The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review


Welcome! If you are familiar with the subject of this article, you can contribute to this open access knowledge base by deleting incorrect information, restructuring or completely rewriting any text. Read more.

Disease relevance of Probiotics


High impact information on Probiotics

  • Toll-like receptor 9 signaling mediates the anti-inflammatory effects of probiotics in murine experimental colitis [1].
  • While lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria have been scientifically important for over a century, many of these are marketed today as probiotics and have become a valuable and rapidly expanding sector of the food market that is leading functional foods in many countries [6].
  • Daily administration of probiotics for 3 wk to mice during a remission period between a first and second course of colitis induced by trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid, resulted in a milder form of recurrent colitis than observed in mice administered PBS during this same period [7].
  • Thus, the potential exists for Th1/Th2/Th3-driving capacities of the gut DC to be modulated according to composition of gut microflora, including ingested probiotics [8].
  • Probiotics are typically administered in food that, following entry into the gastro-intestinal tract, results in measurable health-promoting effects [9].

Chemical compound and disease context of Probiotics


Biological context of Probiotics


Anatomical context of Probiotics


Associations of Probiotics with chemical compounds

  • RESULTS: Faecal recovery of probiotics was confirmed in all probiotic fed mice but not in controls [24].
  • Prebiotics or probiotics for lactose intolerance: a question of adaptation [25].
  • We review the recent in vitro, animal, and clinical experiments that evaluated the role of several types of gastrointestinal functional foods, including the amino acids glutamine and arginine, the essential micronutrients vitamin A and zinc, and 2 classes of food additives, prebiotics and probiotics [26].
  • The objective of this article is to review existing studies concerning the effects of probiotics and prebiotics on serum cholesterol concentrations, with particular attention on the possible mechanisms of their action [27].
  • Future research investigating mechanisms of tolerance to luminal bacteria and an understanding of how probiotics can manipulate the intestinal flora beneficially will bring clinicians closer to identifying potential therapeutic targets and unraveling the bacterial connection to IBD pathogenesis [28].

Gene context of Probiotics

  • RESULTS: Data show that patients who were treated with probiotics had significant lower mucosal mRNA expression levels of interleukin-1beta, interleukin-8, and interferon-gamma compared with placebo-treated patients [29].
  • At the end of the supplementation period (week 8) children receiving probiotics showed significantly higher TNF-alpha responses to HKLB (P = 0.018) and HKSA (P = 0.011) but this was no longer evident when supplementation ceased (week 16) [30].
  • RESULTS: The administration of probiotics was associated with a significant increase in T-helper type 1(Th1-type) cytokine IFN-gamma responses to PHA and SEB at the end of the supplementation period (week 8: P = 0.004 and 0.046) as well as 8 weeks after ceasing supplementation (week 16: P = 0.005 and 0.021) relative to baseline levels of response [30].
  • Although IL-13 responses to OVA were significantly reduced in children receiving probiotics after 8 weeks (P = 0.008), there were no other effects on allergen-specific responses, and this effect was not sustained after ceasing supplementation (week 16) [30].
  • VSL#3 probiotic preparation has the capacity to hydrolyze gliadin polypeptides responsible for Celiac Sprue probiotics and gluten intolerance [31].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Probiotics

  • Patients were randomized to receive either an early enteral diet (control group, n=10) or the same formula with glutamine and probiotics added (study group, n=10) for a minimum of 5 days (range, 5-14 days) [4].
  • We conclude that the enteral formula containing glutamine and probiotics decreased the infection rate and shortened the stay in the intensive care unit of brain injury patients [4].
  • The new information and progress summarized here includes: the role of bacteria, their interaction with CARD15/NOD2 gene products and the modulating effects of probiotics; new imaging techniques, such as wireless capsule endoscopy and chromoendoscopy for detecting dysplasia, and fecal markers [32].
  • Although definite evidence is difficult to provide a number of studies suggest a role for nutritional interventions and/or chemoprevention with plant phytosterols, fiber, selenium, calcium, probiotics or COX2 inhibitors as putative chemopreventive strategies [33].


  1. Toll-like receptor 9 signaling mediates the anti-inflammatory effects of probiotics in murine experimental colitis. Rachmilewitz, D., Katakura, K., Karmeli, F., Hayashi, T., Reinus, C., Rudensky, B., Akira, S., Takeda, K., Lee, J., Takabayashi, K., Raz, E. Gastroenterology (2004) [Pubmed]
  2. Probiotics in chronic pouchitis: restoring luminal microbial balance. Sartor, R.B. Gastroenterology (2000) [Pubmed]
  3. Inventing probiotic functional foods for patients with allergic disease. Laiho, K., Ouwehand, A., Salminen, S., Isolauri, E. Ann. Allergy Asthma Immunol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  4. Benefits of early enteral nutrition with glutamine and probiotics in brain injury patients. Falcão de Arruda, I.S., de Aguilar-Nascimento, J.E. Clin. Sci. (2004) [Pubmed]
  5. Exclusion of vanA, vanB and vanC type glycopeptide resistance in strains of Lactobacillus reuteri and Lactobacillus rhamnosus used as probiotics by polymerase chain reaction and hybridization methods. Klein, G., Hallmann, C., Casas, I.A., Abad, J., Louwers, J., Reuter, G. J. Appl. Microbiol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  6. Diversity, vitality and activities of intestinal lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria assessed by molecular approaches. Vaughan, E.E., Heilig, H.G., Ben-Amor, K., de Vos, W.M. FEMS Microbiol. Rev. (2005) [Pubmed]
  7. Probiotics ameliorate recurrent Th1-mediated murine colitis by inducing IL-10 and IL-10-dependent TGF-beta-bearing regulatory cells. Di Giacinto, C., Marinaro, M., Sanchez, M., Strober, W., Boirivant, M. J. Immunol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  8. Lactobacilli differentially modulate expression of cytokines and maturation surface markers in murine dendritic cells. Christensen, H.R., Frøkiaer, H., Pestka, J.J. J. Immunol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  9. Towards understanding molecular modes of probiotic action. Marco, M.L., Pavan, S., Kleerebezem, M. Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  10. Nutritional advantages of probiotics and prebiotics. Marteau, P., Boutron-Ruault, M.C. Br. J. Nutr. (2002) [Pubmed]
  11. Effects of soybean isoflavones, probiotics, and their interactions on lipid metabolism and endocrine system in an animal model of obesity and diabetes. Ali, A.A., Velasquez, M.T., Hansen, C.T., Mohamed, A.I., Bhathena, S.J. J. Nutr. Biochem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  12. Prebiotic treatment of experimental colitis with germinated barley foodstuff: a comparison with probiotic or antibiotic treatment. Fukuda, M., Kanauchi, O., Araki, Y., Andoh, A., Mitsuyama, K., Takagi, K., Toyonaga, A., Sata, M., Fujiyama, Y., Fukuoka, M., Matsumoto, Y., Bamba, T. Int. J. Mol. Med. (2002) [Pubmed]
  13. Acute diverticulitis of the colon--current medical therapeutic management. Tursi, A. Expert opinion on pharmacotherapy. (2004) [Pubmed]
  14. D-lactic acidosis in short-bowel syndrome managed with antibiotics and probiotics. Uchida, H., Yamamoto, H., Kisaki, Y., Fujino, J., Ishimaru, Y., Ikeda, H. J. Pediatr. Surg. (2004) [Pubmed]
  15. Preinoculation with the probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus early in life effectively inhibits murine Citrobacter rodentium colitis. Chen, C.C., Louie, S., Shi, H.N., Walker, W.A. Pediatr. Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  16. High cell density cultivation of probiotics and lactic acid production. Schiraldi, C., Adduci, V., Valli, V., Maresca, C., Giuliano, M., Lamberti, M., Cartenì, M., De Rosa, M. Biotechnol. Bioeng. (2003) [Pubmed]
  17. Antigenotoxic properties of lactic acid bacteria in vivo in the gastrointestinal tract of rats. Pool-Zobel, B.L., Bertram, B., Knoll, M., Lambertz, R., Neudecker, C., Schillinger, U., Schmezer, P., Holzapfel, W.H. Nutrition and cancer. (1993) [Pubmed]
  18. Modulation of antibody-mediated immune response by probiotics in chickens. Haghighi, H.R., Gong, J., Gyles, C.L., Hayes, M.A., Sanei, B., Parvizi, P., Gisavi, H., Chambers, J.R., Sharif, S. Clin. Diagn. Lab. Immunol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  19. Probiotics as a treatment strategy for gastrointestinal diseases? Bergonzelli, G.E., Blum, S., Brussow, H., Corthésy-Theulaz, I. Digestion (2005) [Pubmed]
  20. Extracellular MUC3 mucin secretion follows adherence of Lactobacillus strains to intestinal epithelial cells in vitro. Mack, D.R., Ahrne, S., Hyde, L., Wei, S., Hollingsworth, M.A. Gut (2003) [Pubmed]
  21. Megasphaera elsdenii JCM1772T normalizes hyperlactate production in the large intestine of fructooligosaccharide-fed rats by stimulating butyrate production. Hashizume, K., Tsukahara, T., Yamada, K., Koyama, H., Ushida, K. J. Nutr. (2003) [Pubmed]
  22. Systematic review: are probiotics useful in controlling gastric colonization by Helicobacter pylori? Gotteland, M., Brunser, O., Cruchet, S. Aliment. Pharmacol. Ther. (2006) [Pubmed]
  23. Induction of nitric oxide synthesis by probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG in J774 macrophages and human T84 intestinal epithelial cells. Korhonen, R., Korpela, R., Saxelin, M., Mäki, M., Kankaanranta, H., Moilanen, E. Inflammation (2001) [Pubmed]
  24. Double blind, placebo controlled trial of two probiotic strains in interleukin 10 knockout mice and mechanistic link with cytokine balance. McCarthy, J., O'Mahony, L., O'Callaghan, L., Sheil, B., Vaughan, E.E., Fitzsimons, N., Fitzgibbon, J., O'Sullivan, G.C., Kiely, B., Collins, J.K., Shanahan, F. Gut (2003) [Pubmed]
  25. Prebiotics or probiotics for lactose intolerance: a question of adaptation. Szilagyi, A. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (1999) [Pubmed]
  26. Protective nutrients and functional foods for the gastrointestinal tract. Duggan, C., Gannon, J., Walker, W.A. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (2002) [Pubmed]
  27. Effects of consumption of probiotics and prebiotics on serum lipid levels in humans. Pereira, D.I., Gibson, G.R. Crit. Rev. Biochem. Mol. Biol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  28. Microbial factors in inflammatory bowel disease. Farrell, R.J., LaMont, J.T. Gastroenterol. Clin. North Am. (2002) [Pubmed]
  29. Probiotic therapy in the prevention of pouchitis onset: decreased interleukin-1beta, interleukin-8, and interferon-gamma gene expression. Lammers, K.M., Vergopoulos, A., Babel, N., Gionchetti, P., Rizzello, F., Morselli, C., Caramelli, E., Fiorentino, M., d'Errico, A., Volk, H.D., Campieri, M. Inflamm. Bowel Dis. (2005) [Pubmed]
  30. Clinical effects of probiotics are associated with increased interferon-gamma responses in very young children with atopic dermatitis. Prescott, S.L., Dunstan, J.A., Hale, J., Breckler, L., Lehmann, H., Weston, S., Richmond, P. Clin. Exp. Allergy (2005) [Pubmed]
  31. VSL#3 probiotic preparation has the capacity to hydrolyze gliadin polypeptides responsible for Celiac Sprue probiotics and gluten intolerance. Angelis, M.D., Rizzello, C.G., Fasano, A., Clemente, M.G., Simone, C.D., Silano, M., Vincenzi, M.D., Losito, I., Gobbetti, M. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (2005) [Pubmed]
  32. Inflammatory bowel disease: what is new? Marteau, P., Daniel, F., Seksik, P., Jian, R. Endoscopy. (2004) [Pubmed]
  33. Is there any role for prevention strategies for colorectal cancer other than population-based screening? Hlavaty, T., Lukac, L., Duris, I. Bratislavské lekárske listy. (2004) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities