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Gene Review

CRAT  -  carnitine O-acetyltransferase

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: CAT, CAT1, Carnitine O-acetyltransferase, Carnitine acetylase, Carnitine acetyltransferase, ...
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Disease relevance of CRAT


Psychiatry related information on CRAT


High impact information on CRAT


Chemical compound and disease context of CRAT


Biological context of CRAT


Anatomical context of CRAT


Associations of CRAT with chemical compounds


Other interactions of CRAT


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of CRAT


  1. Muscle carnitine deficiency in patients with severe peripheral vascular disease. Brevetti, G., Angelini, C., Rosa, M., Carrozzo, R., Perna, S., Corsi, M., Matarazzo, A., Marcialis, A. Circulation (1991) [Pubmed]
  2. Carnitine acyltransferases and acyl-CoA hydrolases in human and rat liver. Agius, L., Wright, P.D., Alberti, K.G. Clin. Sci. (1987) [Pubmed]
  3. Muscle carnitine acetyltransferase and carnitine deficiency in a case of mitochondrial encephalomyopathy. Melegh, B., Seress, L., Bedekovics, T., Kispál, G., Sümegi, B., Trombitás, K., Méhes, K. J. Inherit. Metab. Dis. (1999) [Pubmed]
  4. Perfluoro-N-decanoic acid effects on enzymes of fatty acid metabolism. Singer, S.S., Andersen, M.E., George, M.E. Toxicol. Lett. (1990) [Pubmed]
  5. Extracellular reduction of Cat1 free radical by transformed human hepatocytes. Bernas, T., Dobrucki, J. Biosci. Rep. (1998) [Pubmed]
  6. Carnitine acetyltransferase activity in the human brain and its microvessels is decreased in Alzheimer's disease. Kalaria, R.N., Harik, S.I. Ann. Neurol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  7. Regulation of amino acid and glucose transporters in endothelial and smooth muscle cells. Mann, G.E., Yudilevich, D.L., Sobrevia, L. Physiol. Rev. (2003) [Pubmed]
  8. Transporters for cationic amino acids in animal cells: discovery, structure, and function. Devés, R., Boyd, C.A. Physiol. Rev. (1998) [Pubmed]
  9. Carnitine--metabolism and functions. Bremer, J. Physiol. Rev. (1983) [Pubmed]
  10. Crystal structure of carnitine acetyltransferase and implications for the catalytic mechanism and fatty acid transport. Jogl, G., Tong, L. Cell (2003) [Pubmed]
  11. L-carnitine enhances excretion of propionyl coenzyme A as propionylcarnitine in propionic acidemia. Roe, C.R., Millington, D.S., Maltby, D.A., Bohan, T.P., Hoppel, C.L. J. Clin. Invest. (1984) [Pubmed]
  12. Impaired L-arginine transport and endothelial function in hypertensive and genetically predisposed normotensive subjects. Schlaich, M.P., Parnell, M.M., Ahlers, B.A., Finch, S., Marshall, T., Zhang, W.Z., Kaye, D.M. Circulation (2004) [Pubmed]
  13. Changes in enzyme levels in the testis and liver of the 13-lined ground squirrel (spermophilus tridecemlineatus) at the time of arousal from hibernation. Geer, B.W., Gabliani, G.I., Schramm, P. Arch. Int. Physiol. Biochim. (1977) [Pubmed]
  14. Genomics of the human carnitine acyltransferase genes. van der Leij, F.R., Huijkman, N.C., Boomsma, C., Kuipers, J.R., Bartelds, B. Mol. Genet. Metab. (2000) [Pubmed]
  15. Divergent sequences in the 5' region of cDNA suggest alternative splicing as a mechanism for the generation of carnitine acetyltransferases with different subcellular localizations. Corti, O., DiDonato, S., Finocchiaro, G. Biochem. J. (1994) [Pubmed]
  16. Structural and mutational characterization of L-carnitine binding to human carnitine acetyltransferase. Govindasamy, L., Kukar, T., Lian, W., Pedersen, B., Gu, Y., Agbandje-McKenna, M., Jin, S., McKenna, R., Wu, D. J. Struct. Biol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  17. Molecular cloning of cDNAs encoding human carnitine acetyltransferase and mapping of the corresponding gene to chromosome 9q34.1. Corti, O., Finocchiaro, G., Rossi, E., Zuffardi, O., DiDonato, S. Genomics (1994) [Pubmed]
  18. Downregulation of carnitine acyltransferases and organic cation transporter OCTN2 in mononuclear cells in healthy elderly and patients with myelodysplastic syndromes. Karlic, H., Lohninger, A., Laschan, C., Lapin, A., Böhmer, F., Huemer, M., Guthann, E., Rappold, E., Pfeilstöcker, M. J. Mol. Med. (2003) [Pubmed]
  19. Carnitine acyltransferases are not changed in Alzheimer disease. Maurer, I., Zierz, S., Möller, H.J. Alzheimer disease and associated disorders. (1998) [Pubmed]
  20. Regulation of Cat1 gene expression in the scutellum of maize during early sporophytic development. Chandlee, J.M., Scandalios, J.G. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1984) [Pubmed]
  21. Characterization of ciprofibrate and clofibric acid as peroxisomal proliferators in primary cultures of rat hepatocytes. Feller, D.R., Singh, Y., Shirhatti, V.R., Kocarek, T.A., Liu, C.T., Krishna, G. Hepatology (1987) [Pubmed]
  22. Fatal ataxic encephalopathy and carnitine acetyltransferase deficiency: a functional defect of pyruvate oxidation? DiDonato, S., Rimoldi, M., Moise, A., Bertagnoglio, B., Uziel, G. Neurology (1979) [Pubmed]
  23. Structure and function of carnitine acyltransferases. Jogl, G., Hsiao, Y.S., Tong, L. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. (2004) [Pubmed]
  24. Structural model of a malonyl-CoA-binding site of carnitine octanoyltransferase and carnitine palmitoyltransferase I: mutational analysis of a malonyl-CoA affinity domain. Morillas, M., Gómez-Puertas, P., Rubí, B., Clotet, J., Ariño, J., Valencia, A., Hegardt, F.G., Serra, D., Asins, G. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  25. Tandem mass spectrometric assay for the determination of carnitine palmitoyltransferase II activity in muscle tissue. Rettinger, A., Gempel, K., Hofmann, S., Gerbitz, K.D., Bauer, M.F. Anal. Biochem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  26. Familial carnitine deficiency. A fatal case and subclinical state in a sister. Scholte, H.R., Meijer, A.E., van Wijngaarden, G.K., Leenders, K.L. J. Neurol. Sci. (1979) [Pubmed]
  27. Active-site-directed inhibition of carnitine acetyltransferase. Venkatraghavan, V., Smith, D.J. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. (1983) [Pubmed]
  28. Response of chemically induced hepatocytelike cells in hamster pancreas to methyl clofenapate, a peroxisome proliferator. Rao, M.S., Reddy, M.K., Reddy, J.K., Scarpelli, D.G. J. Cell Biol. (1982) [Pubmed]
  29. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic studies on recombinant human carnitine acetyltransferase. Lian, W., Govindasamy, L., Gu, Y., Kukar, T., Agbandje-McKenna, M., McKenna, R., Wu, D. Acta Crystallogr. D Biol. Crystallogr. (2002) [Pubmed]
  30. L-Arginine transport across the basal plasma membrane of the syncytiotrophoblast of the human placenta from normal and preeclamptic pregnancies. Speake, P.F., Glazier, J.D., Ayuk, P.T., Reade, M., Sibley, C.P., D'Souza, S.W. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2003) [Pubmed]
  31. Photic regulation of L-arginine uptake in the golden hamster retina. Sáenz, D.A., Cymeryng, C.B., De Nichilo, A., Sacca, G.B., Keller Sarmiento, M.I., Rosenstein, R.E. J. Neurochem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  32. cDNA cloning and differential gene expression of three catalases in pumpkin. Esaka, M., Yamada, N., Kitabayashi, M., Setoguchi, Y., Tsugeki, R., Kondo, M., Nishimura, M. Plant Mol. Biol. (1997) [Pubmed]
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