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Gene Review

HPX  -  hemopexin

Sus scrofa

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Disease relevance of HPX


High impact information on HPX


Chemical compound and disease context of HPX


Biological context of HPX

  • At near term ( approximately 60 days of gestation), pregnant mothers were anesthetized and fetal guinea pig hearts and carotid arteries were excised from NMX and HPX animals and frozen until ready for study [2].
  • An octasaccharide derived from the carbohydrate sequence -GalNAc---GlcUA-GalNAc-IdUA-GalNAc-GlcUA-GalNAc-IdUA-GalNAc---GlcUA-GalNAc (--- indicates the position of cleavage by hyaluronidase) was identified [14].
  • The resistance of the IPM HA to hyaluronidase digestion may reflect extensive coverage of HA binding sites by ligands present in this compartment which hinder enzyme access [15].
  • RESULTS: When nucleus pulposus was applied just after harvest, or when it had been kept at 37 C or digested by hyaluronidase for 24 hours, there was a significant reduction in nerve conduction velocity similar to previous observations [16].
  • The native serum and placental hyaluronidases remained fully active after thermal inactivation but desialylated hyaluronidase was inactivated slowly in serum, and quickly in placenta suggesting a higher overall glycosylation of the plasma enzyme [17].

Anatomical context of HPX


Associations of HPX with chemical compounds

  • Proteoglycans were then digested exhaustively with testicular hyaluronidase, which removed about 80% of the chondroitin sulphate [22].
  • 4. To study the distribution of L-IdUA-SO4-containing periods in relation to blocks of IdUA-GalNAc-SO4 periods different fractions of hyaluronidase-degraded dermatan sulphate were degraded separately [14].
  • The hyaluronidase-resistant glycoconjugates exhibited a peak buoyant density at 1.49 g/ml on cesium chloride density gradient centrifugation and were shown to contain mucin-type carbohydrate to peptide linkages (i.e., GalNAc to ser/thr) and an amino acid composition typical of respiratory mucins [23].
  • Dextrose, 5%, and sodium bicarbonate, 1 M, had no effect on the cutaneous lesions caused by KCl, while hyaluronidase, 150 U/ml, lessened them [24].
  • Rat sperm 2B1 glycoprotein (PH20) contains a C-terminal sequence motif for attachment of a glycosyl phosphatidylinositol anchor. Effects of endoproteolytic cleavage on hyaluronidase activity [25].

Regulatory relationships of HPX

  • The results suggest that increases in cAMP contents and synthesis of an extracellular, hyaluronidase-sensitive mucus by pig OCC and C + P induced by FSH or forskolin are not dependent on the oocyte [26].

Other interactions of HPX

  • HPX decreased NOS3 protein levels in fetal guinea pig hearts by 29% after 28 days compared to NMX controls [2].
  • Serum or red cells were typed for 15 blood group systems: A-O, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, J, K, L, M, N and O; for 11 biochemical polymorphisms: PI1, PI2, PO1A, A1BG, GPI, PGD, TF, HPX, ADA, PGM and AMY; the polymorphism at the IGHG1 locus [27].
  • Simultaneous phenotyping of pig plasma alpha-protease inhibitors (PI1, PO1A, PO1B, PI2) and four other proteins (PO2, TF, CP, HPX) by a simple method of 2D horizontal electrophoresis [28].
  • Pericellular glyconconjugtes that bind RCA-I and concanvalin A (CONA) after periodic acid oxidation, and which were sensitive to trypsin but not to chondroitinase or hyaluronidase, were present in the hypertrophic cell zone [29].
  • Toxic activity was destroyed by Pronase, phospholipase, lipase, amylase, and glucosidase but not by trypsin, collagenase, cellulase, lysozyme, hyaluronidase, or neuraminidase [30].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of HPX


  1. Molecular cloning of a mammalian hyaluronidase reveals identity with hemopexin, a serum heme-binding protein. Zhu, L., Hope, T.J., Hall, J., Davies, A., Stern, M., Muller-Eberhard, U., Stern, R., Parslow, T.G. J. Biol. Chem. (1994) [Pubmed]
  2. Chronic hypoxia decreases endothelial nitric oxide synthase protein expression in fetal guinea pig hearts. Thompson, L.P., Dong, Y. J. Soc. Gynecol. Investig. (2005) [Pubmed]
  3. Effect of oocytectomy on glycosaminoglycan composition during cumulus expansion of porcine cumulus-oocyte complexes cultured in vitro. Nakayama, T., Inoue, M., Sato, E. Biol. Reprod. (1996) [Pubmed]
  4. Identification and molecular characterization of serological group C streptococci isolated from diseased pigs and monkeys in Indonesia. Soedarmanto, I., Pasaribu, F.H., Wibawan, I.W., Lämmler, C. J. Clin. Microbiol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  5. Failure of hyaluronidase to alter the early course of acute myocardial infarction in pigs. Most, A.S., Capone, R.J., Mastrofrancesco, P.A. Am. J. Cardiol. (1976) [Pubmed]
  6. Incorporation of the acrosome into the oocyte during intracytoplasmic sperm injection could be potentially hazardous to embryo development. Morozumi, K., Yanagimachi, R. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2005) [Pubmed]
  7. Synthesis of proteoglycans by suspension and monolayer cultures of adult chondrocytes and de novo cartilage nodules-the effect of hyaluronic acid. Wiebkin, O.W., Muir, H. J. Cell. Sci. (1977) [Pubmed]
  8. Lung hyaluronan decreases during group B streptococcal pneumonia in neonatal piglets. Juul, S.E., Kinsella, M.G., Truog, W.E., Gibson, R.L., Redding, G.J. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. (1996) [Pubmed]
  9. Allergens in bee venom II. Two new high molecular weight allergenic specificities. Hoffman, D.R., Shipman, W.H., Babin, D. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. (1977) [Pubmed]
  10. Evidence for steroid control of a putative angiogenic factor in the porcine uterus. Ashworth, C.J., Fliss, M.F., Bazer, F.W. J. Endocrinol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  11. Purification and characterization of hyaluronic acid from the horny layer of guinea pigs. Miyamoto, I., Nagase, S. J. Biochem. (1984) [Pubmed]
  12. Isolation of toxigenic strains of Pasteurella multocida from lungs of pneumonic swine. Pijoan, C., Lastra, A., Ramirez, C., Leman, A.D. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. (1984) [Pubmed]
  13. Cytoenzymology and 3H-thymidine uptake of retro-ocular connective tissue cultures in experimental endocrino-exophthalmos. Vaida, E., Petrescu, R., Ghinea, E., Stefaneanu, L. Ophthalmologica (1976) [Pubmed]
  14. The co-polymeric structure of pig skin dermatan sulphate. Distribution of L-iduronic acid sulphate residues in co-polymeric chains. Cöster, L., Malmström, A., Sjöberg, I., Fransson, L. Biochem. J. (1975) [Pubmed]
  15. Hyaluronan in the interphotoreceptor matrix of the eye: species differences in content, distribution, ligand binding and degradation. Hollyfield, J.G., Rayborn, M.E., Tammi, M., Tammi, R. Exp. Eye Res. (1998) [Pubmed]
  16. The effects of normal, frozen, and hyaluronidase-digested nucleus pulposus on nerve root structure and function. Olmarker, K., Brisby, H., Yabuki, S., Nordborg, C., Rydevik, B. Spine. (1997) [Pubmed]
  17. Human hyaluronidases: electrophoretic multiple forms in somatic tissues and body fluids. Evidence for conserved hyaluronidase potential N-glycosylation sites in different mammalian species. Fiszer-Szafarz, B., Litynska, A., Zou, L. J. Biochem. Biophys. Methods (2000) [Pubmed]
  18. Affinity-purified tetanus neurotoxin interaction with synaptic membranes: properties of a protease-sensitive receptor component. Lazarovici, P., Yavin, E. Biochemistry (1986) [Pubmed]
  19. Structural relationship of sperm soluble hyaluronidase to the sperm membrane protein PH-20. Hunnicutt, G.R., Mahan, K., Lathrop, W.F., Ramarao, C.S., Myles, D.G., Primakoff, P. Biol. Reprod. (1996) [Pubmed]
  20. Anti-hyaluronidase oligosaccharide derived from chondroitin sulfate a effectively reduces polyspermy during in vitro fertilization of porcine oocytes. Tatemoto, H., Muto, N., Yim, S.D., Nakada, T. Biol. Reprod. (2005) [Pubmed]
  21. Cytochemical characterization of cuprolinic blue-stained proteoglycans in the epithelial-stromal interface of the guinea pig lateral prostate. Chan, L., Wong, Y.C. Prostate (1989) [Pubmed]
  22. The nature of the protein moieties of cartilage proteoglycans of pig and ox. Baxter, E., Muir, H. Biochem. J. (1975) [Pubmed]
  23. Characterization of guinea pig tracheal epithelial cells maintained in biphasic organotypic culture: cellular composition and biochemical analysis of released glycoconjugates. Adler, K.B., Cheng, P.W., Kim, K.C. Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  24. Lidocaine treatment of experimental cutaneous lesions from potassium chloride injection. Behnia, R., Wilkinson, C.J. Anesthesiology (1977) [Pubmed]
  25. Rat sperm 2B1 glycoprotein (PH20) contains a C-terminal sequence motif for attachment of a glycosyl phosphatidylinositol anchor. Effects of endoproteolytic cleavage on hyaluronidase activity. Seaton, G.J., Hall, L., Jones, R. Biol. Reprod. (2000) [Pubmed]
  26. Lack of effect of oocytectomy on expansion of the porcine cumulus. Procházka, R., Nagyová, E., Rimkevicová, Z., Nagai, T., Kikuchi, K., Motlík, J. J. Reprod. Fertil. (1991) [Pubmed]
  27. Evidence for linkage between the swine L blood group and the loci specifying the receptors mediating adhesion of K88 Escherichia coli pilus antigens. Vögeli, P., Kuhn, B., Kühne, R., Obrist, R., Stranzinger, G., Huang, S.C., Hu, Z.L., Hasler-Rapacz, J., Rapacz, J. Anim. Genet. (1992) [Pubmed]
  28. Simultaneous phenotyping of pig plasma alpha-protease inhibitors (PI1, PO1A, PO1B, PI2) and four other proteins (PO2, TF, CP, HPX) by a simple method of 2D horizontal electrophoresis. Juneja, R.K., Gahne, B. Anim. Genet. (1987) [Pubmed]
  29. In situ localization of lectin-binding glycoconjugates in the matrix of growth-plate cartilage. Farnum, C.E., Wilsman, N.J. Am. J. Anat. (1986) [Pubmed]
  30. Further characterization of Mycobacterium ulcerans toxin. Hockmeyer, W.T., Krieg, R.E., Reich, M., Johnson, R.D. Infect. Immun. (1978) [Pubmed]
  31. Anomalous migration of hyaluronic acid oligomers in capillary electrophoresis: correlation to susceptibility to hyaluronidase. Kinoshita, M., Okino, A., Oda, Y., Kakehi, K. Electrophoresis (2001) [Pubmed]
  32. Serotyping of Pasteurella multocida isolated from swine lungs collected at slaughter. Pijoan, C., Morrison, R.B., Hilley, H.D. J. Clin. Microbiol. (1983) [Pubmed]
  33. Development of in vivo-matured porcine oocytes following intracytoplasmic sperm injection. Martin, M.J. Biol. Reprod. (2000) [Pubmed]
  34. Ascorbic acid and glycosaminoglycan and lipid metabolism in guinea pigs fed normal and atherogenic diets. Nambisan, B., Kurup, P.A. Atherosclerosis (1975) [Pubmed]
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