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MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Endocardium


High impact information on Endocardium

  • Thus, NFAT signaling functions sequentially from myocardium to endocardium within a valvular morphogenetic field to initiate and perpetuate embryonic valve formation [6].
  • Within the endocardium, specific inductive events appear to activate NF-ATc: it is localized to the nucleus only in endocardial cells that are adjacent to the interface with the cardiac jelly and myocardium, which are thought to give the inductive stimulus to the valve primordia [7].
  • METHODS AND RESULTS: MAPs were recorded simultaneously from two or three sites on the right ventricular and left ventricular endocardium in 6 patients with a congenital form of LQT1 syndrome with KvLQT1 defect (17 sites) and 8 control patients (24 sites) [8].
  • Effects of quinidine on repolarization in canine epicardium, midmyocardium, and endocardium: II. In vivo study [9].
  • Terminals arising from nerve fibers (diameter, 6 to 10 microns) immunoreactive for myelin basic protein were identified in the atrial endocardium, epicardium, and coronary sinus, and four types were distinguished by differences in immunostained nerve area (range, 358 to 797 microns 2) and dispersion (range, 620 to 4684 microns 2) [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of Endocardium


Biological context of Endocardium


Anatomical context of Endocardium


Associations of Endocardium with chemical compounds


Gene context of Endocardium

  • Consistent with roles in cardiac development, Tll1 expression was specific to precardiac tissue and endocardium in 7.5 and 8.5 days p.c. embryos, respectively [30].
  • In the mouse, Tbx20 is expressed in the cardiac crescent, then in the endocardium and myocardium of the linear and looped heart tube before it is restricted to the atrioventricular canal and outflow tract in the multi-chambered heart [31].
  • Deletion of the Bmp type 1A receptor, Bmpr1a, in endocardium also resulted in failed cushion formation, indicating that Bmp2 signals directly to cushion-forming endocardium to induce EMT [32].
  • There is an increased expression of Pal-E, ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and DR antigen on endocardium from rejecting heart biopsies [33].
  • Popdc2 expression was absent from the endocardium and propepicardial organ [34].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Endocardium


  1. Mechanical myocardial actuation during ventricular fibrillation improves tolerance to ischemia compared with cardiopulmonary bypass. Anstadt, M.P., Hendry, P.J., Plunkett, M.D., Menius, J.A., Pacifico, A.D., Lowe, J.E. Circulation (1990) [Pubmed]
  2. Endocardial catheter mapping in patients in sinus rhythm: relationship to underlying heart disease and ventricular arrhythmias. Cassidy, D.M., Vassallo, J.A., Miller, J.M., Poll, D.S., Buxton, A.E., Marchlinski, F.E., Josephson, M.E. Circulation (1986) [Pubmed]
  3. Pinacidil-induced electrical heterogeneity and extrasystolic activity in canine ventricular tissues. Does activation of ATP-regulated potassium current promote phase 2 reentry? Di Diego, J.M., Antzelevitch, C. Circulation (1993) [Pubmed]
  4. The effect of chemical ablation of the endocardium on ventricular fibrillation threshold. Damiano, R.J., Smith, P.K., Tripp, H.F., Asano, T., Small, K.W., Lowe, J.E., Ideker, R.E., Cox, J.L. Circulation (1986) [Pubmed]
  5. Early afterdepolarizations induced by isoproterenol in patients with congenital long QT syndrome. Shimizu, W., Ohe, T., Kurita, T., Takaki, H., Aihara, N., Kamakura, S., Matsuhisa, M., Shimomura, K. Circulation (1991) [Pubmed]
  6. A field of myocardial-endocardial NFAT signaling underlies heart valve morphogenesis. Chang, C.P., Neilson, J.R., Bayle, J.H., Gestwicki, J.E., Kuo, A., Stankunas, K., Graef, I.A., Crabtree, G.R. Cell (2004) [Pubmed]
  7. Role of the NF-ATc transcription factor in morphogenesis of cardiac valves and septum. de la Pompa, J.L., Timmerman, L.A., Takimoto, H., Yoshida, H., Elia, A.J., Samper, E., Potter, J., Wakeham, A., Marengere, L., Langille, B.L., Crabtree, G.R., Mak, T.W. Nature (1998) [Pubmed]
  8. Improvement of repolarization abnormalities by a K+ channel opener in the LQT1 form of congenital long-QT syndrome. Shimizu, W., Kurita, T., Matsuo, K., Suyama, K., Aihara, N., Kamakura, S., Towbin, J.A., Shimomura, K. Circulation (1998) [Pubmed]
  9. Effects of quinidine on repolarization in canine epicardium, midmyocardium, and endocardium: II. In vivo study. Anyukhovsky, E.P., Sosunov, E.A., Feinmark, S.J., Rosen, M.R. Circulation (1997) [Pubmed]
  10. Distribution, morphology, and neurochemistry of endocardial and epicardial nerve terminal arborizations in the human heart. Marron, K., Wharton, J., Sheppard, M.N., Fagan, D., Royston, D., Kuhn, D.M., de Leval, M.R., Whitehead, B.F., Anderson, R.H., Polak, J.M. Circulation (1995) [Pubmed]
  11. Frequency-dependent electrophysiologic properties of ventricular repolarization in patients with congenital long QT syndrome. Hirao, H., Shimizu, W., Kurita, T., Suyama, K., Aihara, N., Kamakura, S., Shimomura, K. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  12. Effect of verapamil on conduction delay produced by myocardial ischemia and reperfusion. Hamamoto, H., Peter, T., Fujimoto, T., Mandel, W.J. Am. Heart J. (1981) [Pubmed]
  13. Protective effect of diltiazem against ischemia-induced decreases in regional myocardial flow in rat heart. Katsumata1, N., Ma, X., Higuchi, H. Eur. J. Pharmacol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  14. Use of electrogram characteristics during sinus rhythm to delineate the endocardial scar in a porcine model of healed myocardial infarction. Wrobleski, D., Houghtaling, C., Josephson, M.E., Ruskin, J.N., Reddy, V.Y. J. Cardiovasc. Electrophysiol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  15. Influence of low-flow infusion and magnesium on tissue necrosis during regional ischemia in the canine myocardium. Kingma, J.G., Qiu, Y., Hearse, D.J. Can. J. Physiol. Pharmacol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  16. In vivo induction of "focal" triggered ventricular arrhythmias and responses to overdrive pacing in the canine heart. Furukawa, T., Kimura, S., Catstellanos, A., Bassett, A.L., Myerburg, R.J. Circulation (1990) [Pubmed]
  17. DSCR1 gene expression is dependent on NFATc1 during cardiac valve formation and colocalizes with anomalous organ development in trisomy 16 mice. Lange, A.W., Molkentin, J.D., Yutzey, K.E. Dev. Biol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  18. Increased endothelin-1 gene expression in the endothelium of coronary arteries and endocardium in the DOCA-salt hypertensive rat. Larivière, R., Deng, L.Y., Day, R., Sventek, P., Thibault, G., Schiffrin, E.L. J. Mol. Cell. Cardiol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  19. d-Sotalol: a new potent class III anti-arrhythmic agent. Taggart, P., Sutton, P., Donaldson, R. Clin. Sci. (1985) [Pubmed]
  20. Receptor binding occurrence and plasma levels of natriuretic peptides in response to sympathectomy. Hansson, M. Microsc. Res. Tech. (2005) [Pubmed]
  21. Sodium pentobarbital versus alpha-chloralose anesthesia. Experimental production of substantially different slopes in the transmural CP/ATP ratios within the left ventricle of the canine myocardium. Rath, D.P., Little, C.M., Zhang, H., Jiang, Z., Abduljalil, A.M., Zhu, H., Tong, X., Brown, C., Hamlin, R.L., Robitaille, P.M. Circulation (1995) [Pubmed]
  22. Eosinophils from hypereosinophilic patients damage endocardium of isolated feline heart muscle preparations. Shah, A.M., Brutsaert, D.L., Meulemans, A.L., Andries, L.J., Capron, M. Circulation (1990) [Pubmed]
  23. Endocardial endothelium modulates myofilament Ca2+ responsiveness in aequorin-loaded ferret myocardium. Wang, J., Morgan, J.P. Circ. Res. (1992) [Pubmed]
  24. In vivo induction of cardiac Purkinje fiber differentiation by coexpression of preproendothelin-1 and endothelin converting enzyme-1. Takebayashi-Suzuki, K., Yanagisawa, M., Gourdie, R.G., Kanzawa, N., Mikawa, T. Development (2000) [Pubmed]
  25. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha induces fractalkine expression preferentially in arterial endothelial cells and mithramycin A suppresses TNF-alpha-induced fractalkine expression. Ahn, S.Y., Cho, C.H., Park, K.G., Lee, H.J., Lee, S., Park, S.K., Lee, I.K., Koh, G.Y. Am. J. Pathol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  26. Myocardial inotropic responses to aggregating platelets and modulation by the endocardium. Shah, A.M., Meulemans, A.L., Brutsaert, D.L. Circulation (1989) [Pubmed]
  27. Collagen loss in the stunned myocardium. Charney, R.H., Takahashi, S., Zhao, M., Sonnenblick, E.H., Eng, C. Circulation (1992) [Pubmed]
  28. Flecainide-induced arrhythmia in canine ventricular epicardium. Phase 2 reentry? Krishnan, S.C., Antzelevitch, C. Circulation (1993) [Pubmed]
  29. Hemodynamic mechanisms responsible for reduced subendocardial coronary reserve in dogs with severe left ventricular hypertrophy. Hittinger, L., Mirsky, I., Shen, Y.T., Patrick, T.A., Bishop, S.P., Vatner, S.F. Circulation (1995) [Pubmed]
  30. The mammalian Tolloid-like 1 gene, Tll1, is necessary for normal septation and positioning of the heart. Clark, T.G., Conway, S.J., Scott, I.C., Labosky, P.A., Winnier, G., Bundy, J., Hogan, B.L., Greenspan, D.S. Development (1999) [Pubmed]
  31. Tbx20 is essential for cardiac chamber differentiation and repression of Tbx2. Singh, M.K., Christoffels, V.M., Dias, J.M., Trowe, M.O., Petry, M., Schuster-Gossler, K., Bürger, A., Ericson, J., Kispert, A. Development (2005) [Pubmed]
  32. Bmp2 is essential for cardiac cushion epithelial-mesenchymal transition and myocardial patterning. Ma, L., Lu, M.F., Schwartz, R.J., Martin, J.F. Development (2005) [Pubmed]
  33. Induction of vascular adhesion molecules during rejection of human cardiac allografts. Taylor, P.M., Rose, M.L., Yacoub, M.H., Pigott, R. Transplantation (1992) [Pubmed]
  34. Popeye domain containing gene 2 (Popdc2) is a myocyte-specific differentiation marker during chick heart development. Breher, S.S., Mavridou, E., Brenneis, C., Froese, A., Arnold, H.H., Brand, T. Dev. Dyn. (2004) [Pubmed]
  35. Preservation of high-energy phosphates by verapamil in reperfused myocardium. Lange, R., Ingwall, J., Hale, S.L., Alker, K.J., Braunwald, E., Kloner, R.A. Circulation (1984) [Pubmed]
  36. Sodium channel block produces opposite electrophysiological effects in canine ventricular epicardium and endocardium. Krishnan, S.C., Antzelevitch, C. Circ. Res. (1991) [Pubmed]
  37. Beneficial effect of hydroxyfasudil, a specific Rho-kinase inhibitor, on ischemia/reperfusion injury in canine coronary microcirculation in vivo. Yada, T., Shimokawa, H., Hiramatsu, O., Kajita, T., Shigeto, F., Tanaka, E., Shinozaki, Y., Mori, H., Kiyooka, T., Katsura, M., Ohkuma, S., Goto, M., Ogasawara, Y., Kajiya, F. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  38. Cloning of the mouse laminin alpha 4 cDNA. Expression in a subset of endothelium. Frieser, M., Nöckel, H., Pausch, F., Röder, C., Hahn, A., Deutzmann, R., Sorokin, L.M. Eur. J. Biochem. (1997) [Pubmed]
  39. Differential expression of cytokines in the rat heart in response to sustained volume overload. Dai, R.P., Dheen, S.T., He, B.P., Tay, S.S. Eur. J. Heart Fail. (2004) [Pubmed]
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