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Gene Review

Areg  -  amphiregulin

Mus musculus

Synonyms: AR, Amphiregulin, SDGF, Schwannoma-derived growth factor, Sdgf
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Disease relevance of Areg


Psychiatry related information on Areg

  • The effects of dexmedetomidine, a subtype-nonselective alpha 2-AR agonist, on monoamine turnover in brain and on locomotor activity were similar in mice with targeted inactivation of the alpha 2C-AR gene and in their controls, but the hypothermic effect of the alpha 2-AR agonist was significantly attenuated by the receptor gene inactivation [6].

High impact information on Areg


Chemical compound and disease context of Areg


Biological context of Areg


Anatomical context of Areg


Associations of Areg with chemical compounds

  • Other osteotropic hormones (1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and prostaglandin E2) also strongly stimulate AR expression [14].
  • Renal expression of two related growth factors, amphiregulin and heparin-binding EGF, has not been examined previously in PKD [2].
  • A single topical treatment of either 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) or chrysarobin or a single full-thickness wound induced the expression of HB-EGF and AR in mRNA samples isolated from whole mouse skin [3].
  • Amphiregulin is an implantation-specific and progesterone-regulated gene in the mouse uterus [19].
  • The rapid induction of AR mRNA in the ovariectomized uterus only by P4 and abrogation of this induction by RU-486 (a P4 receptor antagonist) suggest that this uterine gene is regulated by P4 [19].

Physical interactions of Areg


Regulatory relationships of Areg


Other interactions of Areg

  • We have synthesized novel, antisense mixed backbone oligonucleotides (AS MBOs) directed against TGFalpha, AR and CR [24].
  • Furthermore, variant Hepa-1 cells (TAOBP(r)c1 cells) virtually deficient in the AHR failed to display an increase in AREG mRNA in response to TCDD [4].
  • We also found intense CR-1 and AR mRNA expression and strong immunoreactivity in seven different carcinogen-induced and eight spontaneous mammary tumors [18].
  • We speculate that the therapeutic effect of WTACE2 could have been due to effects on several TACE targets, including TGF-alpha, AR, and ErbB4, as well as metalloproteinases other than TACE [25].
  • METHODS: Two independently generated transgenic mouse lines overexpress 50-, 43-, 28-, 26-, and 16-kilodalton AR forms in the pancreas [17].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Areg


  1. Novel role for amphiregulin in protection from liver injury. Berasain, C., García-Trevijano, E.R., Castillo, J., Erroba, E., Santamaría, M., Lee, D.C., Prieto, J., Avila, M.A. J. Biol. Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  2. EGF-related growth factors in the pathogenesis of murine ARPKD. MacRae Dell, K., Nemo, R., Sweeney, W.E., Avner, E.D. Kidney Int. (2004) [Pubmed]
  3. Altered expression of epidermal growth factor receptor ligands in tumor promoter-treated mouse epidermis and in primary mouse skin tumors induced by an initiation-promotion protocol. Kiguchi, K., Beltrán, L., Rupp, T., DiGiovanni, J. Mol. Carcinog. (1998) [Pubmed]
  4. In Utero Exposure to 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin Induces Amphiregulin Gene Expression in the Developing Mouse Ureter. Choi, S.S.h., Miller, M.A., Harper, P.A. Toxicol. Sci. (2006) [Pubmed]
  5. Preneoplastic mammary tumor markers: Cripto and Amphiregulin are overexpressed in hyperplastic stages of tumor progression in transgenic mice. Niemeyer, C.C., Spencer-Dene, B., Wu, J.X., Adamson, E.D. Int. J. Cancer (1999) [Pubmed]
  6. Genetic alteration of alpha 2C-adrenoceptor expression in mice: influence on locomotor, hypothermic, and neurochemical effects of dexmedetomidine, a subtype-nonselective alpha 2-adrenoceptor agonist. Sallinen, J., Link, R.E., Haapalinna, A., Viitamaa, T., Kulatunga, M., Sjöholm, B., Macdonald, E., Pelto-Huikko, M., Leino, T., Barsh, G.S., Kobilka, B.K., Scheinin, M. Mol. Pharmacol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  7. The Wilms tumor suppressor WT1 encodes a transcriptional activator of amphiregulin. Lee, S.B., Huang, K., Palmer, R., Truong, V.B., Herzlinger, D., Kolquist, K.A., Wong, J., Paulding, C., Yoon, S.K., Gerald, W., Oliner, J.D., Haber, D.A. Cell (1999) [Pubmed]
  8. Structure and function of human amphiregulin: a member of the epidermal growth factor family. Shoyab, M., Plowman, G.D., McDonald, V.L., Bradley, J.G., Todaro, G.J. Science (1989) [Pubmed]
  9. Transgenic expression of the human amphiregulin gene induces a psoriasis-like phenotype. Cook, P.W., Piepkorn, M., Clegg, C.H., Plowman, G.D., DeMay, J.M., Brown, J.R., Pittelkow, M.R. J. Clin. Invest. (1997) [Pubmed]
  10. Amphiregulin: an early trigger of liver regeneration in mice. Berasain, C., García-Trevijano, E.R., Castillo, J., Erroba, E., Lee, D.C., Prieto, J., Avila, M.A. Gastroenterology (2005) [Pubmed]
  11. Increase in amphiregulin and epiregulin in prostate cancer xenograft after androgen deprivation-impact of specific HER1 inhibition. Tørring, N., Hansen, F.D., Sørensen, B.S., Ørntoft, T.F., Nexø, E. Prostate (2005) [Pubmed]
  12. The prostaglandin E2 receptor EP2 is required for cyclooxygenase 2-mediated mammary hyperplasia. Chang, S.H., Ai, Y., Breyer, R.M., Lane, T.F., Hla, T. Cancer Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  13. Autocrine transforming growth factor alpha is dispensible for v-rasHa-induced epidermal neoplasia: potential involvement of alternate epidermal growth factor receptor ligands. Dlugosz, A.A., Cheng, C., Williams, E.K., Darwiche, N., Dempsey, P.J., Mann, B., Dunn, A.R., Coffey, R.J., Yuspa, S.H. Cancer Res. (1995) [Pubmed]
  14. Amphiregulin is a novel growth factor involved in normal bone development and in the cellular response to parathyroid hormone stimulation. Qin, L., Tamasi, J., Raggatt, L., Li, X., Feyen, J.H., Lee, D.C., Dicicco-Bloom, E., Partridge, N.C. J. Biol. Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  15. Detection and location of amphiregulin and Cripto-1 expression in the developing postnatal mouse mammary gland. Kenney, N.J., Huang, R.P., Johnson, G.R., Wu, J.X., Okamura, D., Matheny, W., Kordon, E., Gullick, W.J., Plowman, G., Smith, G.H. Mol. Reprod. Dev. (1995) [Pubmed]
  16. Paracrine and autocrine regulation of epidermal growth factor-like factors in cumulus oocyte complexes and granulosa cells: key roles for prostaglandin synthase 2 and progesterone receptor. Shimada, M., Hernandez-Gonzalez, I., Gonzalez-Robayna, I., Richards, J.S. Mol. Endocrinol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  17. Transgenic overexpression of amphiregulin induces a mitogenic response selectively in pancreatic duct cells. Wagner, M., Weber, C.K., Bressau, F., Greten, F.R., Stagge, V., Ebert, M., Leach, S.D., Adler, G., Schmid, R.M. Gastroenterology (2002) [Pubmed]
  18. Expression of epidermal growth factor-related proteins in the aged adult mouse mammary gland and their relationship to tumorigenesis. Herrington, E.E., Ram, T.G., Salomon, D.S., Johnson, G.R., Gullick, W.J., Kenney, N., Hosick, H.L. J. Cell. Physiol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  19. Amphiregulin is an implantation-specific and progesterone-regulated gene in the mouse uterus. Das, S.K., Chakraborty, I., Paria, B.C., Wang, X.N., Plowman, G., Dey, S.K. Mol. Endocrinol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  20. Schwannoma-derived growth factor interacts with the epidermal growth factor receptor. Maher, P.A., Schubert, D. J. Neurochem. (1995) [Pubmed]
  21. Schwannoma-derived growth factor must be transported into the nucleus to exert its mitogenic activity. Kimura, H. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1993) [Pubmed]
  22. Null mutation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-interacting protein in mammary glands causes defective mammopoiesis. Qi, C., Kashireddy, P., Zhu, Y.T., Rao, S.M., Zhu, Y.J. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  23. Early changes in gene expression in the dorsal root ganglia after transection of the sciatic nerve; effects of amphiregulin and PAI-1 on regeneration. Nilsson, A., Moller, K., Dahlin, L., Lundborg, G., Kanje, M. Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  24. Simultaneous blockage of different EGF-like growth factors results in efficient growth inhibition of human colon carcinoma xenografts. De Luca, A., Arra, C., D'Antonio, A., Casamassimi, A., Losito, S., Ferraro, P., Ciardiello, F., Salomon, D.S., Normanno, N. Oncogene (2000) [Pubmed]
  25. Transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-alpha) and other targets of tumor necrosis factor-alpha converting enzyme (TACE) in murine polycystic kidney disease. Nemo, R., Murcia, N., Dell, K.M. Pediatr. Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  26. Lack of effects of transforming growth factor-alpha gene knockout on peripheral nerve regeneration may result from compensatory mechanisms. Xian, C.J., Li, L., Deng, Y.S., Zhao, S.P., Zhou, X.F. Exp. Neurol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  27. Expression and function of amphiregulin during murine preimplantation development. Tsark, E.C., Adamson, E.D., Withers, G.E., Wiley, L.M. Mol. Reprod. Dev. (1997) [Pubmed]
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