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Chemical Compound Review

MERCURY     mercury

Synonyms: Mercurio, Marcero, Mercure, Rathje, azogue, ...
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Disease relevance of mercury


Psychiatry related information on mercury

  • (N = 736) with the BSID and the Bayley Infant Behavior Record. Mercury exposure determined by cold vapor atomic absorption analysis of maternal hair segments corresponding to pregnancy revealed a median exposure of 5.9 ppm (Range 0.5 - 26.7 ppm) [6].
  • The Mercury group showed no behavioural abnormality outwardly; however, operant conditioning revealed a deficiency in performance [7].
  • BACKGROUND: Mercury, or Hg, is a neurotoxin that has been speculated to play a role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease, or AD [8].
  • The mental health evaluation of the original Mercury astronauts was a prolonged, meticulous, research-oriented process involving testing and interviews to determine who was best qualified for space flight [9].
  • However, the correlation for hair mercury level with 24 h urine level and blood level was not high enough to replace them in clinical decision-making of individual patient [10].

High impact information on mercury

  • Most of what is currently known about multi-ring basins is based on remote studies of the Moon and, to a lesser extent, Mars and Mercury [11].
  • Toxicology. Mercury report backs strict rules [12].
  • The occurrence of a basalt-free, highly differentiated crust is in accord with recent models of the planet's thermal evolution and suggests that Mercury has retained a hot interior as a result of a combination of inefficient mantle convection and minimal volcanic heat loss [13].
  • At neutral pH, mercury (II) ion shows a direct coordination at N1 while at low pH with N1 blocked by protonation, mercury (II) does not interact with the adenine moiety [14].
  • CONCLUSIONS: Mercury exposure can induce oxidative DNA damage, whereas the antioxidative repair systems can be expected to minimize DNA lesions caused by mercury [15].

Chemical compound and disease context of mercury


Biological context of mercury

  • Mercury ion-sensitive T. ferrooxidans strains were electroporated with constructed plasmids, and one strain, Y4-3 (of 30 independent strains tested), was found to have a transformation efficiency of 120 to 200 mercury-resistant colonies per microgram of plasmid DNA [18].
  • The Boston Public Health Commission's Environmental Health Office, with local and national partners, created the Boston Mercury Thermometer Exchange Program to address this hazard [19].
  • Compared with women delivering at term, women who delivered before 35 weeks' gestation were more likely to have hair mercury levels at or above the 90th percentile (> or = 0.55 microg/g), even after adjusting for maternal characteristics and fish consumption (adjusted odds ratio = 3.0; 95% confidence interval, 1.3-6.7) [3].
  • To determine whether the absence of the kappaB-dependent gene expression was due to compromised transcriptional regulation of NFKB, the functional activity of NFKB was examined in cells transiently transfected with Mercury Pathway constructs containing 4x NFKB binding sites associated either with the luciferase reporter system or a control vector [20].
  • Phytoplankton concentrate mercury from their aqueous surroundings and represent the primary entry point for Hg in aquatic food webs [21].

Anatomical context of mercury


Associations of mercury with other chemical compounds

  • METHODS: Mercury concentrations and seafood consumption are grouped by supply region (Atlantic Ocean, Pacific Ocean, and foreign shores) [27].
  • We used 203Hg to compare the uptake of inorganic mercury, Hg(II), and methylmercury, MeHg, in four phytoplankton species (a diatom, a chlorophyte, a cryptophyte, and a cyanobacterium) in two waters containing different concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) [21].
  • Kinetics of the Adhesion of DMPC Liposomes on a Mercury Electrode. Effect of Lamellarity, Phase Composition, Size and Curvature of Liposomes, and Presence of the Pore Forming Peptide Mastoparan X [28].
  • Pretreatment of animals with diethyl maleate resulted in depletion of GSH from brain (measured by high performance liquid chromatography), as well as decreased Mercury orange staining [29].
  • The action of group IIb cations [Cadmium (Cd2+), Zinc (Zn2+), Mercury (Hg2+)] on the cardiac fast sodium current (INa) was investigated in calf Purkinje fibres and in ventricular cells isolated from guinea-pig hearts [30].

Gene context of mercury

  • Results: Mercury-treated A.SW and SJL mice (H-2s) developed an increased expression of the proliferation marker CD71 on B cells, an increased number of B cells in the spleen, and an early, strong, but transient increase in serum Ig concentrations of Th1- as well as Th2-regulated Ig isotypes [24].
  • Mercury vapor exposure had no significant effects on GSH levels or GPx activity in the three brain regions, however, statistically significant decreases in GSH and GPx activity were detected in the kidneys of rats exposed to 2 mg m(-3) [31].
  • Seated systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) were measured using a standard mercury sphygmomanometer [32].
  • Information gained from the Global Mercury exercise and the SARS outbreak has shown that containing an outbreak at the start is more effective than reacting to it once it has spread and that containment should be treated both nationally and internationally [33].
  • Moreover, we reported here for the first time in an in vivo model that at-RA reduced, to basal levels, the expression of VLA-4 (alpha4beta1) integrin induced by mercury on peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) [34].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of mercury


  1. Images in cardiovascular medicine. Metallic mercury embolism. Fred, H.L., Marcus, D. Circulation (1995) [Pubmed]
  2. SGI1-K, a Variant of the SGI1 Genomic Island Carrying a Mercury Resistance Region, in Salmonella enterica Serovar Kentucky. Levings, R.S., Partridge, S.R., Djordjevic, S.P., Hall, R.M. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (2007) [Pubmed]
  3. Maternal fish consumption, mercury levels, and risk of preterm delivery. Xue, F., Holzman, C., Rahbar, M.H., Trosko, K., Fischer, L. Environ. Health Perspect. (2007) [Pubmed]
  4. Metallic mercury vapor poisoning simulating mucocutaneous lymph node syndrome. Adler, R., Boxstein, D., Schaff, P., Kelly, D. J. Pediatr. (1982) [Pubmed]
  5. Metallic mercury leak from the esophageal bougy and postoperative chest pain. Taylor, J., Kamaya, H. Anesthesiology (1998) [Pubmed]
  6. Longitudinal neurodevelopmental study of Seychellois children following in utero exposure to methylmercury from maternal fish ingestion: outcomes at 19 and 29 months. Davidson, P.W., Myers, G.J., Cox, C., Shamlaye, C.F., Marsh, D.O., Tanner, M.A., Berlin, M., Sloane-Reeves, J., Cernichiari, E., Choisy, O. Neurotoxicology (1995) [Pubmed]
  7. Mercuric chloride-induced alterations of levels of noradrenaline, dopamine, serotonin and acetylcholine esterase activity in different regions of rat brain during postnatal development. Lakshmana, M.K., Desiraju, T., Raju, T.R. Arch. Toxicol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  8. Alzheimer's disease, dental amalgam and mercury. Saxe, S.R., Wekstein, M.W., Kryscio, R.J., Henry, R.G., Cornett, C.R., Snowdon, D.A., Grant, F.T., Schmitt, F.A., Donegan, S.J., Wekstein, D.R., Ehmann, W.D., Markesbery, W.R. Journal of the American Dental Association (1939) (1999) [Pubmed]
  9. The evolution and present status of mental health standards for selection of USAF candidates for space missions. Jones, D.R., Annes, C.A. Aviation, space, and environmental medicine. (1983) [Pubmed]
  10. Low-level chronic mercury exposure in children and adolescents: Meta-analysis. Ng, D.K., Chan, C.H., Soo, M.T., Lee, R.S. Pediatrics international : official journal of the Japan Pediatric Society (2007) [Pubmed]
  11. Friction melt distribution in a multi-ring impact basin. Spray, J.G., Thompson, L.M. Nature (1995) [Pubmed]
  12. Toxicology. Mercury report backs strict rules. Kaiser, J. Science (2000) [Pubmed]
  13. Evidence for a basalt-free surface on Mercury and implications for internal heat. Jeanloz, R., Mitchell, D.L., Sprague, A.L., de Pater, I. Science (1995) [Pubmed]
  14. A Raman spectroscopic study of the interaction of divalent metal ions with adenine moiety of adenosine 5'-triphosphate. Lanir, A., Yu, N.T. J. Biol. Chem. (1979) [Pubmed]
  15. Increased oxidative DNA damage, as assessed by urinary 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine concentrations, and serum redox status in persons exposed to mercury. Chen, C., Qu, L., Li, B., Xing, L., Jia, G., Wang, T., Gao, Y., Zhang, P., Li, M., Chen, W., Chai, Z. Clin. Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  16. Effects of stress and other environmental factors on horizontal plasmid transfer assessed by direct quantification of discrete transfer events. Johnsen, A.R., Kroer, N. FEMS Microbiol. Ecol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  17. Traces of copper ions deplete glutathione in human hepatoma cell cultures with low cysteine content. Hultberg, M., Isaksson, A., Andersson, A., Hultberg, B. Chem. Biol. Interact. (2007) [Pubmed]
  18. Electrotransformation of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans with plasmids containing a mer determinant. Kusano, T., Sugawara, K., Inoue, C., Takeshima, T., Numata, M., Shiratori, T. J. Bacteriol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  19. Protecting the public from mercury exposure: success through microexchange events. Shoemaker, P.A., Ghaemghami, J. American journal of public health. (2003) [Pubmed]
  20. Nuclear translocation and DNA-binding activity of NFKB (NF-kappaB) after exposure of human monocytes to pulsed ultra-wideband electromagnetic fields (1 kV/cm) fails to transactivate kappaB-dependent gene expression. Natarajan, M., Nayak, B.K., Galindo, C., Mathur, S.P., Roldan, F.N., Meltz, M.L. Radiat. Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  21. Accumulation of inorganic and methylmercury by freshwater phytoplankton in two contrasting water bodies. Pickhardt, P.C., Fisher, N.S. Environ. Sci. Technol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  22. Mercury vapor uptake and hydrogen peroxide detoxification in human and mouse red blood cells. Halbach, S., Ballatori, N., Clarkson, T.W. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  23. Water permeability properties of the ovarian oocytes from Bufo arenarum and Xenopus laevis: a comparative study. Capurro, C., Ford, P., Ibarra, C., Ripoche, P., Parisi, M. J. Membr. Biol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  24. The genotype determines the B cell response in mercury-treated mice. Johansson, U., Hansson-Georgiadis, H., Hultman, P. Int. Arch. Allergy Immunol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  25. Total mercury levels in hair, toenail, and urine among women free from occupational exposure and their relations to renal tubular function. Ohno, T., Sakamoto, M., Kurosawa, T., Dakeishi, M., Iwata, T., Murata, K. Environ. Res. (2007) [Pubmed]
  26. Modulating effects of dietary fats on methylmercury toxicity and distribution in rats. Jin, X., Lok, E., Bondy, G., Caldwell, D., Mueller, R., Kapal, K., Armstrong, C., Taylor, M., Kubow, S., Mehta, R., Chan, H.M. Toxicology (2007) [Pubmed]
  27. Mercury exposure from domestic and imported estuarine and marine fish in the U.S. seafood market. Sunderland, E.M. Environ. Health Perspect. (2007) [Pubmed]
  28. Kinetics of the Adhesion of DMPC Liposomes on a Mercury Electrode. Effect of Lamellarity, Phase Composition, Size and Curvature of Liposomes, and Presence of the Pore Forming Peptide Mastoparan X. Hernandez, V.A., Scholz, F. Langmuir : the ACS journal of surfaces and colloids (2006) [Pubmed]
  29. Histochemical evaluation of glutathione in brain. Slivka, A., Mytilineou, C., Cohen, G. Brain Res. (1987) [Pubmed]
  30. Sodium current block caused by group IIb cations in calf Purkinje fibres and in guinea-pig ventricular myocytes. Visentin, S., Zaza, A., Ferroni, A., Tromba, C., DiFrancesco, C. Pflugers Arch. (1990) [Pubmed]
  31. Effects of mercury vapor inhalation on reactive oxygen species and antioxidant enzymes in rat brain and kidney are minimal. Goering, P.L., Morgan, D.L., Ali, S.F. Journal of applied toxicology : JAT. (2002) [Pubmed]
  32. Lower bone mineral content in hypertensive compared with normotensive overweight latino children and adolescents. Afghani, A., Goran, M.I. Am. J. Hypertens. (2007) [Pubmed]
  33. Quarantine after an international biological weapons attack: medical and public health requirements for containment. Oren, M. Isr. Med. Assoc. J. (2004) [Pubmed]
  34. Therapeutic effect of all-trans-retinoic acid (at-RA) on an autoimmune nephritis experimental model: role of the VLA-4 integrin. Escribese, M.M., Conde, E., Martín, A., Sáenz-Morales, D., Sancho, D., de Lema, G.P., Lucio-Cazaña, J., Sánchez-Madrid, F., García-Bermejo, M.L., Mampaso, F.M. BMC nephrology (2007) [Pubmed]
  35. A novel approach for heavy metal poisoning treatment, a model. Mercury poisoning by means of chelating microspheres: hemoperfusion and oral administration. Margel, S. J. Med. Chem. (1981) [Pubmed]
  36. Mercury vapor contamination of infant incubators: a potential hazard. Waffarn, F., Hodgman, J.E. Pediatrics (1979) [Pubmed]
  37. Subcutaneous injection of mercury: "warding off evil". Prasad, V.L. Environ. Health Perspect. (2004) [Pubmed]
  38. Dipyridamole enhances ischemia-induced reactive hyperemia by increased adenosine receptor stimulation. Meijer, P., Riksen, N., Scheffer, G.J., Smits, P., Rongen, G.A. British journal of clinical pharmacology (2007) [Pubmed]
  39. Novel monolithic poly(phenyl acrylate-co-1,4-phenylene diacrylate) capillary columns for biopolymer chromatography. Bisjak, C.P., Lubbad, S.H., Trojer, L., Bonn, G.K. Journal of chromatography. A (2007) [Pubmed]
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