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Chemical Compound Review

Merlin     (5-cyclopropyl-1,2-oxazol-4- yl)-[2...

Synonyms: Isoxaflutole, SureCN66989, HSDB 7275, IFT cpd, AKOS015904028, ...
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Disease relevance of Merlin


High impact information on Merlin

  • The tumor suppressors Merlin, expanded, hippo, salvador and mob as tumor suppressor also share multiple Fat pathway phenotypes but regulate Warts activity independently [5].
  • We also discuss membrane proteins to which ERM and merlin bind, including those making an indirect linkage through the PDZ-containing adaptor molecules EBP50 and E3KARP [6].
  • Merlin, the product of the NF2 tumor suppressor gene, has sequence similarity to ERM proteins and binds to some of the same membrane proteins, but lacks a C-terminal F-actin binding site [6].
  • Increased proteolysis of merlin by calpain in some schwannomas and meningiomas exemplifies tumorigenesis linked to the calpain-mediated proteolytic pathway [2].
  • Integrin-, cadherin-, Merlin- and planar cell polarity (PCP)-dependent signaling cascades quantitatively and qualitatively program cell division during development [7].

Chemical compound and disease context of Merlin

  • The enhanced proliferation of merlin-deficient NF2 schwannoma cells could be reduced in the presence of quinidine, a K(+) channel blocker, whereas the proliferation of normal Schwann cells is not affected [8].

Biological context of Merlin


Anatomical context of Merlin

  • Merlin colocalizes and interacts with adherens junction (AJ) components in confluent wild-type cells, suggesting that the lack of AJs and contact-dependent growth arrest in Nf2(-/-) cells directly results from the absence of merlin at sites of cell:cell contact [11].
  • In order to analyze the function of merlin during embryogenesis and to develop a system to study merlin function in detail, we have disrupted the mouse Nf2 gene by homologous recombination in embryonic stem cells [13].
  • Mosaic studies demonstrate that merlin function is not required cell autonomously in mesoderm, and support the proposition that merlin function is essential for the development of extraembryonic structures during early mouse development [13].
  • This inhibitory function of merlin is mediated through its binding to the Pak1 PBD and by inhibiting Pak1 recruitment to focal adhesions [14].
  • In 1993, a location cloning approach revealed this tumor suppressor, dubbed merlin, as a novel member of a family of proteins that link elements of the cytoskeleton and the cell membrane [15].

Associations of Merlin with other chemical compounds

  • In the case of Ras, merlin acts downstream of the receptor tyrosine kinase-growth factor receptor binding protein 2 (Grb2)-SOS complex [16].
  • We report that the phosphorylation of merlin at serine 518 is induced by the p21-activated kinase PAK2 [17].
  • The interaction between TRBP and merlin was confirmed by glutathione S-transferase pull-down assays, co-immunoprecipitation, and co-localization experiments [18].
  • The herbicides were atrazine (ATR; 2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-isopropylamino-1,3,5-triazine) and isoxaflutole [IXF; 5-cyclopropyl-4-(2-methylsulfonyl-4-trifluormethyl-benzoyl)isoxazole], which has the commercial name Balance (Aventis Crop Science, Strasbourg, France) [19].
  • A kinetic study of the chemical degradation of isoxaflutole (5-cyclopropyl-1,2-oxazol-4-yl alpha alpha alpha-trifluoro-2-mesyl-p-tolyl ketone) into its diketonitrile derivative (DKN), which is its active herbicide principle, in organic buffers at different pH values was carried out using a HPLC/UV detection method [20].

Gene context of Merlin


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Merlin


  1. Neurofibromatosis 2 tumour suppressor schwannomin interacts with betaII-spectrin. Scoles, D.R., Huynh, D.P., Morcos, P.A., Coulsell, E.R., Robinson, N.G., Tamanoi, F., Pulst, S.M. Nat. Genet. (1998) [Pubmed]
  2. The involvement of calpain-dependent proteolysis of the tumor suppressor NF2 (merlin) in schwannomas and meningiomas. Kimura, Y., Koga, H., Araki, N., Mugita, N., Fujita, N., Takeshima, H., Nishi, T., Yamashima, T., Saido, T.C., Yamasaki, T., Moritake, K., Saya, H., Nakao, M. Nat. Med. (1998) [Pubmed]
  3. DNA diagnosis of neurofibromatosis 2. Altered coding sequence of the merlin tumor suppressor in an extended pedigree. MacCollin, M., Mohney, T., Trofatter, J., Wertelecki, W., Ramesh, V., Gusella, J. JAMA (1993) [Pubmed]
  4. The neurofibromatosis-2 homologue, Merlin, and the tumor suppressor expanded function together in Drosophila to regulate cell proliferation and differentiation. McCartney, B.M., Kulikauskas, R.M., LaJeunesse, D.R., Fehon, R.G. Development (2000) [Pubmed]
  5. Delineation of a Fat tumor suppressor pathway. Cho, E., Feng, Y., Rauskolb, C., Maitra, S., Fehon, R., Irvine, K.D. Nat. Genet. (2006) [Pubmed]
  6. ERM-Merlin and EBP50 protein families in plasma membrane organization and function. Bretscher, A., Chambers, D., Nguyen, R., Reczek, D. Annu. Rev. Cell Dev. Biol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  7. Interdependence of cell attachment and cell cycle signaling. Pugacheva, E.N., Roegiers, F., Golemis, E.A. Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  8. Quinidine impairs proliferation of neurofibromatosis type 2-deficient human malignant mesothelioma cells. Utermark, T., Alekov, A., Lerche, H., Abramowski, V., Giovannini, M., Hanemann, C.O. Cancer (2003) [Pubmed]
  9. ERM proteins and NF2 tumor suppressor: the Yin and Yang of cortical actin organization and cell growth signaling. Gautreau, A., Louvard, D., Arpin, M. Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  10. The NF2 tumor suppressor gene product, merlin, mediates contact inhibition of growth through interactions with CD44. Morrison, H., Sherman, L.S., Legg, J., Banine, F., Isacke, C., Haipek, C.A., Gutmann, D.H., Ponta, H., Herrlich, P. Genes Dev. (2001) [Pubmed]
  11. NF2 deficiency promotes tumorigenesis and metastasis by destabilizing adherens junctions. Lallemand, D., Curto, M., Saotome, I., Giovannini, M., McClatchey, A.I. Genes Dev. (2003) [Pubmed]
  12. Membrane organization and tumorigenesis--the NF2 tumor suppressor, Merlin. McClatchey, A.I., Giovannini, M. Genes Dev. (2005) [Pubmed]
  13. The Nf2 tumor suppressor gene product is essential for extraembryonic development immediately prior to gastrulation. McClatchey, A.I., Saotome, I., Ramesh, V., Gusella, J.F., Jacks, T. Genes Dev. (1997) [Pubmed]
  14. Merlin, the product of the Nf2 tumor suppressor gene, is an inhibitor of the p21-activated kinase, Pak1. Kissil, J.L., Wilker, E.W., Johnson, K.C., Eckman, M.S., Yaffe, M.B., Jacks, T. Mol. Cell (2003) [Pubmed]
  15. Neurofibromatosis 2: loss of merlin's protective spell. Gusella, J.F., Ramesh, V., MacCollin, M., Jacoby, L.B. Curr. Opin. Genet. Dev. (1996) [Pubmed]
  16. Merlin/neurofibromatosis type 2 suppresses growth by inhibiting the activation of Ras and Rac. Morrison, H., Sperka, T., Manent, J., Giovannini, M., Ponta, H., Herrlich, P. Cancer Res. (2007) [Pubmed]
  17. Merlin phosphorylation by p21-activated kinase 2 and effects of phosphorylation on merlin localization. Kissil, J.L., Johnson, K.C., Eckman, M.S., Jacks, T. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  18. Merlin, a tumor suppressor, interacts with transactivation-responsive RNA-binding protein and inhibits its oncogenic activity. Lee, J.Y., Kim, H., Ryu, C.H., Kim, J.Y., Choi, B.H., Lim, Y., Huh, P.W., Kim, Y.H., Lee, K.H., Jun, T.Y., Rha, H.K., Kang, J.K., Choi, C.R. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  19. The effect of five forage species on transport and transformation of atrazine and isoxaflutole (balance) in lysimeter leachate. Lin, C.H., Lerch, R.N., Garrett, H.E., Johnson, W.G., Jordan, D., George, M.F. J. Environ. Qual. (2003) [Pubmed]
  20. Kinetics of chemical degradation of isoxaflutole: influence of the nature of aqueous buffers (alkanoic acid/sodium salt vs phosphate). Beltran, E., Fenet, H., Cooper, J.F., Coste, C.M. Pest Manag. Sci. (2001) [Pubmed]
  21. Distinct cellular and subcellular patterns of expression imply distinct functions for the Drosophila homologues of moesin and the neurofibromatosis 2 tumor suppressor, merlin. McCartney, B.M., Fehon, R.G. J. Cell Biol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  22. The NF2 interactor, hepatocyte growth factor-regulated tyrosine kinase substrate (HRS), associates with merlin in the "open" conformation and suppresses cell growth and motility. Gutmann, D.H., Haipek, C.A., Burke, S.P., Sun, C.X., Scoles, D.R., Pulst, S.M. Hum. Mol. Genet. (2001) [Pubmed]
  23. Nucleocytoplasmic transfer of the NF2 tumor suppressor protein merlin is regulated by exon 2 and a CRM1-dependent nuclear export signal in exon 15. Kressel, M., Schmucker, B. Hum. Mol. Genet. (2002) [Pubmed]
  24. Schwannomin isoform-1 interacts with syntenin via PDZ domains. Jannatipour, M., Dion, P., Khan, S., Jindal, H., Fan, X., Laganière, J., Chishti, A.H., Rouleau, G.A. J. Biol. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  25. Erbin regulates mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase activation and MAP kinase-dependent interactions between Merlin and adherens junction protein complexes in Schwann cells. Rangwala, R., Banine, F., Borg, J.P., Sherman, L.S. J. Biol. Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  26. Expression of the neurofibromatosis 2 (NF2) gene isoforms during rat embryonic development. Gutmann, D.H., Wright, D.E., Geist, R.T., Snider, W.D. Hum. Mol. Genet. (1995) [Pubmed]
  27. Universal absence of merlin, but not other ERM family members, in schwannomas. Stemmer-Rachamimov, A.O., Xu, L., Gonzalez-Agosti, C., Burwick, J.A., Pinney, D., Beauchamp, R., Jacoby, L.B., Gusella, J.F., Ramesh, V., Louis, D.N. Am. J. Pathol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  28. NHE-RF, a regulatory cofactor for Na(+)-H+ exchange, is a common interactor for merlin and ERM (MERM) proteins. Murthy, A., Gonzalez-Agosti, C., Cordero, E., Pinney, D., Candia, C., Solomon, F., Gusella, J., Ramesh, V. J. Biol. Chem. (1998) [Pubmed]
  29. Expression level, subcellular distribution and rho-GDI binding affinity of merlin in comparison with Ezrin/Radixin/Moesin proteins. Maeda, M., Matsui, T., Imamura, M., Tsukita, S., Tsukita, S. Oncogene (1999) [Pubmed]
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