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MeSH Review

Salmo salar

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Disease relevance of Salmo salar


Psychiatry related information on Salmo salar

  • Infectious salmon anemia (ISA) is a viral disease occurring in farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) that is characterized by lethargy, anorexia, anemia and death [6].

High impact information on Salmo salar

  • Reverse transcriptase-PCR amplification using specific primers in two teleost fish, winter flounder (Pleuronectes americanus) and Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), reveals a similar pattern of CaR tissue expression [7].
  • The cDNA isolated from the pyloric caeca of chum salmon encodes 222 amino acid residues, the same number of residues as the anionic Atlantic salmon trypsin (AST), but one residue less than bovine beta-trypsin (BT) [8].
  • cDNA clones coding for the transcription factor HNF1 have been isolated from Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). The 559 amino acid residue long encoded protein shows high conservation, with respect to other species, of the domains necessary for DNA-binding: the HNF1 atypical homeodomain, the POU related sequence and the dimerisation domain [9].
  • We report the cloning of a cDNA and two corresponding beta-globin genes of the Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) as well as two genes for alpha-globins [10].
  • Characterization of two distinct aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR2) genes in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and evidence for multiple AhR2 gene lineages in salmonid fish [11].

Chemical compound and disease context of Salmo salar


Biological context of Salmo salar


Anatomical context of Salmo salar


Associations of Salmo salar with chemical compounds

  • Crystals of benzamidine-inhibited trypsin from the North Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) have been grown from ammonium sulphate solution at pH 5 [25].
  • Immunochemical analysis of plasma from Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) exposed to 4-nonylphenol (NP) or to effluent from oil refinery treatment plant (ORTP), shows that NP and ORTP effluent induces Vtg and zona radiata proteins (Zrp) in a dose-dependent manner [26].
  • We have recently identified two novel cysteine proteinase inhibitors from the skin of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.), named salmon kininogen and salarin [27].
  • Depletion of alpha-tocopherol and astaxanthin in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) affects autoxidative defense and fatty acid metabolism [28].
  • High dietary linoleic acid affects the fatty acid compositions of individual phospholipids from tissues of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar): association with stress susceptibility and cardiac lesion [29].

Gene context of Salmo salar


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Salmo salar


  1. Characterization of infectious salmon anemia virus, an orthomyxo-like virus isolated from Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). Falk, K., Namork, E., Rimstad, E., Mjaaland, S., Dannevig, B.H. J. Virol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  2. Regulation of Vibrio anguillarum empA metalloprotease expression and its role in virulence. Denkin, S.M., Nelson, D.R. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  3. Glycerophospholipid:cholesterol acyltransferase complexed with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a major lethal exotoxin and cytolysin of Aeromonas salmonicida: LPS stabilizes and enhances toxicity of the enzyme. Lee, K.K., Ellis, A.E. J. Bacteriol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  4. Nuvan and cataracts in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Fraser, P.J., Duncan, G., Tomlinson, J. Exp. Eye Res. (1990) [Pubmed]
  5. Modulation of brain steroidogenesis by affecting transcriptional changes of steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR) protein and cholesterol side chain cleavage (P450scc) in juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) is a novel aspect of nonylphenol toxicity. Arukwe, A. Environ. Sci. Technol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  6. Risk factors for outbreaks of infectious salmon anemia in farmed Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar. McClure, C.A., Hammell, K.L., Dohoo, I.R. Prev. Vet. Med. (2005) [Pubmed]
  7. Polyvalent cation receptor proteins (CaRs) are salinity sensors in fish. Nearing, J., Betka, M., Quinn, S., Hentschel, H., Elger, M., Baum, M., Bai, M., Chattopadyhay, N., Brown, E.M., Hebert, S.C., Harris, H.W. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2002) [Pubmed]
  8. Crystal structure and nucleotide sequence of an anionic trypsin from chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) in comparison with Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and bovine trypsin. Toyota, E., Ng, K.K., Kuninaga, S., Sekizaki, H., Itoh, K., Tanizawa, K., James, M.N. J. Mol. Biol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  9. Salmon HNF1: cDNA sequence, evolution, tissue specificity and binding to the salmon serum albumin promoter. Deryckere, F., Byrnes, L., Wagner, A., McMorrow, T., Gannon, F. J. Mol. Biol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  10. Tail-to-tail orientation of the Atlantic salmon alpha- and beta-globin genes. Wagner, A., Deryckere, F., McMorrow, T., Gannon, F. J. Mol. Evol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  11. Characterization of two distinct aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR2) genes in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and evidence for multiple AhR2 gene lineages in salmonid fish. Hansson, M.C., Wittzell, H., Persson, K., von Schantz, T. Gene (2003) [Pubmed]
  12. Sodium silicate as alternative to liming-reduced aluminium toxicity for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) in unstable mixing zones. Teien, H.C., Kroglund, F., Atland, A., Rosseland, B.O., Salbu, B. Sci. Total Environ. (2006) [Pubmed]
  13. Treatment of ichthyophthiriasis after malachite green. II. Earth ponds at salmonid farms. Rintamäki-Kinnunen, P., Rahkonen, M., Mykrä, H., Valtonen, E.T. Dis. Aquat. Org. (2005) [Pubmed]
  14. Association between immunisation, reduced weight gain and plasma cortisol concentrations in juvenile Baltic salmon (Salmo salar). Engelbrecht Nielsen, M., Buchmann, K. Acta Vet. Scand. (1997) [Pubmed]
  15. Vacuolar-type H(+)-ATPase and Na+, K(+)-ATPase expression in gills of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) during isolated and combined exposure to hyperoxia and hypercapnia in fresh water. Seidelin, M., Brauner, C.J., Jensen, F.B., Madsen, S.S. Zool. Sci. (2001) [Pubmed]
  16. Rapid evolution of the MH class I locus results in different allelic compositions in recently diverged populations of Atlantic salmon. Consuegra, S., Megens, H.J., Schaschl, H., Leon, K., Stet, R.J., Jordan, W.C. Mol. Biol. Evol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  17. 'Good genes as heterozygosity': the major histocompatibility complex and mate choice in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Landry, C., Garant, D., Duchesne, P., Bernatchez, L. Proc. Biol. Sci. (2001) [Pubmed]
  18. The complete mitochondrial DNA sequence of the Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar. Hurst, C.D., Bartlett, S.E., Davidson, W.S., Bruce, I.J. Gene (1999) [Pubmed]
  19. Identification of putative motifs involved in the virulence of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus. Santi, N., Vakharia, V.N., Evensen, Ø. Virology (2004) [Pubmed]
  20. Pinealectomy induces malformation of the spine and reduces the mechanical strength of the vertebrae in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar. Fjelldal, P.G., Grotmol, S., Kryvi, H., Gjerdet, N.R., Taranger, G.L., Hansen, T., Porter, M.J., Totland, G.K. J. Pineal Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  21. Biochemical characterization of salmon pancreas disease virus. Welsh, M., Weston, J., Borghmans, B.J., Mackie, D., Rowley, H., Nelson, R., McLoughlin, M., Todd, D. J. Gen. Virol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  22. A sensitive zonagenetic assay for rapid in vitro assessment of estrogenic potency of xenobiotics and mycotoxins. Celius, T., Haugen, T.B., Grotmol, T., Walther, B.T. Environ. Health Perspect. (1999) [Pubmed]
  23. Multiple variants of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) gamma are expressed in the liver of atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Andersen, O., Eijsink, V.G., Thomassen, M. Gene (2000) [Pubmed]
  24. Cloning of T-cell antigen receptor beta chain cDNAs from Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Hordvik, I., Jacob, A.L., Charlemagne, J., Endresen, C. Immunogenetics (1996) [Pubmed]
  25. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic studies of benzamidine-inhibited trypsin from the North Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Smalås, A.O., Hordvik, A., Hansen, L.K., Hough, E., Jynge, K. J. Mol. Biol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  26. Fish zona radiata (eggshell) protein: a sensitive biomarker for environmental estrogens. Arukwe, A., Knudsen, F.R., Goksøyr, A. Environ. Health Perspect. (1997) [Pubmed]
  27. Glycosylation analysis of two cysteine proteinase inhibitors from Atlantic salmon skin: di-O-acetylated sialic acids are the major sialic acid species on N-glycans. Ylönen, A., Kalkkinen, N., Saarinen, J., Bøgwald, J., Helin, J. Glycobiology (2001) [Pubmed]
  28. Depletion of alpha-tocopherol and astaxanthin in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) affects autoxidative defense and fatty acid metabolism. Bell, J.G., McEvoy, J., Tocher, D.R., Sargent, J.R. J. Nutr. (2000) [Pubmed]
  29. High dietary linoleic acid affects the fatty acid compositions of individual phospholipids from tissues of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar): association with stress susceptibility and cardiac lesion. Bell, J.G., McVicar, A.H., Park, M.T., Sargent, J.R. J. Nutr. (1991) [Pubmed]
  30. Partial cloning of constitutive and inducible nitric oxide synthases and detailed neuronal expression of NOS mRNA in the cerebellum and optic tectum of adult Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Oyan, A.M., Nilsen, F., Goksøyr, A., Holmqvist, B. Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res. (2000) [Pubmed]
  31. Serum amyloid A transcription in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) hepatocytes is enhanced by stimulation with macrophage factors, recombinant human IL-1 beta, IL-6 and TNF alpha or bacterial lipopolysaccharide. Jørgensen, J.B., Lunde, H., Jensen, L., Whitehead, A.S., Robertsen, B. Dev. Comp. Immunol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  32. Cloning and sequencing of the Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) cytochrome c oxidase subunit III gene (coxIII) and analysis of coxIII expression during parr-smolt transformation. Hardiman, G., Byrnes, L., Peden, J., Wolff, J., Gannon, F. Mol. Marine Biol. Biotechnol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  33. Cloning and characterisation of a putative ST2L homologue from Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Stansberg, C., Subramaniam, S., Olsen, L., Secombes, C.J., Cunningham, C. Fish Shellfish Immunol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  34. Cloning and sequence analysis of two isotypic IgM heavy chain genes from Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L. Hordvik, I., Voie, A.M., Glette, J., Male, R., Endresen, C. Eur. J. Immunol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  35. PCR and probe-PCR assays to monitor broodstock Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) ovarian fluid and kidney tissue for presence of DNA of the fish pathogen Renibacterium salmoninarum. Miriam, A., Griffiths, S.G., Lovely, J.E., Lynch, W.H. J. Clin. Microbiol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  36. Molecular cloning of major histocompatibility complex class I cDNAs from Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Grimholt, U., Hordvik, I., Fosse, V.M., Olsaker, I., Endresen, C., Lie, O. Immunogenetics (1993) [Pubmed]
  37. The pineal organ is the first differentiated light receptor in the embryonic salmon, Salmo salar L. Ostholm, T., Brännäs, E., van Veen, T. Cell Tissue Res. (1987) [Pubmed]
  38. The influence of male parr body size and mate competition on fertilization success and effective population size in Atlantic salmon. Jones, M.W., Hutchings, J.A. Heredity (2001) [Pubmed]
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