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Gene Review

Tk1  -  thymidine kinase 1, soluble

Rattus norvegicus

Synonyms: Thymidine kinase, cytosolic, Tk-1
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Disease relevance of Tk1

  • We report here that production of herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (tk) RNA is stimulated as much as 50-fold by the glucocorticoid, dexamethasone, when sequences from a particular region of MTV DNA are fused upstream of the normally constitutive tk promoter region [1].
  • They also suggest that the selective uptake of drugs that exploit viral thymidine kinase for their antiviral effect can, by appropriate labeling, be used in conjunction with clinical neuroimaging techniques to define infected regions of human brain, thereby providing a new approach to the diagnosis of herpes encephalitis in man [2].
  • Selective destruction of gliomas in immunocompetent rats by thymidine kinase-defective herpes simplex virus type 1 [3].
  • A thymidine kinase-defective HSV-1 virus, KOS-SB, was used to infect 9L cells in culture, and the viability of the infected cells was compared with that of mock-infected (i.e., uninfected) cells [3].
  • At later stages, 17-20 days after implantation of the lymphoma, appreciable amounts of thymidine kinase appeared in the plasma: The units of activity per milliliter were 6.2 in single hosts, 0.79 in parabiotic hosts, and 0.55 in host partners (control less than 0.05) [4].

Psychiatry related information on Tk1


High impact information on Tk1


Chemical compound and disease context of Tk1


Biological context of Tk1


Anatomical context of Tk1


Associations of Tk1 with chemical compounds

  • Early studies achieved selective incorporation of the thymidine analog 5-Bromo-2-deoxy-Uridine (BrdU) into mtDNA of thymidine kinase-deficient (TK[-]) cells [24].
  • Neither acyclovir, FIAU, nor the herpes thymidine kinase alone is harmful to cells [25].
  • Our results indicate that both types of O6-substituted guanines are substantially mutagenic, although the methyl substituent induced a 2-fold higher percentage of transformed Rat4 TK+ colonies than its bulkier benzyl analogue [26].
  • Furthermore, the region of the prolactin gene at -1713 to -1495 was able to confer estrogen responsiveness on the thymidine kinase promoter [27].
  • When this hybrid gene was transfected into Rat 2 TK- cells, its expression was induced threefold by the glucocorticoid dexamethasone, as assessed by transfection efficiency and RNA blotting analyses [28].

Physical interactions of Tk1


Regulatory relationships of Tk1


Other interactions of Tk1


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Tk1


  1. DNA sequences bound specifically by glucocorticoid receptor in vitro render a heterologous promoter hormone responsive in vivo. Chandler, V.L., Maler, B.A., Yamamoto, K.R. Cell (1983) [Pubmed]
  2. Quantitative autoradiographic mapping of herpes simplex virus encephalitis with a radiolabeled antiviral drug. Saito, Y., Price, R.W., Rottenberg, D.A., Fox, J.J., Su, T.L., Watanabe, K.A., Philips, F.S. Science (1982) [Pubmed]
  3. Selective destruction of gliomas in immunocompetent rats by thymidine kinase-defective herpes simplex virus type 1. Jia, W.W., McDermott, M., Goldie, J., Cynader, M., Tan, J., Tufaro, F. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1994) [Pubmed]
  4. Tissue enzyme changes in parabiotic rats with subcutaneous lymphoma or fibrosarcoma. Herzfeld, A., Greengard, O., Warren, S. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1978) [Pubmed]
  5. Invasiveness and metastatic capability of rat fibroblast-like cells before and after transfection with immortalizing and transforming genes. Van Roy, F.M., Messiaen, L., Liebaut, G., Gao, J., Dragonetti, C.H., Fiers, W.C., Mareel, M.M. Cancer Res. (1986) [Pubmed]
  6. Ontogeny of thymidine kinase and DNA in the hypothalamus and cerebral cortex of the rat: effects of neonatal estrogen. Litteria, M., Popoff, C.G. Exp. Neurol. (1984) [Pubmed]
  7. Induction of proto-oncogene fos transcription through the adenylate cyclase pathway: characterization of a cAMP-responsive element. Sassone-Corsi, P., Visvader, J., Ferland, L., Mellon, P.L., Verma, I.M. Genes Dev. (1988) [Pubmed]
  8. Re: Synergistic anticancer effects of ganciclovir/thymidine kinase and 5-fluorocytosine/cytosine deaminase gene therapies. Liao, W.C., Chang, W.S., Wu, F.Y. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1999) [Pubmed]
  9. Synergistic anticancer effects of ganciclovir/thymidine kinase and 5-fluorocytosine/cytosine deaminase gene therapies. Aghi, M., Kramm, C.M., Chou, T.C., Breakefield, X.O., Chiocca, E.A. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1998) [Pubmed]
  10. Regulation of the rat liver sodium-dependent bile acid cotransporter gene by prolactin. Mediation of transcriptional activation by Stat5. Ganguly, T.C., O'Brien, M.L., Karpen, S.J., Hyde, J.F., Suchy, F.J., Vore, M. J. Clin. Invest. (1997) [Pubmed]
  11. Plasmidial maintenance in rodent fibroblasts of a BPV1-pBR322 shuttle vector without immediately apparent oncogenic transformation of the recipient cells. Meneguzzi, G., Binétruy, B., Grisoni, M., Cuzin, F. EMBO J. (1984) [Pubmed]
  12. Tissue preference and differentiation of malignant rat x mouse hybrid cells in chimaeric mouse fetuses. Duboule, D., Croce, C.M., Illmensee, K. EMBO J. (1982) [Pubmed]
  13. Isolation of a cDNA clone encoding a biologically active thyroid hormone receptor. Koenig, R.J., Warne, R.L., Brent, G.A., Harney, J.W., Larsen, P.R., Moore, D.D. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1988) [Pubmed]
  14. Adenovirus type 5 induces progression of quiescent rat cells into S phase without polyamine accumulation. Cheetham, B.F., Shaw, D.C., Bellett, A.J. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1982) [Pubmed]
  15. Quantitative 1H nuclear magnetic resonance diffusion spectroscopy of BT4C rat glioma during thymidine kinase-mediated gene therapy in vivo: identification of apoptotic response. Hakumäki, J.M., Poptani, H., Puumalainen, A.M., Loimas, S., Paljärvi, L.A., Ylä-Herttuala, S., Kauppinen, R.A. Cancer Res. (1998) [Pubmed]
  16. The rat thymidine kinase gene 5' region: evolution of a promoter. Arcot, S.S., Traina-Dorge, V.L., Deininger, P.L. DNA Seq. (1991) [Pubmed]
  17. DNA synthesis and thymidine kinase activity of rat colon epithelial cells fractionated by discontinuous Ficoll gradient. Mazumder, A., Patnaik, R.N., Bhagavan, B.S., Nair, P.P. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1978) [Pubmed]
  18. Inhibition of lung epithelial cell proliferation by hyperoxia. Posttranscriptional regulation of proliferation-related genes. Clement, A., Edeas, M., Chadelat, K., Brody, J.S. J. Clin. Invest. (1992) [Pubmed]
  19. Host-specificities of papillomavirus, Moloney murine sarcoma virus and simian virus 40 enhancer sequences. Spandidos, D.A., Wilkie, N.M. EMBO J. (1983) [Pubmed]
  20. Pyrimidine biosynthetic enzymes in rat intestine after small bowel resection. Nakayama, H., Weser, E. Gastroenterology (1975) [Pubmed]
  21. Unequal homologous recombination between tandemly arranged sequences stably incorporated into cultured rat cells. Stringer, J.R., Kuhn, R.M., Newman, J.L., Meade, J.C. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  22. Tumor-associated thymidine kinase in the sera of rats with transplanted hepatomas. Taylor, A., Hewitt, E.G., Jones, O.W. Cancer Res. (1976) [Pubmed]
  23. Relative activities of thymidylate synthetase and thymidine kinase in rat tissues. Herzfeld, A., Raper, S.M. Cancer Res. (1980) [Pubmed]
  24. In situ localization of mitochondrial DNA replication in intact mammalian cells. Davis, A.F., Clayton, D.A. J. Cell Biol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  25. Targeting of an inducible toxic phenotype in animal cells. Borrelli, E., Heyman, R., Hsi, M., Evans, R.M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1988) [Pubmed]
  26. Molecular analysis of O6-substituted guanine-induced mutagenesis of ras oncogenes. Mitra, G., Pauly, G.T., Kumar, R., Pei, G.K., Hughes, S.H., Moschel, R.C., Barbacid, M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1989) [Pubmed]
  27. Identification of an estrogen-responsive element from the 5'-flanking region of the rat prolactin gene. Maurer, R.A., Notides, A.C. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  28. Glucocorticoid receptor binding and activation of a heterologous promoter by dexamethasone by the first intron of the human growth hormone gene. Slater, E.P., Rabenau, O., Karin, M., Baxter, J.D., Beato, M. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  29. Induction of cell death in activated hepatic stellate cells by targeted gene expression of the thymidine kinase/ganciclovir system. Janoschek, N., van de Leur, E., Gressner, A.M., Weiskirchen, R. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2004) [Pubmed]
  30. 3-Chloro-1,3,5-pregnatriene derivatives with glucocorticoid activity. Arányi, P., Náray, A., Ninh, N.V., Fekete, G., Tóth, J., Horváth, I. Steroids (1983) [Pubmed]
  31. Effect of 3,5,3'-L-triiodothyronine on hepatic ornithine decarboxylase and thymidine kinase activity in rat after partial hepatectomy. Knopp, J., Brtko, J., Juráni, M., Jaroscáková, I., Jurcovicová, J. Endocrine regulations. (1994) [Pubmed]
  32. Identification of a cAMP regulatory region in the gene for rat cytosolic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (GTP). Use of chimeric genes transfected into hepatoma cells. Wynshaw-Boris, A., Lugo, T.G., Short, J.M., Fournier, R.E., Hanson, R.W. J. Biol. Chem. (1984) [Pubmed]
  33. Gene expression of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, SHARP-2, is regulated by gonadotropins in the rat ovary and MA-10 cells. Yamada, K., Kawata, H., Mizutani, T., Arima, T., Yazawa, T., Matsuura, K., Shou, Z., Sekiguchi, T., Yoshino, M., Kajitani, T., Miyamoto, K. Biol. Reprod. (2004) [Pubmed]
  34. Insulin-like growth factor II/mannose-6-phosphate receptors are transiently increased in the rat distal intestinal epithelium after resection. Grey, V., Rouyer-Fessard, C., Gammeltoft, S., Bourque, M., Morin, C., Laburthe, M. Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  35. Two proximal CArG elements regulate SM alpha-actin promoter, a genetic marker of activated phenotype of mesangial cells. Simonson, M.S., Walsh, K., Kumar, C.C., Bushel, P., Herman, W.H. Am. J. Physiol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  36. Expression of Epstein-Barr virus genes in different cell types after microinjection of viral DNA. Graessmann, A., Wolf, H., Bornkamm, G.W. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1980) [Pubmed]
  37. Ammonia, octanoate and a mercaptan depress regeneration of normal rat liver after partial hepatectomy. Zieve, L., Shekleton, M., Lyftogt, C., Draves, K. Hepatology (1985) [Pubmed]
  38. Liver regeneration after hepatic ischemia and reduced liver autotransplantation in the rat. Bolitho, G., Engelbrecht, G., Lotz, Z., Tyler, M., McLeod, H., Jaskiewicz, K., Hickman, R. Hepatology (1993) [Pubmed]
  39. Imaging herpes virus thymidine kinase gene transfer and expression by positron emission tomography. Tjuvajev, J.G., Avril, N., Oku, T., Sasajima, T., Miyagawa, T., Joshi, R., Safer, M., Beattie, B., DiResta, G., Daghighian, F., Augensen, F., Koutcher, J., Zweit, J., Humm, J., Larson, S.M., Finn, R., Blasberg, R. Cancer Res. (1998) [Pubmed]
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