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Gene Review

Saa2  -  serum amyloid A 2

Mus musculus

Synonyms: AW111173, Saa-2, Saa1, Serum amyloid A-2 protein
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Disease relevance of Saa2


High impact information on Saa2

  • Accumulation of fibrils composed of amyloid A in tissues resulting in displacement of normal structures and cellular dysfunction is the characteristic feature of systemic amyloidoses [6].
  • Amyloid A fibrils in spleen homogenates were denatured by formic acid and AA protein was quantified by ELISA using anti-mouse apoSAA antibodies [1].
  • Highly specific, high-resolution scintigraphic images of amyloid-laden organs in mice with experimentally induced amyloid A protein (AA) amyloidosis were obtained after intravenous injection of 123I-labeled serum amyloid P component (SAP) [7].
  • Gene conversion, sometimes also called micro gene conversion or gene conversion-like events, has been proposed to act on a number of genes in higher eukaryotes, such as gamma-globin, beta-tubulin, major urinary protein, and amyloid A genes [8].
  • Its synthesis is tissue-specific in that amyloid A mRNA was not detected in the kidney, an important site of amyloid fibril accumulation [9].

Chemical compound and disease context of Saa2


Biological context of Saa2


Anatomical context of Saa2


Associations of Saa2 with chemical compounds


Regulatory relationships of Saa2


Other interactions of Saa2


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Saa2


  1. Linkage of protection against amyloid fibril formation in the mouse to a single, autosomal dominant gene. Gonnerman, W.A., Elliott-Bryant, R., Carreras, I., Sipe, J.D., Cathcart, E.S. J. Exp. Med. (1995) [Pubmed]
  2. The IL-6-gp130-STAT3 pathway in hepatocytes triggers liver protection in T cell-mediated liver injury. Klein, C., Wüstefeld, T., Assmus, U., Roskams, T., Rose-John, S., Müller, M., Manns, M.P., Ernst, M., Trautwein, C. J. Clin. Invest. (2005) [Pubmed]
  3. Neuronal expression of a functional receptor for the C5a complement activation fragment. O'Barr, S.A., Caguioa, J., Gruol, D., Perkins, G., Ember, J.A., Hugli, T., Cooper, N.R. J. Immunol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  4. Molecular cloning of human genes for serum amyloid A. Sack, G.H. Gene (1983) [Pubmed]
  5. Clinical features associated with correction of T-cell senescence: increased acute-phase response, amyloidosis and arthritis. Mountz, J.D., Hsu, H.C. Dev. Comp. Immunol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  6. Receptor-dependent cell stress and amyloid accumulation in systemic amyloidosis. Yan, S.D., Zhu, H., Zhu, A., Golabek, A., Du, H., Roher, A., Yu, J., Soto, C., Schmidt, A.M., Stern, D., Kindy, M. Nat. Med. (2000) [Pubmed]
  7. Specific localization and imaging of amyloid deposits in vivo using 123I-labeled serum amyloid P component. Hawkins, P.N., Myers, M.J., Epenetos, A.A., Caspi, D., Pepys, M.B. J. Exp. Med. (1988) [Pubmed]
  8. A determination of the frequency of gene conversion in unmanipulated mouse sperm. Högstrand, K., Böhme, J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1994) [Pubmed]
  9. Induction of hepatic synthesis of serum amyloid A protein and actin. Morrow, J.F., Stearman, R.S., Peltzman, C.G., Potter, D.A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1981) [Pubmed]
  10. The heparin/heparan sulfate-binding site on apo-serum amyloid A. Implications for the therapeutic intervention of amyloidosis. Ancsin, J.B., Kisilevsky, R. J. Biol. Chem. (1999) [Pubmed]
  11. Inhibition of amyloid A amyloidogenesis in vivo and in tissue culture by 4-deoxy analogues of peracetylated 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-alpha- and beta-d-glucose: implications for the treatment of various amyloidoses. Kisilevsky, R., Szarek, W.A., Ancsin, J.B., Elimova, E., Marone, S., Bhat, S., Berkin, A. Am. J. Pathol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  12. Serum amyloid A in the mouse. Sites of uptake and mRNA expression. Meek, R.L., Eriksen, N., Benditt, E.P. Am. J. Pathol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  13. Polymorphism of tissue and serum amyloid A (AA and SAA) proteins in the mouse. Gorevic, P.D., Levo, Y., Frangione, B., Franklin, E.C. J. Immunol. (1978) [Pubmed]
  14. Immunolocalization of lipid peroxidation/advanced glycation end products in amyloid A amyloidosis. Kamalvand, G., Ali-Khan, Z. Free Radic. Biol. Med. (2004) [Pubmed]
  15. Predicted secondary structure and membrane topology of the scrapie prion protein. Bazan, J.F., Fletterick, R.J., McKinley, M.P., Prusiner, S.B. Protein Eng. (1987) [Pubmed]
  16. Differential transcription of the mouse acute phase serum amyloid A genes in response to pro-inflammatory cytokines. Thorn, C.F., Whitehead, A.S. Amyloid (2002) [Pubmed]
  17. Induction of serum amyloid A inflammatory response genes in irradiated bone marrow cells. Goltry, K.L., Epperly, M.W., Greenberger, J.S. Radiat. Res. (1998) [Pubmed]
  18. Regulation of amyloid A gene expression in cultured cells. Rienhoff, H.Y., Groudine, M. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  19. Murine tissue macrophages synthesize and secrete amyloid proteins different to amyloid A (AA). Ramadori, G., Rieder, H., Sipe, J., Shirahama, T., Meyer zum Büschenfelde, K.H. Eur. J. Clin. Invest. (1989) [Pubmed]
  20. Generation of amyloid A protein by the cell lines from amyloid-susceptible and -resistant mice. Ham, D., Skoryna, S.C. Scand. J. Immunol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  21. Effect of colchicine on experimental amyloidosis in two CBA/J mouse models. Chronic inflammatory stimulation and administration of amyloid-enhancing factor during acute inflammation. Brandwein, S.R., Sipe, J.D., Skinner, M., Cohen, A.S. Lab. Invest. (1985) [Pubmed]
  22. Further characterization of amyloid-enhancing factor. Axelrad, M.A., Kisilevsky, R., Willmer, J., Chen, S.J., Skinner, M. Lab. Invest. (1982) [Pubmed]
  23. Prostaglandin E1 inhibition of experimental amyloidosis in CBA/J mice. Brandwein, S.R., Sipe, J.D., Skinner, M., Cohen, A.S. J. Rheumatol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  24. Protective effects of alpha1-acid glycoprotein and serum amyloid A on concanavalin A-induced liver failure via interleukin-6 induction by ME3738. Kuzuhara, H., Nakano, Y., Yamashita, N., Imai, M., Kawamura, Y., Kurosawa, T., Nishiyama, S. Eur. J. Pharmacol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  25. Nicotine reduces A beta in the brain and cerebral vessels of APPsw mice. Hellström-Lindahl, E., Court, J., Keverne, J., Svedberg, M., Lee, M., Marutle, A., Thomas, A., Perry, E., Bednar, I., Nordberg, A. Eur. J. Neurosci. (2004) [Pubmed]
  26. Amyloid A protein amyloidosis induced in apolipoprotein-E-deficient mice. Hoshii, Y., Kawano, H., Cui, D., Takeda, T., Gondo, T., Takahashi, M., Kogishi, K., Higuchi, K., Ishihara, T. Am. J. Pathol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  27. Increased acute-phase response and renal amyloidosis in aged CD2-fas-transgenic mice. Hsu, H.C., Zhou, T., Yang, P.A., Herrera, G.A., Mountz, J.D. J. Immunol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  28. Reduced cholesterol accumulation by leptin deficient (ob/ob) mouse macrophages. Kjerrulf, M., Berke, Z., Aspegren, A., Umaerus, M., Nilsson, T., Svensson, L., Hurt-Camejo, E. Inflamm. Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  29. Splenic macrophage activation and functions in amyloid enhancing factor-induced secondary amyloidosis. Study of phagocytosis, killing, respiratory burst, and MHC class II surface expression. Reid, C., Hébert, L., Pozzulo, G., Gervais, F. J. Leukoc. Biol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  30. Proinflammatory cytokine production in liver regeneration is Myd88-dependent, but independent of Cd14, Tlr2, and Tlr4. Campbell, J.S., Riehle, K.J., Brooling, J.T., Bauer, R.L., Mitchell, C., Fausto, N. J. Immunol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  31. Primary structure of amyloid fibril protein AA in azocasein-induced amyloidosis of CBA/J mice. Dwulet, F.E., Benson, M.D. J. Lab. Clin. Med. (1987) [Pubmed]
  32. Combined treatment with terbutaline and aminophylline inhibits experimental amyloidosis in mice. Brandwein, S.R., Sipe, J.D., Cohen, A.S. Arthritis Rheum. (1994) [Pubmed]
  33. The A beta peptide of Alzheimer's disease directly produces hydrogen peroxide through metal ion reduction. Huang, X., Atwood, C.S., Hartshorn, M.A., Multhaup, G., Goldstein, L.E., Scarpa, R.C., Cuajungco, M.P., Gray, D.N., Lim, J., Moir, R.D., Tanzi, R.E., Bush, A.I. Biochemistry (1999) [Pubmed]
  34. An ancillary tool for the diagnosis of amyloid A amyloidosis in a variety of domestic and wild animals. Shtrasburg, S., Gal, R., Gruys, E., Perl, S., Martin, B.M., Kaplan, B., Koren, R., Nyska, A., Pras, M., Livneh, A. Vet. Pathol. (2005) [Pubmed]
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