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Chemical Compound Review

Dimazine     1,1-dimethylhydrazine

Synonyms: Dimazin, UDMH, CCRIS 258, AGN-PC-0CPT5G, HSDB 528, ...
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Disease relevance of as-Dimethylhydrazine

  • Hamsters given DMH (25 mg/kg body weight s.c.), once a week for 3 weeks, showed ACF induction in the colon after 10 weeks, but there was no difference between the NAT2r and NAT2s hamsters [1].
  • Mice receiving chronic DMH treatment showed a dose-dependent hyperplasia confined to the proliferative zone, with a parallel increase in mitotic and 3H-TdR-labelled cells and significant suppression of splenic NK activity [2].
  • Long-term administration of DMH was more toxic to F-344 rats than to SD animals, and the toxicity was potentiated by reductions in the micronutrient composition of the diet [3].
  • Soy molasses, which contains soy isoflavones, did not have an effect on colon cancer carcinogenesis in DMH-treated rats [4].
  • In addition, an approximately equal number of animals challenged with DMH were fed daily, until the end of the study, 2 x 10(10) Lactobacillus casei subsp. rhamnosus strain GG starting three weeks before DMH administration or after the ninth weekly injection [5].

High impact information on as-Dimethylhydrazine

  • However, CloA but not CleA prevented the DMH-induced reduction of splenocyte CD4/CD8 (T-helper cells to cytotoxic lymphocytes) ratio [6].
  • CloA inhibited DMH induced genotoxic damage in mucosa cells of the distal colon compared with Cont as investigated by single-cell microgel electrophoresis assay [6].
  • The crypt cell proliferation index induced by DMH (Cont/NaCl: 10.0+/-0.7%; Cont/DMH: 19.9+/-1.0%; P<0.001) was significantly decreased by CleA (15.7+/-0.7%; P<0.001) and CloA intervention (11.9+/-0.4%; P<0.001) [6].
  • In the two congenic hamster lines we also studied the induction of ACF with 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) treatment, a colon carcinogen not metabolized by NAT2 [1].
  • Weekly injections of dimethylhydrazine (DMH) (25 mg/kg), or azoxymethane (AOM) (8 mg/kg) to young adult male CDI mice for 1-2 months produced generalized intestinal crypt hyperplasia, which we measured in duodenum in terms of number of interphase and mitotic cells present in crypts [7].

Chemical compound and disease context of as-Dimethylhydrazine

  • Finally, a stimulation of NK activity with Poly I:C treatment in DMH-treated mice caused regression of the DMH-induced hyperplasia [2].
  • PURPOSE:: We examined the effects of treadmill-running training on the induction of aberrant crypt foci (ACF), which is the first step of colon cancer induction, in the colonic mucosa of rats injected with 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) [8].
  • At the end of the experiment, the diet group administered DMH and high cholesterol (2% CH plus 0.25% CA) developed colon adenoma at 50% of incidence in pathological examination, but no colon adenoma formed in the rats treated with high cholesterol alone [9].
  • The in vivo effect of E2 on DMH-induced colorectal cancer was studied in four groups of ovariectomized female rats: (I) untreated control, (II) E2 treated, (III) DMH treated, and (IV) combined E2 and DMH treated [10].

Biological context of as-Dimethylhydrazine


Anatomical context of as-Dimethylhydrazine

  • In concurrent studies, 1,25(OH)2D3 was administered (s.c., 400 ng/rat) prior to, together with and after DMH challenge and the activity of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), a growth-related DMH-induced enzyme, was determined in colonic cytosols [14].
  • There were no detectable effects of DMH per se 15 weeks after the last injection (or in the presence or absence of tumors) on T-lymphocyte response to PHA or on NKCA [15].
  • The highest frequency of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MPCE) and a dose-response relationship between erythropoietin doses and MPCE frequency were seen 30 hr after injection of 1,1-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) to mice administered 24 hr previously with erythropoietin [16].
  • Enzymatic CAT activity was determined in the ileum and colon 8 weeks later after the final injection of DMH [12].

Associations of as-Dimethylhydrazine with other chemical compounds


Gene context of as-Dimethylhydrazine


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of as-Dimethylhydrazine


  1. Effect of acetylator genotype on 3,2'-dimethyl-4-aminobiphenyl induced aberrant crypt foci in the colon of hamsters. Paulsen, J.E., Steffensen, I.L., Namork, E., Hein, D.W., Alexander, J. Carcinogenesis (1996) [Pubmed]
  2. Hyperplasia of mouse duodenal crypts and its control by NK cells during the initial phase of DMH carcinogenesis. Altmann, G.G., Parhar, R.S., Lala, P.K. Int. J. Cancer (1990) [Pubmed]
  3. Effect of beef fat on DMH-induced colon tumorigenesis: influence of rat strain and nutrient composition. Nauss, K.M., Bueche, D., Newberne, P.M. J. Nutr. (1987) [Pubmed]
  4. Effects of Bowman-Birk inhibitor on rat colon carcinogenesis. Kennedy, A.R., Billings, P.C., Wan, X.S., Newberne, P.M. Nutrition and cancer. (2002) [Pubmed]
  5. The effect of Lactobacillus GG on the initiation and promotion of DMH-induced intestinal tumors in the rat. Goldin, B.R., Gualtieri, L.J., Moore, R.P. Nutrition and cancer. (1996) [Pubmed]
  6. Cloudy apple juice decreases DNA damage, hyperproliferation and aberrant crypt foci development in the distal colon of DMH-initiated rats. Barth, S.W., Fähndrich, C., Bub, A., Dietrich, H., Watzl, B., Will, F., Briviba, K., Rechkemmer, G. Carcinogenesis (2005) [Pubmed]
  7. Initiated stem cells in murine intestinal carcinogenesis: prolonged survival, control by NK cells, and progression. Altmann, G.G., Lala, P.K. Int. J. Cancer (1994) [Pubmed]
  8. Effect of Running Training on DMH-Induced Aberrant Crypt Foci in Rat Colon. Fuku, N., Ochiai, M., Terada, S., Fujimoto, E., Nakagama, H., Tabata, I. Medicine and science in sports and exercise (2007) [Pubmed]
  9. Promotion of colon carcinogenesis through increasing lipid peroxidation induced in rats by a high cholesterol diet. Tseng, T.H., Hsu, J.D., Chu, C.Y., Wang, C.J. Cancer Lett. (1996) [Pubmed]
  10. The protective effect of estrogen against chemically induced murine colon carcinogenesis is associated with decreased CpG island methylation and increased mRNA and protein expression of the colonic vitamin D receptor. Smirnoff, P., Liel, Y., Gnainsky, J., Shany, S., Schwartz, B. Oncol. Res. (1999) [Pubmed]
  11. Mechanism of site-specific DNA damage induced by methylhydrazines in the presence of copper(II) or manganese(III). Kawanishi, S., Yamamoto, K. Biochemistry (1991) [Pubmed]
  12. Tissue-specific expression of the p53 tumor-suppressor gene in the intestine of transgenic mice exposed to DMH and p53 antibodies. Tendler, Y., Guervich, P., Sandler, B., Diamond, E., Lischinsky, S., Shkolnik, T., Zinder, O., Zusman, I. Oncol. Rep. (1999) [Pubmed]
  13. Evaluation of murine lymphocyte membrane potential, intracellular free calcium, and interleukin-2 receptor expression upon exposure to 1,1-dimethylhydrazine. Frazier, D.E., Tarr, M.J., Olsen, R.G. Toxicol. Lett. (1992) [Pubmed]
  14. A protective role of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 in chemically induced rat colon carcinogenesis. Belleli, A., Shany, S., Levy, J., Guberman, R., Lamprecht, S.A. Carcinogenesis (1992) [Pubmed]
  15. T-cell mitogenesis and natural killer cell activity in colonic tumor-bearing and nontumor-bearing rats fed diets high in lipid with and without cholesterol. Kraus, L.J., Williams, R.M., Murphy, K., Broitman, S.A. Nutrition and cancer. (1987) [Pubmed]
  16. Effect of erythropoietin on the micronucleus test. Suzuki, Y., Nagae, Y., Ishikawa, T., Watanabe, Y., Nagashima, T., Matsukubo, K., Shimizu, H. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. (1989) [Pubmed]
  17. Simultaneous determination of hydrazine, methylhydrazine, and 1,1-dimethylhydrazine in air by derivatization/gas chromatography. Holtzclaw, J.R., Rose, S.L., Wyatt, J.R., Rounbehler, D.P., Fine, D.H. Anal. Chem. (1984) [Pubmed]
  18. The effect of lactulose on DNA damage induced by DMH in the colon of human flora-associated rats. Rowland, I.R., Bearne, C.A., Fischer, R., Pool-Zobel, B.L. Nutrition and cancer. (1996) [Pubmed]
  19. Effect of indomethacin in autotransplanted colonic tumors. Rubio, C.A., Wallin, B., Ware, J., Sveander, M., Duvander, A. Dis. Colon Rectum (1989) [Pubmed]
  20. Synthesis, structures, and DFT bonding analysis of new titanium hydrazido(2-) complexes. Parsons, T.B., Hazari, N., Cowley, A.R., Green, J.C., Mountford, P. Inorganic chemistry. (2005) [Pubmed]
  21. Rat liver flavin-containing monooxygenase (FMO): cDNA cloning and expression in yeast. Itoh, K., Kimura, T., Yokoi, T., Itoh, S., Kamataki, T. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (1993) [Pubmed]
  22. Effect of 1,1-dimethylhydrazine on lymphoproliferation and interleukin 2 immunoregulatory function. Bauer, R.M., Tarr, M.J., Olsen, R.G. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  23. Increased hepatic activity of inducible nitric oxide synthase in rats fed on a high-fat diet. Wan, G., Ohnomi, S., Kato, N. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem. (2000) [Pubmed]
  24. Alterations in seizure mechanisms caused by oxygen high pressure, 1,1-dimethylhydrazine, and pyridoxine. Segerbo, B.E. Undersea biomedical research. (1979) [Pubmed]
  25. Influence of dietary selenium on the mutagenic activity of perfusate and bile from rat liver, perfused with 1,1-dimethylhydrazine. Beije, B., Onfelt, A., Olsson, U. Mutat. Res. (1984) [Pubmed]
  26. Effect of 1,1-dimethylhydrazine (UDMH) on Corynebacterium parvum-associated immunosuppression in mice. Frazier, D.E., Bauer, R.M., Tarr, M.J., Olsen, R.G. Int. J. Immunopharmacol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  27. Lack of carcinogenicity of daminozide, alone or in combination with its contaminant 1,1-dimethylhydrazine, in a medium-term bioassay. Cabral, R., Hakoi, K., Hoshiya, T., Hasegawa, R., Ito, N. Teratog., Carcinog. Mutagen. (1995) [Pubmed]
  28. Protective action of propolis on the rat colon carcinogenesis. Bazo, A.P., Rodrigues, M.A., Sforcin, J.M., de Camargo, J.L., Ribeiro, L.R., Salvadori, D.M. Teratog., Carcinog. Mutagen. (2002) [Pubmed]
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