmitters. Staines, W.A., Morassutti, D.J., Reuhl, K.R., Ally, A.I., McBurney, M.W. Neuroscience (1994) [Pubmed]
  40. Mouse cortical inhibitory neuron type that coexpresses somatostatin and calretinin. Xu, X., Roby, K.D., Callaway, E.M. J. Comp. Neurol. (2006) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities