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Gene Review

STM1028  -  lysozyme

Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium str. LT2

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Disease relevance of STM1028

  • Salmonella typhimurium galE mutants in which O-antigen synthesis is dependent on addition of exogenous galactose were employed, and the distribution and fate of pulse-synthesized O antigen was examined by indirect ferritin labeling with anti-O-antigen IgG of spheroplasts prepared by treatment with lysozyme/EDTA [1].
  • Sheep anti-human lysozyme antibody did not affect the bactericidal activity of C9DHS or NHS even when added at more than twice the concentration required to block the serum lysozyme activity on Micrococcus luteus [2].
  • Low Brucella LPS-mediated superoxide and lysozyme production might contribute to the survival of these facultative intracellular bacteria in phagocytic cells [3].
  • We also found that the food spoilage thermophile Clostridium thermosaccharolyticum was highly susceptible to lysozyme and confirmed that the spoilage organisms Bacillus stearothermophilus and Clostridium tyrobutyricum were also extremely sensitive [4].
  • The results of this study suggest that lysozyme may have selected applications in food preservation, especially when thermophilic sporeformers are problems, and as a safeguard against food poisoning caused by C. botulinum and L. monocytogenes [4].

High impact information on STM1028

  • Here we examined which of the layers of the cell wall limited the size of the penetrating molecules, by studying the penetration of saccharides into (a) cells whose peptidoglycan layer had been destroyed by lysozyme treatment or growth in the presence of penicillin and (b) isolated outer membrane vesicles [5].
  • The comparison between Brucella LPS and lipid A versus Salmonella LPS revealed that at least 100 times more LPS and 1,000 times more lipid A of the former genus were required to induce significant nitroblue tetrazolium reduction and a corresponding lysozyme release in neutrophils [3].
  • Effect of Brucella abortus lipopolysaccharide on oxidative metabolism and lysozyme release by human neutrophils [3].
  • Larger lysine polymers and the protamine salmine were bactericidal but, at sublethal concentrations, sensitized the strains to the antibiotics mentioned above, whereas lysine4, streptomycin, cytochrome c, lysozyme, and the polyamines cadaverine, spermidine, and spermine had neither bactericidal nor sensitizing activity [6].
  • Lysozyme was undetected throughout the course of the experiment, but was present in oil-induced peritoneal macrophages and peripheral mononuclear cells [7].

Chemical compound and disease context of STM1028


Biological context of STM1028


Anatomical context of STM1028


Associations of STM1028 with chemical compounds


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of STM1028

  • In this protocol, fixed cells are permeabilized with lysozyme and subjected to a seminested reverse transcriptase PCR using reporter molecule-labeled primers, and subsequently, intracellular reporter molecules are detected microscopically at the individual-cell level by use of a horseradish peroxidase-conjugated antifluorescein antibody assay [20].


  1. An intermediate step in translocation of lipopolysaccharide to the outer membrane of Salmonella typhimurium. Mulford, C.A., Osborn, M.J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1983) [Pubmed]
  2. Bactericidal activity of C9-deficient human serum. Pramoonjago, P., Kinoshita, T., Hong, K.S., Takata-Kozono, Y., Kozono, H., Inagi, R., Inoue, K. J. Immunol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  3. Effect of Brucella abortus lipopolysaccharide on oxidative metabolism and lysozyme release by human neutrophils. Rasool, O., Freer, E., Moreno, E., Jarstrand, C. Infect. Immun. (1992) [Pubmed]
  4. Antimicrobial activity of lysozyme against bacteria involved in food spoilage and food-borne disease. Hughey, V.L., Johnson, E.A. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  5. Outer membrane as a diffusion barrier in Salmonella typhimurium. Penetration of oligo- and polysaccharides into isolated outer membrane vesicles and cells with degraded peptidoglycan layer. Nakae, T., Nikaido, H. J. Biol. Chem. (1975) [Pubmed]
  6. Polycations sensitize enteric bacteria to antibiotics. Vaara, M., Vaara, T. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1983) [Pubmed]
  7. Characterization of monkey peripheral neutrophil granules during infection. Rausch, P.G., Canonico, P.G. Infect. Immun. (1975) [Pubmed]
  8. Regulation of carbohydrate transport activities in Salmonella typhimurium: use of the phosphoglycerate transport system to energize solute uptake. Saier, M.H., Feucht, B.U. J. Bacteriol. (1980) [Pubmed]
  9. Abortive infection of the virulent phage 9NA in a fatty acid auxotroph of Salmonella typhimurium: effect of fatty acid supplementation. Goyal, R., Chakravorty, M. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1989) [Pubmed]
  10. Destruction of Salmonella on poultry meat with lysozyme, EDTA, x-ray, microwave and chlorine. Teotia, J.S., Miller, B.F. Poult. Sci. (1975) [Pubmed]
  11. Change in the surface hydrophobicity of substrate cells during bdelloplast formation by Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus 109J. Cover, W.H., Rittenberg, S.C. J. Bacteriol. (1984) [Pubmed]
  12. Expression of antimicrobial neutrophil defensins in epithelial cells of active inflammatory bowel disease mucosa. Cunliffe, R.N., Kamal, M., Rose, F.R., James, P.D., Mahida, Y.R. J. Clin. Pathol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  13. Cell wall substrate specificity of six different lysozymes and lysozyme inhibitory activity of bacterial extracts. Nakimbugwe, D., Masschalck, B., Deckers, D., Callewaert, L., Aertsen, A., Michiels, C.W. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. (2006) [Pubmed]
  14. Antimutagenicity and the influence of physical factors in binding Lactobacillus gasseri and Bifidobacterium longum cells to amino acid pyrolysates. Sreekumar, O., Hosono, A. J. Dairy Sci. (1998) [Pubmed]
  15. Enhanced lysozyme production in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) macrophages treated with yeast beta-glucan and bacterial lipopolysaccharide. Paulsen, S.M., Engstad, R.E., Robertsen, B. Fish Shellfish Immunol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  16. Asymmetrical distribution and artifactual reorientation of lipopolysaccharide in the outer membrane bilayer of Salmonella typhimurium. Mühlradt, P.F., Golecki, J.R. Eur. J. Biochem. (1975) [Pubmed]
  17. Effect of leukocyte hydrolases on bacteria. XV. Inhibition by antibiotics, metabolic inhibitors, and ultraviolet irradiation of the release by leukocyte extracts, trypsin, and lysozyme of lipopolysaccharide from gram-negative bacteria. Cohen, D., Michel, J., Ferne, M., Bergner-Rabinowitz, S., Ginsburg, I. Inflammation (1979) [Pubmed]
  18. Lactic acid permeabilizes gram-negative bacteria by disrupting the outer membrane. Alakomi, H.L., Skyttä, E., Saarela, M., Mattila-Sandholm, T., Latva-Kala, K., Helander, I.M. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  19. The role of O-antigen polysaccharide in the activation of neutrophils by lipopolysaccharides of Salmonella species. Rasool, O., Nnalue, N.A., Jarstrand, C. Clin. Exp. Immunol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  20. Visualization of specific gene expression in individual Salmonella typhimurium cells by in situ PCR. Tolker-Nielsen, T., Holmstrøm, K., Molin, S. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (1997) [Pubmed]
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