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Gene Review

Plec  -  plectin

Rattus norvegicus

Synonyms: PCN, PLTN, Pcn, Plec1, Plectin, ...
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Disease relevance of Plec1


High impact information on Plec1

  • Pretreatment of animals with phenobarbital (PB) or pregnenolone-16 alpha-carbonitrile (PCN) did not influence either microsomal or cytosolic enzyme activities in hamsters, whereas about a tenfold increase in enzyme activities was seen after pretreatment with PB in both rat strains and following PCN in Wistar rats [6].
  • Plectin sidearms mediate interaction of intermediate filaments with microtubules and other components of the cytoskeleton [7].
  • Our results provide direct structural evidence for the hypothesis that plectin cross-links elements of the cytoskeleton thus leading to integration of the cytoplasm [7].
  • Plectin binding to microtubules was significantly increased in cells from transgenic mice lacking IFs and was reversed by microinjection of exogenous vimentin [7].
  • The association of IFs with stress fibers survived actin depletion by gelsolin suggesting that myosin II minifilaments or components closely associated with them may play a role as plectin targets [7].

Chemical compound and disease context of Plec1


Biological context of Plec1

  • Northern blot analysis indicated that there is a significant degree of conservation of plectin genes between rat, human, and chicken and that, as shown previously at the protein level, plectin has a wide tissue distribution [12].
  • Naringin-sensitive phosphorylation of plectin, a cytoskeletal cross-linking protein, in isolated rat hepatocytes [13].
  • Plectin transcript diversity: identification and tissue distribution of variants with distinct first coding exons and rodless isoforms [2].
  • Together, these results suggested that the molecular binding sites of plectin for vimentin and lamin B, as well as the phosphorylation sites for kinase C, were confined to a defined central section of plectin's rod domain [14].
  • Southern blot analysis of rat DNA using pP450PCN revealed that approximately 50 to 60 kilobases of DNA reacted with the PCN probe, suggesting the P-450PCN gene is either a very large gene or other genomic segments exist that react with the probe, such as pseudogenes or related P-450 genes that share homology [15].

Anatomical context of Plec1


Associations of Plec1 with chemical compounds

  • Inhibitors of protein kinase C, cAMP-dependent protein kinase, or Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent kinase II had moderate or no protective effects on plectin network disruption, whereas naringin offered 86% protection [13].
  • Use of dilute (5%) polyacrylamide gels containing 6 m urea allowed the resolution of one very large (approximately 500-kDa) okadaic acid- and naringin-sensitive phosphoprotein, identified by tryptic fingerprinting, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry, and immunostaining as the cytolinker protein, plectin [13].
  • These results were corroborated by in vitro recombination studies using vimentin and plectin purified from C6 cells [16].
  • P450PCN1 mRNA was induced by PCN, dexamethasone, and phenobarbital in both male and female rats [17].
  • In the companion report we used primary cultures of adult rat hepatocytes to demonstrate that glucocorticoids comprise a "class" of compounds that stimulate de novo synthesis of a form of cytochrome P-450 (P450PCN) indistinguishable from that induced by the nonhormonal steroid pregnenolone 16 alpha-carbonitrile (PCN) [18].

Physical interactions of Plec1


Co-localisations of Plec1

  • Immunofluorescence analysis revealed that plectin was colocalized with desmin at the periphery of Z-discs [19].
  • Unlike in IF-containing cells, where plectin colocalized largely with the vimentin network, in the IF-negative subclone the protein was mainly associated with polymeric actin structures [20].

Regulatory relationships of Plec1

  • Here we show that plectin is expressed in a vimentin-negative C6 cell subclone (C6-D10) at levels similar to those of the vimentin-positive control subclone C6-D8 [20].

Other interactions of Plec1


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Plec1


  1. Caspase 8-mediated cleavage of plectin precedes F-actin breakdown in acinar cells during pancreatitis. Beil, M., Leser, J., Lutz, M.P., Gukovskaya, A., Seufferlein, T., Lynch, G., Pandol, S.J., Adler, G. Am. J. Physiol. Gastrointest. Liver Physiol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  2. Plectin transcript diversity: identification and tissue distribution of variants with distinct first coding exons and rodless isoforms. Elliott, C.E., Becker, B., Oehler, S., Castañón, M.J., Hauptmann, R., Wiche, G. Genomics (1997) [Pubmed]
  3. Occurrence and immunolocalization of plectin in tissues. Wiche, G., Krepler, R., Artlieb, U., Pytela, R., Denk, H. J. Cell Biol. (1983) [Pubmed]
  4. Paradoxical transcriptional activation of rat liver cytochrome P-450 3A1 by dexamethasone and the antiglucocorticoid pregnenolone 16 alpha-carbonitrile: analysis by transient transfection into primary monolayer cultures of adult rat hepatocytes. Burger, H.J., Schuetz, J.D., Schuetz, E.G., Guzelian, P.S. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1992) [Pubmed]
  5. Perinuclear distribution of plectin characterizes visceral epithelial cells of rat glomeruli. Yaoita, E., Wiche, G., Yamamoto, T., Kawasaki, K., Kihara, I. Am. J. Pathol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  6. Carcinogenicity of diallylnitrosamine following intragastric administration to Syrian hamsters. Grandjean, C.J., Althoff, J., Pour, P.M. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1985) [Pubmed]
  7. Plectin sidearms mediate interaction of intermediate filaments with microtubules and other components of the cytoskeleton. Svitkina, T.M., Verkhovsky, A.B., Borisy, G.G. J. Cell Biol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  8. Effect of pretreatment with pregnenolone-16 alpha-carbonitrile and protein-free diet on the metabolism and carcinogenicity of dimethylnitrosamine. Kiessling, M., Lipinski, R., Böhm, N., Kleihues, P. Carcinogenesis (1981) [Pubmed]
  9. Digitoxin metabolism by liver microsomal cytochrome P-450 and UDP-glucuronosyltransferase and its role in the protection of rats from digitoxin toxicity by pregnenolone-16 alpha-carbonitrile. Arlotto, M.P., Sonderfan, A.J., McKinney, M.M., Parkinson, A. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. (1986) [Pubmed]
  10. Effect of pregnenolone-16 alpha-carbonitrile on bilirubin-and sulfobromophthalein-binding to hepatic Y and Z proteins in the rat. Lykissas, E.D., Kourounakis, P., Brookman, S. Pharmacology (1978) [Pubmed]
  11. Origins of hepatomegaly produced by dexamethasone (DEX), pregnenolone 16 alpha-carbonitrile (PCN) and phenobarbitone (PB) in female Sprague-Dawley rats. Thatcher, N.J., Caldwell, J. Biochem. Soc. Trans. (1994) [Pubmed]
  12. Cloning and sequencing of rat plectin indicates a 466-kD polypeptide chain with a three-domain structure based on a central alpha-helical coiled coil. Wiche, G., Becker, B., Luber, K., Weitzer, G., Castañon, M.J., Hauptmann, R., Stratowa, C., Stewart, M. J. Cell Biol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  13. Naringin-sensitive phosphorylation of plectin, a cytoskeletal cross-linking protein, in isolated rat hepatocytes. Larsen, A.K., Møller, M.T., Blankson, H., Samari, H.R., Holden, L., Seglen, P.O. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  14. Monoclonal antibody mapping of structural and functional plectin epitopes. Foisner, R., Feldman, B., Sander, L., Wiche, G. J. Cell Biol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  15. Cloning of DNA complementary to cytochrome P-450 induced by pregnenolone-16 alpha-carbonitrile. Characterization of its mRNA, gene, and induction response. Hardwick, J.P., Gonzalez, F.J., Kasper, C.B. J. Biol. Chem. (1983) [Pubmed]
  16. Cytoskeleton-associated plectin: in situ localization, in vitro reconstitution, and binding to immobilized intermediate filament proteins. Foisner, R., Leichtfried, F.E., Herrmann, H., Small, J.V., Lawson, D., Wiche, G. J. Cell Biol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  17. Pregnenolone 16 alpha-carbonitrile-inducible P-450 gene family: gene conversion and differential regulation. Gonzalez, F.J., Song, B.J., Hardwick, J.P. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  18. Induction of cytochrome P-450 by glucocorticoids in rat liver. II. Evidence that glucocorticoids regulate induction of cytochrome P-450 by a nonclassical receptor mechanism. Schuetz, E.G., Guzelian, P.S. J. Biol. Chem. (1984) [Pubmed]
  19. Plectin is a linker of intermediate filaments to Z-discs in skeletal muscle fibers. Hijikata, T., Murakami, T., Imamura, M., Fujimaki, N., Ishikawa, H. J. Cell. Sci. (1999) [Pubmed]
  20. Distribution and ultrastructure of plectin arrays in subclones of rat glioma C6 cells differing in intermediate filament protein (vimentin) expression. Foisner, R., Bohn, W., Mannweiler, K., Wiche, G. J. Struct. Biol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  21. The interaction of plectin with actin: evidence for cross-linking of actin filaments by dimerization of the actin-binding domain of plectin. Fontao, L., Geerts, D., Kuikman, I., Koster, J., Kramer, D., Sonnenberg, A. J. Cell. Sci. (2001) [Pubmed]
  22. Basic amino acid residue cluster within nuclear targeting sequence motif is essential for cytoplasmic plectin-vimentin network junctions. Nikolic, B., Mac Nulty, E., Mir, B., Wiche, G. J. Cell Biol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  23. Induction of the hepatic mixed-function oxidase system by synthetic glucocorticoids. Transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation. Simmons, D.L., McQuiddy, P., Kasper, C.B. J. Biol. Chem. (1987) [Pubmed]
  24. Structure and hydrodynamic properties of plectin molecules. Foisner, R., Wiche, G. J. Mol. Biol. (1987) [Pubmed]
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