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Gene Review

IL2  -  interleukin 2

Gallus gallus

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Disease relevance of IL2

  • In animal immune experiment, Newcastle disease vaccine was mixed, respectively, with two cCHMIs and IL-2 to vaccinate 15-day-old chicken in experimental groups [1].
  • We examined the ability of a set of cloned chicken ovalbumin (cOVA)-specific, Id-restricted, T cell hybridomas to produce interleukin-2 in response to cOVA presented by the Ia+ B cell lymphoma line, A20-2J [2].
  • TIL exhibited high proliferative responses to T cell mitogens (concanavalin A, phytohemagglutinin) and IL 2, but only weak responses to the B cell mitogen LPS from Salmonella typhimurium [3].
  • The mitogenic response to Con A and the production of T cell growth factor or interleukin 2 (IL 2) by splenic and peripheral blood lymphocytes of obese strain (OS) chickens with spontaneous autoimmune thyroiditis have been investigated [4].
  • Interleukin-2 gene transduction into freshly isolated lung adenocarcinoma cells with adenoviral vectors [5].

High impact information on IL2

  • T-cell activation with concanavalin A plus interleukin-2 induced spleen cells to express this gene with kinetics correlating with the acquisition of cytolytic capacity [6].
  • Hen egg lysozyme 52-61-specific CD4+ T cells responded by interleukin 2 (IL-2) secretion to any peptide containing this epitope regardless of length of NH2- and COOH-terminal composition [7].
  • Peptides that failed to induce IL-2 secretion in the CD4- variants nevertheless induced strong tyrosine phosphorylation of CD3 zeta [7].
  • Expression of N-cadherin and an interleukin 2 receptor/cadherin chimera in SW480 cells relocated beta-catenin from the nucleus to the plasma membrane and reduced transactivation [8].
  • Altogether, these data indicate that the drop of IL-2 production and T-cell proliferation, as well as the up regulation of IL-4 and IFN-gamma production, are complex manifestations of an evolving T-cell response [9].

Chemical compound and disease context of IL2


Biological context of IL2

  • A Taq I polymorphism was identified which enabled chicken IL2 to be mapped to chromosome 4, linked to ANX5, with synteny with mouse chromosome 3 and human chromosome 4 [11].
  • The mammalian NF-kappaB and octamer binding sites seem to be absent, although there are alternative potential NF-kappaB and octamer-binding elements in the chicken IL2 promoter, in close proximity to their mammalian homologues [11].
  • The exon:intron structure of chicken IL2 corresponds almost exactly to those of mammalian IL2s with the exceptions of exon 2 and introns 2 and 3 which are shorter [11].
  • There was an antigen-specific dose-dependent down regulation of IL-2 production and T-cell proliferation in lymph node T cells [9].
  • Thus, whereas the TCR still recognized and bound to the MHC class II-peptide complex resulting in protein phosphorylation, this interaction failed to induce effective signal transduction manifested by IL-2 secretion [7].

Anatomical context of IL2

  • Immunologic synergism with IL-2 and effects of cCHMIs on mRNA expression of IL-2 and IFN-gamma in chicken peripheral T lymphocyte [1].
  • IL-2, cloned in several mammalian species, plays a critical role in immune system function [12].
  • Murine B lymphocytes which were prestimulated with anti-lg (Fab')2 antibody could readily be induced by semipurified BCGF (containing some IL2 activity) to incorporate thymidine [13].
  • In this work, we have designed a system that lacks exogenous IL 2 by using as our source of help, antigen-specific helper molecules derived from helper T cells [14].
  • Soluble suppressor factors can be detected in conditioned media from supernatants of Con A-stimulated cocultures containing suppressor monocytes, but their suppressor activity is partially opposed by stimulatory factors, possibly interleukin 2, also present in supernatants [15].

Associations of IL2 with chemical compounds


Regulatory relationships of IL2


Other interactions of IL2


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of IL2

  • The molecular weights of the two biological active peaks found by gel filtration of the native IL2 preparation were in the range 19500-21500 and 9000-11500 [16].
  • Failure to alter neonatal transplantation tolerance by the injection of interleukin 2 [25].
  • Using PCR, we searched for IL-2 gene sequences in a wide variety of mammals, including marsupials and monotremes, as well as in birds [26].
  • After administration of Adex1CAmIL2 to mice (4x10(7) pfu per animal), the expression of murine interleukin-2 in hepatocytes was examined by immunostaining and in situ hybridization, and the natural killer activity of hepatic mononuclear cells was measured [27].
  • The stimulatory capacity of the reconstituted peptide-I-Ed complexes adsorbed on the well surface of cell culture plates was then evaluated by measuring interleukin-2 secreted by an HEL 107-116-specific, I-Ed-restricted T cell hybridoma [28].


  1. Immunologic synergism with IL-2 and effects of cCHMIs on mRNA expression of IL-2 and IFN-gamma in chicken peripheral T lymphocyte. Wang, D., Li, X., Xu, L., Hu, Y., Zhang, B., Liu, J. Vaccine (2006) [Pubmed]
  2. Antigen recognition by H-2-restricted T cells. I. Cell-free antigen processing. Shimonkevitz, R., Kappler, J., Marrack, P., Grey, H. J. Exp. Med. (1983) [Pubmed]
  3. Analysis of lymphocytes infiltrating the thyroid gland of Obese strain chickens. Krömer, G., Sundick, R.S., Schauenstein, K., Hála, K., Wick, G. J. Immunol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  4. Enhanced response to Con A and production of TCGF by lymphocytes of obese strain (OS) chickens with spontaneous autoimmune thyroiditis. Schauenstein, K., Krömer, G., Sundick, R.S., Wick, G. J. Immunol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  5. Interleukin-2 gene transduction into freshly isolated lung adenocarcinoma cells with adenoviral vectors. Heike, Y., Takahashi, M., Kanegae, Y., Sato, Y., Saito, I., Saijo, N. Hum. Gene Ther. (1997) [Pubmed]
  6. Cloning of a cDNA for a T cell-specific serine protease from a cytotoxic T lymphocyte. Gershenfeld, H.K., Weissman, I.L. Science (1986) [Pubmed]
  7. Amino acid residues that flank core peptide epitopes and the extracellular domains of CD4 modulate differential signaling through the T cell receptor. Vignali, D.A., Strominger, J.L. J. Exp. Med. (1994) [Pubmed]
  8. Inhibition of beta-catenin-mediated transactivation by cadherin derivatives. Sadot, E., Simcha, I., Shtutman, M., Ben-Ze'ev, A., Geiger, B. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1998) [Pubmed]
  9. Specific T-cell tolerance may reflect selective activation of lymphokine synthesis. Vidard, L., Colarusso, L.J., Benacerraf, B. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1995) [Pubmed]
  10. RRR-alpha-tocopheryl succinate induced interleukin-2 production by avian splenic T lymphocytes and murine EL-4 thymic lymphoma cells. Kidao, S., Sanders, B.G., Kline, K. Biotechnology therapeutics. (1993) [Pubmed]
  11. Promoter sequence, exon:intron structure, and synteny of genetic location show that a chicken cytokine with T-cell proliferative activity is IL2 and not IL15. Kaiser, P., Mariani, P. Immunogenetics (1999) [Pubmed]
  12. A cloned chicken lymphokine homologous to both mammalian IL-2 and IL-15. Sundick, R.S., Gill-Dixon, C. J. Immunol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  13. How relevant are growth and maturation factors to the B lymphocyte response induced by LPS? Inazawa, M., Shiozawa, C., Fotedar, R., Diener, E. Lymphokine Res. (1985) [Pubmed]
  14. A requirement for physical linkage between determinants recognized by helper molecules and cytotoxic T cell precursors in the induction of cytotoxic T cell responses. Krowka, J.F., Singh, B., Fotedar, A., Mosmann, T., Giedlin, M.A., Pilarski, L.M. J. Immunol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  15. Strong suppression by monocytes of T cell mitogenesis in chicken peripheral blood leukocytes. Schaefer, A.E., Scafuri, A.R., Fredericksen, T.L., Gilmour, D.G. J. Immunol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  16. Characterization of chicken T cell growth factor. Schnetzler, M., Oommen, A., Nowak, J.S., Franklin, R.M. Eur. J. Immunol. (1983) [Pubmed]
  17. Analysis of the immune-encodrine feedback loop in the avian system and its alteration in chickens with spontaneous autoimmune thyroiditis. Brezinschek, H.P., Faessler, R., Klocker, H., Kroemer, G., Sgonc, R., Dietrich, H., Jakober, R., Wick, G. Eur. J. Immunol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  18. Effect of triiodothyronine and in vitro growth hormone on avian interleukin-2. Chandratilleke, D., Scanes, C.G., Marsh, J.A. Dev. Comp. Immunol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  19. RRR-alpha-tocopheryl succinate inhibition of lectin-induced T cell proliferation. Kline, K., Sanders, B.G. Nutrition and cancer. (1993) [Pubmed]
  20. Effect of ascorbic acid supplementation on the immune response of chickens vaccinated and challenged with infectious bursal disease virus. Wu, C.C., Dorairajan, T., Lin, T.L. Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  21. X-ray crystal structure of proto-oncogene product c-Rel bound to the CD28 response element of IL-2. Huang, D.B., Chen, Y.Q., Ruetsche, M., Phelps, C.B., Ghosh, G. Structure (Camb.) (2001) [Pubmed]
  22. Priming by recombinant chicken interleukin-2 induces selective expression of IL-8 and IL-18 mRNA in chicken heterophils during receptor-mediated phagocytosis of opsonized and nonopsonized Salmonella enterica serovar enteritidis. Kogut, M.H., Rothwell, L., Kaiser, P. Mol. Immunol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  23. Development of virus-specific CD4+ T cells on reexposure to Varicella-Zoster virus. Vossen, M.T., Gent, M.R., Weel, J.F., de Jong, M.D., van Lier, R.A., Kuijpers, T.W. J. Infect. Dis. (2004) [Pubmed]
  24. Characterization of avian natural killer cells and their intracellular CD3 protein complex. Göbel, T.W., Chen, C.L., Shrimpf, J., Grossi, C.E., Bernot, A., Bucy, R.P., Auffray, C., Cooper, M.D. Eur. J. Immunol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  25. Failure to alter neonatal transplantation tolerance by the injection of interleukin 2. Tempelis, C.H., Hála, K., Krömer, G., Schauenstein, K., Wick, G. Transplantation (1988) [Pubmed]
  26. Fast evolution of interleukin-2 in mammals and positive selection in ruminants. Zelus, D., Robinson-Rechavi, M., Delacre, M., Auriault, C., Laudet, V. J. Mol. Evol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  27. Gene therapy for hepatic micrometastasis of murine colon carcinoma. Shiratori, Y., Kanai, F., Hikiba, Y., Moriyama, H., Hamada, H., Matsumura, M., Tanaka, T., Lan, K.H., Ohashi, M., Okano, K., Naito, M., Omata, M. J. Hepatol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  28. Cell type-specific processing of the I-Ed-restricted hen egg lysozyme determinant 107-116. Robadey, C., Wallny, H.J., Demotz, S. Eur. J. Immunol. (1996) [Pubmed]
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