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Chemical Compound Review

glycerate-3-P     2-hydroxy-3-phosphonooxy- propanoic acid

Synonyms: CHEMBL87788, CHEBI:17050, HMDB00807, AC1Q6RYA, ACT09265, ...
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Disease relevance of phosphoglycerate


Psychiatry related information on phosphoglycerate


High impact information on phosphoglycerate

  • The most plausible binding site for the phosphoglycerate substrate is on the other domain about 10 A from the ATP, which implies the possibility of a large scale hinge-bending of the domains to bring the two substrates together in a water-free environment for catalysis [6].
  • Topogenesis of microbody enzymes: a sequence comparison of the genes for the glycosomal (microbody) and cytosolic phosphoglycerate kinases of Trypanosoma brucei [7].
  • Here, we have investigated whether ex vivo preselection of retrovirally transduced stem cells on the basis of expression of the green fluorescent protein driven by the CpG island phosphoglycerate kinase promoter can ensure subsequent long-term expression of a cis-linked beta-globin gene in the erythroid lineage of transplanted mice [8].
  • Mobility-shift DNA binding and DNase I footprint assays indicated that purified TroR bound to a 22-nt region of dyad symmetry that overlaps the -10 region of the promoter of the tro operon, which contains the genes for a putative metal transport system, the glycolytic enzyme phosphoglycerate mutase, and TroR [9].
  • A phosphoglycerate kinase-neomycin gene cassette was also inserted into the 3'-flanking region of GC as a selectable marker, at a site later identified as the terminal exon of metaxin [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of phosphoglycerate


Biological context of phosphoglycerate


Anatomical context of phosphoglycerate

  • Previous reports have suggested the possibility of extensive structural homology between human erythrocyte bisphosphoglycerate synthase (glycerate-1,3-P2 leads to glycerate-2,3-P2) and phosphoglycerate mutase (glycerate-3-P in equilibrium glycerate-2-P) [20].
  • We found that the combination of Rh-MLV LTR and a partial gag sequence of MoMLV (Deltagag(871-1612)) in CS-Rh-MLV-E gave the highest level of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) gene expression compared with MLV, MSV LTR, phosphoglycerate kinase, and CMV promoters in T-cell lines, as well as activated primary T cells [21].
  • An antibody to red cell phosphoglycerate kingase caused complete inhibition of the purified enzyme, whereas a portion of the phophoglycerate kinase activity of the red cell membranes was resistant to the antibody [22].
  • Phosphoglycerate kinase B from ram testis. Purification, characterisation and comparison with the muscle isoenzyme [23].
  • Two chloroplast phosphoglycerate kinase isoforms from the photosynthetic flagellate Euglena gracilis were purified to homogeneity, partially sequenced, and subsequently cDNAs encoding phosphoglycerate kinase isoenzymes from both the chloroplast and cytosol of E. gracilis were cloned and sequenced [24].

Associations of phosphoglycerate with other chemical compounds


Gene context of phosphoglycerate

  • Ser3p (Yer081wp) and Ser33p (Yil074cp) are phosphoglycerate dehydrogenases in Saccharomyces cerevisiae [27].
  • Overexpression of PrPC by injection of rAd (replication-defective recombinant adenoviral)-PGK (phosphoglycerate kinase)-PrPC-Flag into ischemic rat brain improved neurological behavior and reduced the volume of cerebral infarction, which is supportive of a role for PrPC in the neuroprotective adaptive cellular response to ischemic lesions [30].
  • Lack of neighborhood effects from a transcriptionally active phosphoglycerate kinase-neo cassette located between the murine beta-major and beta-minor globin genes [31].
  • PGK is mixed with 3-P-glycerate and [gamma-32P]ATP in a rapid flow quench apparatus [28].
  • The pH dependence of the kinetic parameters for Mg-enolase shows a single break in the plot of pKm, PGA vs pH at pH 6.27 with a pH independence above pH 7 [32].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of phosphoglycerate


  1. Structure and mechanism of action of a novel phosphoglycerate mutase from Bacillus stearothermophilus. Jedrzejas, M.J., Chander, M., Setlow, P., Krishnasamy, G. EMBO J. (2000) [Pubmed]
  2. ATP-driven active transport in right-side-out bacterial membrane vesicles. Hugenholtz, J., Hong, J.S., Kaback, H.R. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1981) [Pubmed]
  3. Molecular abnormality of phosphoglycerate kinase-Uppsala associated with chronic nonspherocytic hemolytic anemia. Fujii, H., Yoshida, A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1980) [Pubmed]
  4. Stability domains, substrate-induced conformational changes, and hinge-bending motions in a psychrophilic phosphoglycerate kinase. A microcalorimetric study. Zecchinon, L., Oriol, A., Netzel, U., Svennberg, J., Gerardin-Otthiers, N., Feller, G. J. Biol. Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  5. Identification of new mutations in two phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK) variants expressing different clinical syndromes: PGK Créteil and PGK Amiens. Cohen-Solal, M., Valentin, C., Plassa, F., Guillemin, G., Danze, F., Jaisson, F., Rosa, R. Blood (1994) [Pubmed]
  6. Sequence, structure and activity of phosphoglycerate kinase: a possible hinge-bending enzyme. Banks, R.D., Blake, C.C., Evans, P.R., Haser, R., Rice, D.W., Hardy, G.W., Merrett, M., Phillips, A.W. Nature (1979) [Pubmed]
  7. Topogenesis of microbody enzymes: a sequence comparison of the genes for the glycosomal (microbody) and cytosolic phosphoglycerate kinases of Trypanosoma brucei. Osinga, K.A., Swinkels, B.W., Gibson, W.C., Borst, P., Veeneman, G.H., Van Boom, J.H., Michels, P.A., Opperdoes, F.R. EMBO J. (1985) [Pubmed]
  8. Preselection of retrovirally transduced bone marrow avoids subsequent stem cell gene silencing and age-dependent extinction of expression of human beta-globin in engrafted mice. Kalberer, C.P., Pawliuk, R., Imren, S., Bachelot, T., Takekoshi, K.J., Fabry, M., Eaves, C.J., London, I.M., Humphries, R.K., Leboulch, P. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2000) [Pubmed]
  9. Characterization of a manganese-dependent regulatory protein, TroR, from Treponema pallidum. Posey, J.E., Hardham, J.M., Norris, S.J., Gherardini, F.C. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1999) [Pubmed]
  10. Metaxin, a gene contiguous to both thrombospondin 3 and glucocerebrosidase, is required for embryonic development in the mouse: implications for Gaucher disease. Bornstein, P., McKinney, C.E., LaMarca, M.E., Winfield, S., Shingu, T., Devarayalu, S., Vos, H.L., Ginns, E.I. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1995) [Pubmed]
  11. Purification and properties of the manganese-dependent phosphoglycerate mutase of Bacillus subtilis. Watabe, K., Freese, E. J. Bacteriol. (1979) [Pubmed]
  12. An operon encoding three glycolytic enzymes in Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus: glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, phosphoglycerate kinase and triosephosphate isomerase. Branny, P., de la Torre, F., Garel, J.R. Microbiology (Reading, Engl.) (1998) [Pubmed]
  13. Effects of thyroid hormone and hypoxia on 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate, bisphosphoglycerate synthase and phosphoglycerate mutase in rabbit erythroblasts and reticulocytes in vivo. González-Cinca, N., Pérez de la Ossa, P., Carreras, J., Climent, F. Horm. Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  14. Kinetic control of phosphoglycerate mutase from Flavobacterium sp. grown on ethylene glycol. Willetts, A. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (1979) [Pubmed]
  15. Protein phosphorylation in pancreatic islets induced by 3-phosphoglycerate and 2-phosphoglycerate. Pek, S.B., Usami, M., Bilir, N., Fischer-Bovenkerk, C., Ueda, T. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1990) [Pubmed]
  16. ATP production in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii flagella by glycolytic enzymes. Mitchell, B.F., Pedersen, L.B., Feely, M., Rosenbaum, J.L., Mitchell, D.R. Mol. Biol. Cell (2005) [Pubmed]
  17. A transport system for phosphoenolpyruvate, 2-phosphoglycerate, and 3-phosphoglycerate in Salmonella typhimurium. Saier, M.H., Wentzel, D.L., Feucht, B.U., Judice, J.J. J. Biol. Chem. (1975) [Pubmed]
  18. Structural and catalytic similarities between nucleotide pyrophosphatases/phosphodiesterases and alkaline phosphatases. Gijsbers, R., Ceulemans, H., Stalmans, W., Bollen, M. J. Biol. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  19. Nucleotide sequence of the phosphoglycerate kinase gene from Bacillus megaterium. Schläpfer, B.S., Branlant, C., Branlant, G., Zuber, H. Nucleic Acids Res. (1990) [Pubmed]
  20. Evidence for structural homology between human red cell phosphoglycerate mutase and 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate synthase. Hass, L.F., Kappel, W.K., Miller, K.B., Engle, R.L. J. Biol. Chem. (1978) [Pubmed]
  21. A murine leukemia virus (MuLV) long terminal repeat derived from rhesus macaques in the context of a lentivirus vector and MuLV gag sequence results in high-level gene expression in human T lymphocytes. Kung, S.K., An, D.S., Chen, I.S. J. Virol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  22. Studies on the mechanism of inhibition of the red cell metabolism by cardiac glycosides. Okonkwo, P.O., Longenecker, G., Askari, A. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. (1975) [Pubmed]
  23. Phosphoglycerate kinase B from ram testis. Purification, characterisation and comparison with the muscle isoenzyme. Stewart, A.A., Scopes, R.K. Eur. J. Biochem. (1978) [Pubmed]
  24. Chloroplast phosphoglycerate kinase from Euglena gracilis: endosymbiotic gene replacement going against the tide. Nowitzki, U., Gelius-Dietrich, G., Schwieger, M., Henze, K., Martin, W. Eur. J. Biochem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  25. Cofactor-independent phosphoglycerate mutase has an essential role in Caenorhabditis elegans and is conserved in parasitic nematodes. Zhang, Y., Foster, J.M., Kumar, S., Fougere, M., Carlow, C.K. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  26. Interaction of inhibitors with muscle phosphofructokinase. Colombo, G., Tate, P.W., Girotti, A.W., Kemp, R.G. J. Biol. Chem. (1975) [Pubmed]
  27. Ser3p (Yer081wp) and Ser33p (Yil074cp) are phosphoglycerate dehydrogenases in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Albers, E., Laizé, V., Blomberg, A., Hohmann, S., Gustafsson, L. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  28. Transient and equilibrium kinetic studies on yeast 3-phosphoglycerate kinase. Evidence that an intermediate containing 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate accumulates in the steady state. Schmidt, P.P., Travers, F., Barman, T. Biochemistry (1995) [Pubmed]
  29. Yeast phosphoglycerate mutate. Cyanogen bromide cleavage and amino acid sequence of an active-site peptide. Fothergill, L.A., Hodgson, G.I. Biochem. J. (1976) [Pubmed]
  30. Overexpression of PrPC by adenovirus-mediated gene targeting reduces ischemic injury in a stroke rat model. Shyu, W.C., Lin, S.Z., Chiang, M.F., Ding, D.C., Li, K.W., Chen, S.F., Yang, H.I., Li, H. J. Neurosci. (2005) [Pubmed]
  31. Lack of neighborhood effects from a transcriptionally active phosphoglycerate kinase-neo cassette located between the murine beta-major and beta-minor globin genes. Kaufman, R.M., Lu, Z.H., Behl, R., Holt, J.M., Ackers, G.K., Ley, T.J. Blood (2001) [Pubmed]
  32. pH dependence of the reaction catalyzed by yeast Mg-enolase. Vinarov, D.A., Nowak, T. Biochemistry (1998) [Pubmed]
  33. Appendix II. The catalytic and stability properties of phosphorylated mammalian phosphoglycerate mutase. McWilliams, A.D., Hass, L.F. J. Biol. Chem. (1986) [Pubmed]
  34. Insights into the catalytic mechanism of cofactor-independent phosphoglycerate mutase from X-ray crystallography, simulated dynamics and molecular modeling. Rigden, D.J., Lamani, E., Mello, L.V., Littlejohn, J.E., Jedrzejas, M.J. J. Mol. Biol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  35. Purification and identification of monoubiquitin-phosphoglycerate mutase B complex from human colorectal cancer tissues. Usuba, T., Ishibashi, Y., Okawa, Y., Hirakawa, T., Takada, K., Ohkawa, K. Int. J. Cancer (2001) [Pubmed]
  36. Thermodynamic study of phosphoglycerate kinase from Thermotoga maritima and its isolated domains: reversible thermal unfolding monitored by differential scanning calorimetry and circular dichroism spectroscopy. Zaiss, K., Jaenicke, R. Biochemistry (1999) [Pubmed]
  37. Isolation of phosphoglycerate kinases by affinity chromatography. Kuntz, G.W., Eber, S., Kessler, W., Krietsch, H., Krietsch, W.K. Eur. J. Biochem. (1978) [Pubmed]
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