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Gene Review

MUC6  -  mucin 6, oligomeric mucus/gel-forming

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: Gastric mucin-6, MUC-6, Mucin-6
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Disease relevance of MUC6


Psychiatry related information on MUC6

  • The expression of mucin genes, MUC 3, 4, 5AC, 5B, 6, 7, and 8 in human fetal tissues was examined to establish the localisation and age of onset of expression of each mucin gene during human development [6].
  • The original diagnosis has been revised to that of a unique case of mucin-producing parathyroid cancer with an extraordinarily long latency period before recurrence [7].
  • Luminal P2 receptors may play a role in intestinal defense mechanisms with both fluid and mucin secretion aiding in the removal of noxious agents from the mucosal surface [8].
  • Expression of the core blood group structures sialosyl Tn (STn) and Tn is regarded as a colorectal cancer-specific change reflecting truncated synthesis of the oligosaccharide component of goblet cell mucin [9].
  • Longer reaction times up to 2 h completely removed the O-linked carbohydrate chains from fetuin and ovine submaxillary mucin [10].

High impact information on MUC6

  • This rolling phenomenon is mediated by adhesive interactions between lectin containing adhesion molecules, termed selectins, on both the vascular endothelium and leukocytes, and carbohydrate ligands immobilized on mucin-like scaffolds [11].
  • In section i, structure, expression, and localization of the 18 human MUC genes and MUC gene products having tandem repeat domains and the specificity and application of MUC-specific antibodies that identify mucin gene products in airway tissues, cells, and secretions are overviewed [12].
  • Specific inflammatory/immune response mediators can activate mucin gene regulation and airway remodeling, including goblet cell hyperplasia (GCH) [12].
  • These processes sustain airway mucin overproduction and contribute to airway obstruction by mucus and therefore to the high morbidity and mortality associated with these diseases [12].
  • Fractalkine, a novel transmembrane molecule with a CX3C-motif chemokine domain atop a mucin stalk, induces both adhesion and migration of leukocytes [13].

Chemical compound and disease context of MUC6

  • All invasive carcinomas expressing MUCSAC were positive for MUC1 and four were positive for MUC6 [14].
  • A series of experiments were conducted to study synthesis and secretion of mucin in mucus-secreting subpopulations of HT29 human colonic adenocarcinoma cells selected by resistance to methotrexate (MTX) [15].
  • The synthesis and secretion of mucin-like high-molecular glycoprotein was studied in 2 human colon cancer cell lines that spontaneously differentiate in culture (Caco-2 and T84) and in 2 cell lines that do not spontaneously differentiate (LS174T and HT29) [16].
  • Bile acid-induced alterations of mucin production in differentiated human colon cancer cell lines [17].
  • Muc4/sialomucin complex (SMC) is a high molecular mass heterodimeric membrane mucin, encoded by a single gene, and originally discovered in a highly metastatic ascites rat mammary adenocarcinoma [18].

Biological context of MUC6

  • Recent information on the order of the mucin genes at chromosome 11p15 suggests that MUCX may be MUC6, one of the already identified mucin genes, or a novel one, yet to be fully characterized [19].
  • The carboxyl-terminal sequence of the human secretory mucin, MUC6. Analysis Of the primary amino acid sequence [20].
  • MUC6 transcripts were evident in the pancreatic ducts from 13 weeks of gestation and at high levels in the stomach at 23 weeks [6].
  • Both cases of MUC6 positivity and 1/5 cases of MUC5AC positivity were confined to the ulcer associated cell lineage [21].
  • The MUC6 secretory mucin was originally isolated from a gastric cDNA library [5].

Anatomical context of MUC6


Associations of MUC6 with chemical compounds

  • The best specificity, negative results on all peripheral blood mononuclear (PBMN) cell samples from healthy donors, were shown for MUC2, MUC5B and MUC6 RT-PCR assays [26].
  • MUC6 expression in breast tissues and cultured cells: abnormal expression in tumors and regulation by steroid hormones [27].
  • Reactivity with antibodies against the Le(b) structure (where Le represents the Lewis antigen) followed the MUC5AC distribution, whereas antibodies against the Le(y) structure and reactivity with the GlcNAc-selective Solanum tuberosum lectin coincided with MUC6, suggesting that the two mucins are glycosylated differently [28].
  • An inhibitor of Sp family binding, mithramycin A, suppressed MUC6 transcripts, and Sp1 and Sp3 overexpression up-regulated them [29].
  • METHODS: Formalin fixed, paraffin wax embedded tissue from 69 cases of invasive breast carcinoma and surrounding breast tissue was studied immunohistochemically with monoclonal antibodies against MUC1 (SM3), MUCSAC (CLH2), and MUC6 (CLH6), using the avidin-biotin-peroxidase method [14].

Other interactions of MUC6


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of MUC6


  1. Aberrant expression of MUC5AC and MUC6 gastric mucins and sialyl Tn antigen in intraepithelial neoplasms of the pancreas. Kim, G.E., Bae, H.I., Park, H.U., Kuan, S.F., Crawley, S.C., Ho, J.J., Kim, Y.S. Gastroenterology (2002) [Pubmed]
  2. Intestinal metaplasia of human stomach displays distinct patterns of mucin (MUC1, MUC2, MUC5AC, and MUC6) expression. Reis, C.A., David, L., Correa, P., Carneiro, F., de Bolós, C., Garcia, E., Mandel, U., Clausen, H., Sobrinho-Simões, M. Cancer Res. (1999) [Pubmed]
  3. PDX1 homeobox protein expression in pseudopyloric glands and gastric carcinomas. Sakai, H., Eishi, Y., Li, X.L., Akiyama, Y., Miyake, S., Takizawa, T., Konishi, N., Tatematsu, M., Koike, M., Yuasa, Y. Gut (2004) [Pubmed]
  4. Mucin gene expression in intestinal epithelial cells in Crohn's disease. Buisine, M.P., Desreumaux, P., Leteurtre, E., Copin, M.C., Colombel, J.F., Porchet, N., Aubert, J.P. Gut (2001) [Pubmed]
  5. The MUC6 secretory mucin gene is expressed in a wide variety of epithelial tissues. Bartman, A.E., Buisine, M.P., Aubert, J.P., Niehans, G.A., Toribara, N.W., Kim, Y.S., Kelly, E.J., Crabtree, J.E., Ho, S.B. J. Pathol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  6. Developmental expression of mucin genes in the human gastrointestinal system. Reid, C.J., Harris, A. Gut (1998) [Pubmed]
  7. Mucin-producing parathyroid carcinoma. Edelson, G.W., Kleerekoper, M., Talpos, G.B., Zarbo, R., Saeed-Uz-Zafar, M. Bone (1992) [Pubmed]
  8. ATP-stimulated electrolyte and mucin secretion in the human intestinal goblet cell line HT29-Cl.16E. Merlin, D., Augeron, C., Tien, X.Y., Guo, X., Laboisse, C.L., Hopfer, U. J. Membr. Biol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  9. Distribution of sialosyl Tn and Tn antigens within normal and malignant colorectal epithelium. Jass, J.R., Allison, L.J., Edgar, S.G. J. Pathol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  10. A chemical method for the deglycosylation of proteins. Sojar, H.T., Bahl, O.P. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. (1987) [Pubmed]
  11. Selectin-carbohydrate interactions and the initiation of the inflammatory response. Lasky, L.A. Annu. Rev. Biochem. (1995) [Pubmed]
  12. Respiratory tract mucin genes and mucin glycoproteins in health and disease. Rose, M.C., Voynow, J.A. Physiol. Rev. (2006) [Pubmed]
  13. Identification and molecular characterization of fractalkine receptor CX3CR1, which mediates both leukocyte migration and adhesion. Imai, T., Hieshima, K., Haskell, C., Baba, M., Nagira, M., Nishimura, M., Kakizaki, M., Takagi, S., Nomiyama, H., Schall, T.J., Yoshie, O. Cell (1997) [Pubmed]
  14. Immunohistochemical study of the expression of MUC5AC and MUC6 in breast carcinomas and adjacent breast tissues. Pereira, M.B., Dias, A.J., Reis, C.A., Schmitt, F.C. J. Clin. Pathol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  15. Expression and characterization of mucins associated with the resistance to methotrexate of human colonic adenocarcinoma cell line HT29. Dahiya, R., Lesuffleur, T., Kwak, K.S., Byrd, J.C., Barbat, A., Zweibaum, A., Kim, Y.S. Cancer Res. (1992) [Pubmed]
  16. Mucin synthesis and secretion in relation to spontaneous differentiation of colon cancer cells in vitro. Niv, Y., Byrd, J.C., Ho, S.B., Dahiya, R., Kim, Y.S. Int. J. Cancer (1992) [Pubmed]
  17. Bile acid-induced alterations of mucin production in differentiated human colon cancer cell lines. Shekels, L.L., Lyftogt, C.T., Ho, S.B. Int. J. Biochem. Cell Biol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  18. Expression and localization of Muc4/sialomucin complex (SMC) in the adult and developing rat intestine: implications for Muc4/SMC function. Rong, M., Rossi, E.A., Zhang, J., McNeer, R.R., van den Brande, J.M., Yasin, M., Weed, D.T., Carothers Carraway, C.A., Thompson, J.F., Carraway, K.L. J. Cell. Physiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  19. Organization and regulatory aspects of the human intestinal mucin gene (MUC2) locus. Velcich, A., Palumbo, L., Selleri, L., Evans, G., Augenlicht, L. J. Biol. Chem. (1997) [Pubmed]
  20. The carboxyl-terminal sequence of the human secretory mucin, MUC6. Analysis Of the primary amino acid sequence. Toribara, N.W., Ho, S.B., Gum, E., Gum, J.R., Lau, P., Kim, Y.S. J. Biol. Chem. (1997) [Pubmed]
  21. Mucin gene expression in the ileoanal reservoir is altered and may be relevant to the risk of inflammation and dysplasia. Sylvester, P.A., Walsh, M., Myerscough, N., Warren, B.F., Corfield, A.P., Thomas, M.G., Durdey, P. Gut (2002) [Pubmed]
  22. Expression cloning of gastric mucin complementary DNA and localization of mucin gene expression. Ho, S.B., Roberton, A.M., Shekels, L.L., Lyftogt, C.T., Niehans, G.A., Toribara, N.W. Gastroenterology (1995) [Pubmed]
  23. Expression of apomucins in the intrahepatic biliary tree in hepatolithiasis differs from that in normal liver and extrahepatic biliary obstruction. Sasaki, M., Nakanuma, Y., Kim, Y.S. Hepatology (1998) [Pubmed]
  24. Role of fucosyltransferases in the association between apomucin and Lewis antigen expression in normal and malignant gastric epithelium. López-Ferrer, A., de Bolós, C., Barranco, C., Garrido, M., Isern, J., Carlstedt, I., Reis, C.A., Torrado, J., Real, F.X. Gut (2000) [Pubmed]
  25. Use of 11p15 mucins as prognostic factors in small adenocarcinoma of the lung. Nishiumi, N., Abe, Y., Inoue, Y., Hatanaka, H., Inada, K., Kijima, H., Yamazaki, H., Tatematsu, M., Ueyama, Y., Iwasaki, M., Inoue, H., Nakamura, M. Clin. Cancer Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  26. Detection of bone marrow-disseminated breast cancer cells using an RT-PCR assay of MUC5B mRNA. Berois, N., Varangot, M., Sóñora, C., Zarantonelli, L., Pressa, C., Laviña, R., Rodríguez, J.L., Delgado, F., Porchet, N., Aubert, J.P., Osinaga, E. Int. J. Cancer (2003) [Pubmed]
  27. MUC6 expression in breast tissues and cultured cells: abnormal expression in tumors and regulation by steroid hormones. de Bolòs, C., Gumà, M., Barranco, C., Garrido, M., Kim, Y.S., Real, F.X. Int. J. Cancer (1998) [Pubmed]
  28. Gastric MUC5AC and MUC6 are large oligomeric mucins that differ in size, glycosylation and tissue distribution. Nordman, H., Davies, J.R., Lindell, G., de Bolós, C., Real, F., Carlstedt, I. Biochem. J. (2002) [Pubmed]
  29. Upregulation of MUC6 mucin gene expression by NFkappaB and Sp factors. Sakai, H., Jinawath, A., Yamaoka, S., Yuasa, Y. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2005) [Pubmed]
  30. Differential expression of the chromosome 11 mucin genes in colorectal cancer. Sylvester, P.A., Myerscough, N., Warren, B.F., Carlstedt, I., Corfield, A.P., Durdey, P., Thomas, M.G. J. Pathol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  31. Mucin genes expressed by human female reproductive tract epithelia. Gipson, I.K., Ho, S.B., Spurr-Michaud, S.J., Tisdale, A.S., Zhan, Q., Torlakovic, E., Pudney, J., Anderson, D.J., Toribara, N.W., Hill, J.A. Biol. Reprod. (1997) [Pubmed]
  32. Metaplasia of the duodenum shows a Helicobacter pylori-correlated differentiation into gastric-type protein expression. Van De Bovenkamp, J.H., Korteland-Van Male, A.M., Büller, H.A., Einerhand, A.W., Dekker, J. Hum. Pathol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  33. Barrett's esophagus is characterized by expression of gastric-type mucins (MUC5AC, MUC6) and TFF peptides (TFF1 and TFF2), but the risk of carcinoma development may be indicated by the intestinal-type mucin, MUC2. Warson, C., Van De Bovenkamp, J.H., Korteland-Van Male, A.M., Büller, H.A., Einerhand, A.W., Ectors, N.L., Dekker, J. Hum. Pathol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  34. Mucinous differentiation features associated with hormonal escape in a human prostate cancer xenograft. Legrier, M.E., de Pinieux, G., Boyé, K., Arvelo, F., Judde, J.G., Fontaine, J.J., Bara, J., Poupon, M.F. Br. J. Cancer (2004) [Pubmed]
  35. Mucin core peptide expression can help differentiate Barrett's esophagus from intestinal metaplasia of the stomach. Glickman, J.N., Shahsafaei, A., Odze, R.D. Am. J. Surg. Pathol. (2003) [Pubmed]
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