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Gene Review

Wld  -  wallerian degeneration

Mus musculus

Synonyms: Wlds
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Disease relevance of Wld

  • Genetic influences on cellular reactions to brain injury: activation of microglia in denervated neuropil in mice carrying a mutation (Wld(S)) that causes delayed Wallerian degeneration [1].
  • The information on the position of the Wld locus should be valuable in further characterization of this gene involved in nerve degeneration and regeneration [2].
  • Thus, these results clearly demonstrate that the Wld gene confers substantial neuroprotection after cerebral ischemia, and suggest a new role to that previously described for Wld(s) [3].
  • In the caudate nucleus, Wld expression significantly reduced the percentage of ischemic neuronal damage after global ischemia (Wld(s), 27.7 +/- 16.8%; wild-type mice, 58.7 +/- 32.3%; P = 0.036) [3].
  • We examined the response to axon injury in the facial motoneurons and dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons of C57BL/Ola (Wld) mice, compared with the responses of C57BL/6J mice [4].

Psychiatry related information on Wld


High impact information on Wld


Chemical compound and disease context of Wld


Biological context of Wld


Anatomical context of Wld


Associations of Wld with chemical compounds


Physical interactions of Wld


Regulatory relationships of Wld


Other interactions of Wld

  • Therefore, axon protection in Wld s mice does not appear to be controlled by expression of Wld s protein in the axons per se and also is unlikely to be related to the different activity of Ube4b either in general ubiquitination or toward this particular substrate [15].
  • There is, however, no evidence that Kif1b is the Wld gene [13].
  • Tenascin-C expression during wallerian degeneration in C57BL/Wlds mice: possible implications for axonal regeneration [14].
  • JE expression was also examined in C57BL/Wld(s) mice, which have delayed Wallerian degeneration associated with a failure of macrophage recruitment, and their parental C57BL/6J strain [24].
  • Normal rate of Schwann cell proliferation in the MBP-deficient shiverer mouse during Wallerian degeneration [21].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Wld


  1. Genetic influences on cellular reactions to brain injury: activation of microglia in denervated neuropil in mice carrying a mutation (Wld(S)) that causes delayed Wallerian degeneration. Schauwecker, P.E., Steward, O. J. Comp. Neurol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  2. A gene affecting Wallerian nerve degeneration maps distally on mouse chromosome 4. Lyon, M.F., Ogunkolade, B.W., Brown, M.C., Atherton, D.J., Perry, V.H. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1993) [Pubmed]
  3. Neuroprotection after transient global cerebral ischemia in Wld(s) mutant mice. Gillingwater, T.H., Haley, J.E., Ribchester, R.R., Horsburgh, K. J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. (2004) [Pubmed]
  4. Cell body response to injury in motoneurons and primary sensory neurons of a mutant mouse, Ola (Wld), in which Wallerian degeneration is delayed. Bisby, M.A., Tetzlaff, W., Brown, M.C. J. Comp. Neurol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  5. Resveratrol--a boon for treating Alzheimer's disease? Anekonda, T.S. Brain Res. Brain Res. Rev. (2006) [Pubmed]
  6. Wallerian degeneration of injured axons and synapses is delayed by a Ube4b/Nmnat chimeric gene. Mack, T.G., Reiner, M., Beirowski, B., Mi, W., Emanuelli, M., Wagner, D., Thomson, D., Gillingwater, T., Court, F., Conforti, L., Fernando, F.S., Tarlton, A., Andressen, C., Addicks, K., Magni, G., Ribchester, R.R., Perry, V.H., Coleman, M.P. Nat. Neurosci. (2001) [Pubmed]
  7. A developmentally regulated switch directs regenerative growth of Schwann cells through cyclin D1. Kim, H.A., Pomeroy, S.L., Whoriskey, W., Pawlitzky, I., Benowitz, L.I., Sicinski, P., Stiles, C.D., Roberts, T.M. Neuron (2000) [Pubmed]
  8. Macrophage dependence of peripheral sensory nerve regeneration: possible involvement of nerve growth factor. Brown, M.C., Perry, V.H., Lunn, E.R., Gordon, S., Heumann, R. Neuron (1991) [Pubmed]
  9. Granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor produced in lesioned peripheral nerves induces the up-regulation of cell surface expression of MAC-2 by macrophages and Schwann cells. Saada, A., Reichert, F., Rotshenker, S. J. Cell Biol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  10. Depletion of macrophages reduces axonal degeneration and hyperalgesia following nerve injury. Liu, T., van Rooijen, N., Tracey, D.J. Pain (2000) [Pubmed]
  11. A Ufd2/D4Cole1e chimeric protein and overexpression of Rbp7 in the slow Wallerian degeneration (WldS) mouse. Conforti, L., Tarlton, A., Mack, T.G., Mi, W., Buckmaster, E.A., Wagner, D., Perry, V.H., Coleman, M.P. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2000) [Pubmed]
  12. Human homologue of a gene mutated in the slow Wallerian degeneration (C57BL/Wld(s)) mouse. Fernando, F.S., Conforti, L., Tosi, S., Smith, A.D., Coleman, M.P. Gene (2002) [Pubmed]
  13. The major brain isoform of kif1b lacks the putative mitochondria-binding domain. Conforti, L., Buckmaster, E.A., Tarlton, A., Brown, M.C., Lyon, M.F., Perry, V.H., Coleman, M.P. Mamm. Genome (1999) [Pubmed]
  14. Tenascin-C expression during wallerian degeneration in C57BL/Wlds mice: possible implications for axonal regeneration. Fruttiger, M., Schachner, M., Martini, R. J. Neurocytol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  15. The cellular distribution of the Wld s chimeric protein and its constituent proteins in the CNS. Fang, C., Bernardes-Silva, M., Coleman, M.P., Perry, V.H. Neuroscience (2005) [Pubmed]
  16. Ultrastructural correlates of synapse withdrawal at axotomized neuromuscular junctions in mutant and transgenic mice expressing the Wld gene. Gillingwater, T.H., Ingham, C.A., Coleman, M.P., Ribchester, R.R. J. Anat. (2003) [Pubmed]
  17. Altered brain metabolism in the C57BL/Wld mouse strain detected by magnetic resonance spectroscopy: association with delayed Wallerian degeneration? Tsao, J.W., Paramananthan, N., Parkes, H.G., Dunn, J.F. J. Neurol. Sci. (1999) [Pubmed]
  18. Activation and proliferation of murine microglia are insensitive to glucocorticoids in Wallerian degeneration. Castaño, A., Lawson, L.J., Fearn, S., Perry, V.H. Eur. J. Neurosci. (1996) [Pubmed]
  19. Observations on the progress of Wallerian degeneration in transected peripheral nerves of C57BL/Wld mice in the presence of recruited macrophages. Hall, S.M. J. Neurocytol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  20. Granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) activity is regulated by a GM-CSF binding molecule in Wallerian degeneration following injury to peripheral nerve axons. Mirski, R., Reichert, F., Klar, A., Rotshenker, S. J. Neuroimmunol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  21. Normal rate of Schwann cell proliferation in the MBP-deficient shiverer mouse during Wallerian degeneration. Komiyama, A., Suzuki, K. Brain Res. (1991) [Pubmed]
  22. The role of TNF-alpha during Wallerian degeneration. Liefner, M., Siebert, H., Sachse, T., Michel, U., Kollias, G., Brück, W. J. Neuroimmunol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  23. Enhanced oligodendrocyte survival after spinal cord injury in Bax-deficient mice and mice with delayed Wallerian degeneration. Dong, H., Fazzaro, A., Xiang, C., Korsmeyer, S.J., Jacquin, M.F., McDonald, J.W. J. Neurosci. (2003) [Pubmed]
  24. Expression of JE (monocyte chemoattractant protein-1) is induced by sciatic axotomy in wild type rodents but not in C57BL/Wld(s) mice. Carroll, S.L., Frohnert, P.W. J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  25. Delay of CNTF decrease following peripheral nerve injury in C57BL/Wld mice. Subang, M.C., Bisby, M.A., Richardson, P.M. J. Neurosci. Res. (1997) [Pubmed]
  26. Matrix metalloproteinase expression and inhibition after sciatic nerve axotomy. Siebert, H., Dippel, N., Mäder, M., Weber, F., Brück, W. J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  27. Prolonged axonal survival in transected nerves of C57BL/Ola mice is independent of age. Crawford, T.O., Hsieh, S.T., Schryer, B.L., Glass, J.D. J. Neurocytol. (1995) [Pubmed]
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