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Gene Review

STXBP3  -  syntaxin binding protein 3

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: MUNC18-3, MUNC18C, PSP, Platelet Sec1 protein, Protein unc-18 homolog 3, ...
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Disease relevance of STXBP3

  • We have recently examined the MAPT locus in progressive supranuclear palsy and found that a haplotype (H1c) on the background of the well-described H1 clade is associated with PSP [1].
  • Thus, although a decreased PSP/ESV ratio was associated with a higher mortality rate, other clinical and laboratory variables were superior to this index for determining morbidity and mortality in patients with isolated mitral insufficiency [2].
  • Can imaging distinguish PSP from other neurodegenerative disorders [3]?
  • Poorly soluble particles of low toxicity (PSP), such as CB, TiO(2) and coal mine dust, have been demonstrated to cause lung cancer in rodents, being most pronounced in rats [4].
  • Furthermore, neurite outgrowth from pheochromocytoma cells (PC-12), a functional bioassay for NGF-like activity, was stimulated by addition of RSP and PSP to the culture media of the PC-12 cells [5].

Psychiatry related information on STXBP3


High impact information on STXBP3

  • We have previously shown that the pancreatic stone protein (PSP) is an inhibitor of calcium carbonate crystal growth and may participate in the stabilization of the normally supersaturated pancreatic juice [10].
  • Phosphorylation by PKC in vitro inhibited PSP from binding to syntaxin 4 [11].
  • As predicted by its sequence, PSP was detected predominantly in the platelet cytosol and was phosphorylated in vitro by protein kinase C (PKC), a secretion-linked kinase, incorporating 0.87 +/- 0.11 mol of PO4 per mole of protein [11].
  • PSP was also specifically phosphorylated in permeabilized platelets after cellular stimulation by phorbol esters or thrombin and this phosphorylation was blocked by the PKC inhibitor Ro-31-8220 [11].
  • The mechanosensory afferents and interneurons are excited by sensory nerve shock, and the components of the resulting LG PSP can be similarly modulated by the same postsynaptic potential changes [12].

Chemical compound and disease context of STXBP3

  • The results demonstrate that in patients with menstrual migraine the platelet response to various aggregating agents is not modified compared to the controls, whereas there is a different response of the PSP to the modulating effect of plasma progesterone [13].
  • PSP 25 mg/kg ip into mice for 5 d antagonized the inhibition of IL-2 production by cyclophosphamide from activated T lymphocytes and restored the suppressed T-cell-mediated delayed, type hypersensitivity response to normal [14].

Biological context of STXBP3

  • Using a DNA construct, named Lama, derived from the murine parotid secretory protein (PSP) gene, we have obtained salivary gland specific gene expression in transgenic mice [15].
  • The ratio of peak systolic pressure to end-systolic volume (PSP/ESV) is a measure of contractility that is relatively independent of loading conditions [2].
  • Cardiac volumes, ejection fraction and PSP/ESV ratio were calculated and Cox multiple regression analyses were performed to determine the relation of functional status, ejection fraction and PSP/ESV ratio to morbidity and mortality [2].
  • Lama is a PSP minigene and allows analysis of the PSP gene 5' regulatory region by transgenesis [15].
  • Lung tumors after both inhalation and intratracheal instillation of PSP are related to particle surface dose, which forwards hazard assessment at surface-based nonoverload concentrations and a standard setting using surface as an exposure metric [4].

Anatomical context of STXBP3

  • The expression level in the parotid gland is only about one percent of the PSP mRNA level, while that of the sublingual gland is near the PSP mRNA level [15].
  • RSP and PSP stimulated 3H-thymidine incorporation by fibroblasts in a dose-dependent manner [5].
  • The presence of low frequency drives (< 4 Hz) in the bilateral PSP condition and its absence in the bilateral FDI condition is consistent with a bilateral drive to axial, but not distal, musculature by the motor pathways responsible for this oscillatory input [16].
  • These results demonstrate mitogenic activity in germ cell proteins (RSP and PSP) and identify a NGF-like protein(s) which is associated with most of this activity [5].
  • A homology cloning approach targeting conserved motifs present in all serine proteases, was used to identify candidate serine proteases involved in these processes, and revealed 5 genes (acrosin, testisin, neurosin, PSP and neurotrypsin), none of which had been associated previously with expression in endothelial cells [17].

Associations of STXBP3 with chemical compounds

  • There were also significant correlations with serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, and PSP (r = 0.6, 0.63, and -0.62, respectively) [18].
  • However, LY294002 was less effective in inhibiting Munc18-3 phosphorylation [19].
  • Protein expression analysis using a C-terminal targeted antibody showed that 13 PSP were negative for p21/WAF1 expression after ionizing radiation (6 Gy) or doxorubicin (100 nM) treatment [20].
  • Similar values were obtained with the three beta-lactams against PSP but against PRP only the serum of volunteers that had taken amoxycillin exhibited serum bactericidal titres of > or = 8 [21].
  • An interlaboratory exercise has been organized by the CRLMB to evaluate its "fitness for purpose" for the Official Control of PSP toxins in the EU laboratories [22].

Regulatory relationships of STXBP3

  • The PKC-dependent phosphorylation of PSP in activated platelets and its inhibitory effects on syntaxin 4 binding provide a novel functional link that may be important in coupling the processes of cell activation, intracellular signaling, and secretion [11].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of STXBP3

  • Subsequently, a Western blot analysis with the NGF antibody identified two immunoreactive bands of 41 +/- 2 kDa and 51 +/- 1 kDa in both RSP and PSP under reduced conditions [5].
  • The present study provides new insight into the molecular mechanisms involved in PSP-induced apoptosis in leukemic HL-60 cells analyzed by cDNA microarray [23].
  • METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis on 126 consecutive video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) procedures in 113 patients treated for stage I recurrent PSP between January 1994 and December 2001 [24].
  • The HPLC validated method is only applicable for Official PSP Control for certain samples [22].
  • Proteins and peptide bound polysaccharides (PSP) extracted from Basidiomycetous fungi are widely used in cancer immunotherapy and recently demonstrated to induce apoptosis in cancer cells in vitro [23].


  1. The H1c haplotype at the MAPT locus is associated with Alzheimer's disease. Myers, A.J., Kaleem, M., Marlowe, L., Pittman, A.M., Lees, A.J., Fung, H.C., Duckworth, J., Leung, D., Gibson, A., Morris, C.M., de Silva, R., Hardy, J. Hum. Mol. Genet. (2005) [Pubmed]
  2. Natural history of chronic mitral insufficiency: relation of peak systolic pressure/end-systolic volume ratio to morbidity and mortality. Ramanathan, K.B., Knowles, J., Connor, M.J., Tribble, R., Kroetz, F.W., Sullivan, J.M., Mirvis, D.M. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. (1984) [Pubmed]
  3. Can imaging distinguish PSP from other neurodegenerative disorders? Eidelberg, D., Dhawan, V. Neurology (2002) [Pubmed]
  4. Inhaled particles and lung cancer, part B: paradigms and risk assessment. Borm, P.J., Schins, R.P., Albrecht, C. Int. J. Cancer (2004) [Pubmed]
  5. Germ cell mitogenic activity is associated with nerve growth factor-like protein(s). Onoda, M., Pflug, B., Djakiew, D. J. Cell. Physiol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  6. Pin1 colocalization with phosphorylated tau in Alzheimer's disease and other tauopathies. Ramakrishnan, P., Dickson, D.W., Davies, P. Neurobiol. Dis. (2003) [Pubmed]
  7. Deficits in long-term retention of learned motor skills in patients with cortical or subcortical degeneration. Mochizuki-Kawai, H., Kawamura, M., Hasegawa, Y., Mochizuki, S., Oeda, R., Yamanaka, K., Tagaya, H. Neuropsychologia. (2004) [Pubmed]
  8. Non-Fluent Progressive Aphasia, Depression, and OCD in a Woman With Progressive Supranuclear Palsy: Neuroanatomical and Neuropathological Correlations. Karnik, N.S., D'Apuzzo, M., Greicius, M. Neurocase : case studies in neuropsychology, neuropsychiatry, and behavioural neurology (2006) [Pubmed]
  9. Development of a multi-channel exploratory battery for psychophysiological assessment: the Stress Profile. Diaz, M.I., Vallejo, M.A., Comeche, M.I. Clinical neurophysiology : official journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. (2003) [Pubmed]
  10. Pancreatic stone protein. I. Evidence that it is encoded by a pancreatic messenger ribonucleic acid. Giorgi, D., Bernard, J.P., De Caro, A., Multigner, L., Lapointe, R., Sarles, H., Dagorn, J.C. Gastroenterology (1985) [Pubmed]
  11. Human platelets contain SNARE proteins and a Sec1p homologue that interacts with syntaxin 4 and is phosphorylated after thrombin activation: implications for platelet secretion. Reed, G.L., Houng, A.K., Fitzgerald, M.L. Blood (1999) [Pubmed]
  12. Postsynaptic modulation of rectifying electrical synaptic inputs to the LG escape command neuron in crayfish. Edwards, D.H., Heitler, W.J., Leise, E.M., Fricke, R.A. J. Neurosci. (1991) [Pubmed]
  13. Menstrual migraine: a possible pathogenic implication of platelet function. Benedetto, C., Massobrio, M., Zonca, M., Melzi, E., Nattero, G., Allais, G., Torre, E. Gynecol. Endocrinol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  14. Immune enhancement of a polysaccharides peptides isolated from Coriolus versicolor. Li, X.Y., Wang, J.F., Zhu, P.P., Liu, L., Ge, J.B., Yang, S.X. Zhongguo yao li xue bao = Acta pharmacologica Sinica. (1990) [Pubmed]
  15. Tissue-specific expression in the salivary glands of transgenic mice. Mikkelsen, T.R., Brandt, J., Larsen, H.J., Larsen, B.B., Poulsen, K., Ingerslev, J., Din, N., Hjorth, J.P. Nucleic Acids Res. (1992) [Pubmed]
  16. The unilateral and bilateral control of motor unit pairs in the first dorsal interosseous and paraspinal muscles in man. Marsden, J.F., Farmer, S.F., Halliday, D.M., Rosenberg, J.R., Brown, P. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (1999) [Pubmed]
  17. Endothelial cell serine proteases expressed during vascular morphogenesis and angiogenesis. Aimes, R.T., Zijlstra, A., Hooper, J.D., Ogbourne, S.M., Sit, M.L., Fuchs, S., Gotley, D.C., Quigley, J.P., Antalis, T.M. Thromb. Haemost. (2003) [Pubmed]
  18. Relationship between insulin response to oral glucose load and creatinine clearance. Yasuda, K., Sato, T., Furuyama, T., Yashinaga, K. Diabetes (1975) [Pubmed]
  19. Regulation of Leukocyte Degranulation by cGMP-Dependent Protein Kinase and Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase: Potential Roles in Phosphorylation of Target Membrane SNARE Complex Proteins in Rat Mast Cells. Nanamori, M., Chen, J., Du, X., Ye, R.D. J. Immunol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  20. A p21/WAF1 mutation favors the appearance of drug resistance to paclitaxel in human noncancerous epithelial mammary cells. Galmarini, C.M., Bouchet, B.P., Audoynaud, C., Lamblot, C., Falette, N., Bertholon, J., Wang, Q., Beghin, A., Dumontet, C., Puisieux, A. Int. J. Cancer (2006) [Pubmed]
  21. In-vitro, in-vivo and ex-vivo studies with oral beta-lactams against Streptococcus pneumoniae. Pérez-Trallero, E., Alkorta, M., García-Arenzana, J.M., Iturzaeta, A., Gomariz, M. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. (1998) [Pubmed]
  22. Influence of the sample toxic profile on the suitability of a high performance liquid chromatography method for official paralytic shellfish toxins control. Ben-Gigirey, B., Rodr??guez-Velasco, M.L., Villar-Gonz??lez, A., Botana, L.M. Journal of chromatography. A (2007) [Pubmed]
  23. Molecular characterization of Coriolus versicolor PSP-induced apoptosis in human promyelotic leukemic HL-60 cells using cDNA microarray. Zeng, F., Hon, C.C., Sit, W.H., Chow, K.Y., Hui, R.K., Law, I.K., Ng, V.W., Yang, X.T., Leung, F.C., Wan, J.M. Int. J. Oncol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  24. Lung wedge resection improves outcome in stage I primary spontaneous pneumothorax. Czerny, M., Salat, A., Fleck, T., Hofmann, W., Zimpfer, D., Eckersberger, F., Klepetko, W., Wolner, E., Mueller, M.R. Ann. Thorac. Surg. (2004) [Pubmed]
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