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Chemical Compound Review

Xenon-123     xenon

Synonyms: Xenon (123Xe), AC1L4BGX, 15700-10-4, Xenon, isotope of mass 123
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Disease relevance of xenon

  • Seventy-four measurements of cerebral blood flow (CBF) were performed using the Xenon 133 inhalation method in 50 cases of spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage [1].
  • Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured over both hemispheres in 20 patients with unilateral transient ischemic attacks (TIA) of the territory of the internal carotid artery on the day of the TIA. rCBF was estimated with the nontraumatic Xenon 133-inhalation technique using the initial slope index [2].
  • In six rats with liver failure and in six control rats, cerebral blood flow was measured repeatedly by the intracarotid 133 Xenon injection technique [3].
  • CONCLUSIONS: Xenon anesthesia results in gas exchange conditions that favor bubble growth, which may worsen neurologic injury from gas embolism [4].
  • RESULTS: Xenon exposure did not induce any changes in metabolic and hemodynamic parameters nor elevations of the plasma catecholamine levels indicative for an episode of malignant hyperthermia [5].

High impact information on xenon

  • In this second method, cell samples removed at 30-s intervals were irradiated with 40-microseconds bursts of UV light from a Xenon flash lamp, and the distribution of polymerase was examined by precipitating UV cross-linked protein-DNA complexes with an antibody to RNA polymerase II [6].
  • The cortical surface was illuminated with a Xenon light through an operating microscope, and the reflected light, which passed through a 605 nm bandpass filter, was detected by a CCD camera-based optical imaging system [7].
  • Protein Crystallography under Xenon and Nitrous Oxide Pressure: Comparison with In Vivo Pharmacology Studies and Implications for the Mechanism of Inhaled Anesthetic Action [8].
  • Exposure to Xenon 133 in the nuclear medicine laboratory [9].
  • CONCLUSIONS: Xenon was safely and efficiently delivered to coronary artery bypass grafting patients while on cardiopulmonary bypass [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of xenon


Biological context of xenon

  • Cerebral blood flow and clinical parameters were studied in 30 stroke patients at 15th, 30th, 60th, 90th days after the cerebral insult (Xenon 133 inhalation method) [13].
  • Cardiac output (thermodilution) was 4.5 l/min, 57% being distributed to the dependent lung as assessed by iv boli of Xenon 133 [14].
  • IMPLICATIONS: Xenon might increase cerebral blood flow; however, 0.7 minimum alveolar anesthetic concentration xenon preserved both low intracranial pressure and CO(2) reactivity of the cerebral vessels in the normal rabbit [15].
  • RESULTS: Xenon elicited dose-dependent systemic haemodynamic changes: heart rate and cardiac output decreased by 30%, while mean arterial pressure was stable [16].
  • This finding with renin release stimulation at Xenon133 infusion in the renal artery is of great importance in judging results of investigations concerning renal blood flow and renin when the Xenon wash-out technique is used [17].

Anatomical context of xenon

  • Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) measurements were determined by the intravenous Xenon 133 technique in 80 patients suffering from temporal lobe epilepsy [18].
  • RESULTS: Xenon dose-dependently suppressed NMA-induced c-Fos expression in the arcuate nucleus with an IC(50) of 47 (2)% atm [19].
  • BACKGROUND: Xenon has only minimal haemodynamic side-effects on normal myocardium and might be a preferable anaesthetic agent for patients with heart failure [20].
  • No measurements of lambda for Xenon in subcutaneous tissue in the leg have been done in patients with occlusive arterial disease [21].
  • Direct determination of the tissue-to-blood partition coefficient for Xenon in human subcutaneous adipose tissue [22].

Associations of xenon with other chemical compounds


Gene context of xenon

  • CONCLUSIONS: Xenon increases the removal of the selectins PSGL-1 and L-selectin from the neutrophil surface in vitro [28].
  • We found a significant correlation between the mean hemisphere CBF from our method and the mean hemisphere grey matter CBF from the Xenon method with a correlation coefficient of 0.73 [29].
  • We evaluated regional CBF (rCBF) by means of Xenon-enhanced computerized tomography (Xe-CT) in 29 traumatic intracerebral hematomas, from 22 patients with severe head injury (GCS < or = 8) [30].
  • In 25 consecutive cases of chromium contact allergy we have made four parallel serial dilution tests and irradiated three of the test rows, two with solar-spectrum-like radiation from a 150 W Xenon lamp (4/5 MED and 4 MED) and one row with long-wave ultraviolet radiation (blacklight) alone [31].
  • The inactivation of dihydroorotate dehydrogenase was studied by irradiating at selective wavelengths, namely 280 nm and 450 nm, using a steady-state Xenon lamp as a light source [32].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of xenon

  • Test agents were applied to the untanned midback under an occlusive dressing for 6 hr and then exposed to broad-spectrum radiation containing UV-A and visible wavelengths from a Xenon arc source [33].
  • Twenty-nine (64%) Xenon scintigraphies showed a reduction of lung perfusion in the irradiated areas without any symptom [34].
  • The results we obtained in 12 normal volunteers by measuring regional cerebral blood flow by SPECT and IV injection of Xenon 133 during the four experimental conditions, did not allow us to firmly establish our hypotheses [35].
  • Serial resting cerebral blood flow (CBF) measurements with either Xenon 133 inhalation or positron emission tomography at 1, 8 and 10 months post-onset showed a widespread and long-lasting low CBF in the cortex [36].
  • Twelve (16%) chest radiographs showed moderate or severe abnormalities, but there was no significant correlation between the results of pulmonary function tests and Xenon ventilation/perfusion scintigraphy, the clinical examination and the intensity of the radiological sequelae [34].


  1. The prognostic value of noninvasive CBF measurement in subarachnoid hemorrhage. Géraud, G., Tremoulet, M., Guell, A., Bes, A. Stroke (1984) [Pubmed]
  2. Prolonged disturbances of regional cerebral blood flow in transient ischemic attacks. Hartmann, A. Stroke (1985) [Pubmed]
  3. Dissociated cerebral vasoparalysis in acute liver failure. A hypothesis of gradual cerebral hyperaemia. Larsen, F.S., Adel Hansen, B., Pott, F., Ejlersen, E., Secher, N.H., Paulson, O.B., Knudsen, G.M. J. Hepatol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  4. Model predictions of gas embolism growth and reabsorption during xenon anesthesia. Sta Maria, N., Eckmann, D.M. Anesthesiology (2003) [Pubmed]
  5. Xenon does not trigger malignant hyperthermia in susceptible swine. Froeba, G., Marx, T., Pazhur, J., Baur, C., Baeder, S., Calzia, E., Eichinger, H.M., Radermacher, P., Georgieff, M. Anesthesiology (1999) [Pubmed]
  6. Rapid changes in Drosophila transcription after an instantaneous heat shock. O'Brien, T., Lis, J.T. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  7. Functional representation of the finger and face in the human somatosensory cortex: intraoperative intrinsic optical imaging. Sato, K., Nariai, T., Tanaka, Y., Maehara, T., Miyakawa, N., Sasaki, S., Momose-Sato, Y., Ohno, K. Neuroimage (2005) [Pubmed]
  8. Protein Crystallography under Xenon and Nitrous Oxide Pressure: Comparison with In Vivo Pharmacology Studies and Implications for the Mechanism of Inhaled Anesthetic Action. Colloc'h, N., Sopkova-de Oliveira Santos, J., Retailleau, P., Vivar??s, D., Bonnet??, F., Langlois d'Estainto, B., Gallois, B., Brisson, A., Risso, J.J., Lemaire, M., Prang??, T., Abraini, J.H. Biophys. J. (2007) [Pubmed]
  9. Exposure to Xenon 133 in the nuclear medicine laboratory. Nishiyama, H., Lukes, S.J. Radiology. (1982) [Pubmed]
  10. Feasibility and safety of delivering xenon to patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery while on cardiopulmonary bypass: phase I study. Lockwood, G.G., Franks, N.P., Downie, N.A., Taylor, K.M., Maze, M. Anesthesiology (2006) [Pubmed]
  11. Induction of FOS and JUN proteins after focal ischemia in the rat: differential effect of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist MK-801. Gass, P., Spranger, M., Herdegen, T., Bravo, R., Köck, P., Hacke, W., Kiessling, M. Acta Neuropathol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  12. Changing concepts in management of circumscribed choroidal hemangioma: the 2003 J. Howard Stokes Lecture, Part 1. Shields, J.A., Shields, C.L., Materin, M.A., Marr, B.P., Demirci, H., Mashayekhi, A. Ophthalmic surgery, lasers & imaging : the official journal of the International Society for Imaging in the Eye. (2004) [Pubmed]
  13. Lack of evolution of the cerebral blood flow during clinical recovery of a stroke. Demeurisse, G., Verhas, M., Capon, A., Paternot, J. Stroke (1983) [Pubmed]
  14. Ventilation and perfusion of each lung during differential ventilation with selective PEEP. Hedenstierna, G., Baehrendtz, S., Klingstedt, C., Santesson, J., Söderborg, B., Dahlborn, M., Bindslev, L. Anesthesiology (1984) [Pubmed]
  15. The effects of 30% and 60% xenon inhalation on pial vessel diameter and intracranial pressure in rabbits. Fukuda, T., Nakayama, H., Yanagi, K., Mizutani, T., Miyabe, M., Ohshima, N., Toyooka, H. Anesth. Analg. (2001) [Pubmed]
  16. Effects of xenon anaesthesia on intestinal oxygenation in acutely instrumented pigs. Vagts, D.A., Hecker, K., Iber, T., Roesner, J.P., Spee, A., Otto, B., Rossaint, R., Nöldge-Schomburg, G.F. British journal of anaesthesia. (2004) [Pubmed]
  17. Increase of plasma renin activity at renal blood flow estimations with the xenon133 wash-out technique in patients with renal artery stenosis. Hägg, A., Aberg, H., Lörelius, L.E., Mörlin, C., Wide, L. Clinical physiology (Oxford, England) (1987) [Pubmed]
  18. Correlations between cerebral blood flow variations and clinical parameters in temporal lobe epilepsy: an interictal study. Valmier, J., Touchon, J., Daures, P., Zanca, M., Baldy-Moulinier, M. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatr. (1987) [Pubmed]
  19. Neuroprotective and neurotoxic properties of the 'inert' gas, xenon. Ma, D., Wilhelm, S., Maze, M., Franks, N.P. British journal of anaesthesia. (2002) [Pubmed]
  20. Xenon produces minimal haemodynamic effects in rabbits with chronically compromised left ventricular function. Preckel, B., Schlack, W., Heibel, T., Rütten, H. British journal of anaesthesia. (2002) [Pubmed]
  21. Determination of the subcutaneous tissue to blood partition coefficient in patients with severe leg ischaemia by a double isotope washout technique. Bjerre-Jepsen, K., Faris, I., Henriksen, O., Tønnesen, K.H. Clinical physiology (Oxford, England) (1982) [Pubmed]
  22. Direct determination of the tissue-to-blood partition coefficient for Xenon in human subcutaneous adipose tissue. Jelnes, R., Rasmussen, L.B., Eickhoff, J.H. Scand. J. Clin. Lab. Invest. (1984) [Pubmed]
  23. Xenon does not impair the responsiveness of cardiac muscle bundles to positive inotropic and chronotropic stimulation. Schroth, S.C., Schotten, U., Alkanoglu, O., Reyle-Hahn, M.S., Hanrath, P., Rossaint, R. Anesthesiology (2002) [Pubmed]
  24. Xenon acts by inhibition of non-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor-mediated glutamatergic neurotransmission in Caenorhabditis elegans. Nagele, P., Metz, L.B., Crowder, C.M. Anesthesiology (2005) [Pubmed]
  25. Effect in cat of locus coeruleus lesions on the response of cerebral blood flow and cardiac output to altered paCO2. Reddy, S.V., Yaksh, T.L., Anderson, R.E., Sundt, T.M. Brain Res. (1986) [Pubmed]
  26. Diffuse capillary telangiectasia of the brain manifested as a slowly progressive course. Tang, S.C., Jeng, J.S., Liu, H.M., Yip, P.K. Cerebrovasc. Dis. (2003) [Pubmed]
  27. Degradation of monomethylmercury chloride by hydroxyl radicals in simulated natural waters. Chen, J., Pehkonen, S.O., Lin, C.J. Water Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  28. Xenon modulates neutrophil adhesion molecule expression in vitro. de Rossi, L.W., Horn, N.A., Stevanovic, A., Buhre, W., Hutschenreuter, G., Rossaint, R. European journal of anaesthesiology. (2004) [Pubmed]
  29. RCBF-quantification with 99mTc-HMPAO-SPECT: theory and first results. Nickel, O., Nägele-Wöhrle, B., Ulrich, P., Eissner, D., Roesler, A., Grimm, W., Hahn, K. European journal of nuclear medicine. (1989) [Pubmed]
  30. Centrifugal distribution of regional cerebral blood flow and its time course in traumatic intracerebral hematomas. Chieregato, A., Fainardi, E., Servadei, F., Tanfani, A., Pugliese, G., Pascarella, R., Targa, L. J. Neurotrauma (2004) [Pubmed]
  31. Light sensitivity and chromium dermatitis. Wahlberg, J.E., Wennersten, G. Br. J. Dermatol. (1977) [Pubmed]
  32. Photo-induced inactivation of dihydroorotate dehydrogenase in dilute aqueous solution. Saha, A. Int. J. Radiat. Biol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  33. Identification of topical photosensitizing agents in humans. Kaidbey, K.H., Kligman, A.M. J. Invest. Dermatol. (1978) [Pubmed]
  34. Late cardiopulmonary toxicity after treatment for Hodgkin's disease. Allavena, C., Conroy, T., Aletti, P., Bey, P., Lederlin, P. Br. J. Cancer (1992) [Pubmed]
  35. Cerebral blood flow correlates of word monitoring in sentences: influence of semantic incoherence. A spect study in normals. Demonet, J.F., Celsis, P., Nespoulous, J.L., Viallard, G., Marc-Vergnes, J.P., Rascol, A. Neuropsychologia. (1992) [Pubmed]
  36. Right motor neglect associated with dynamic aphasia, loss of drive and amnesia: case report and cerebral blood flow study. de la Sayette, V., Le Doze, F., Bouvard, G., Morin, I., Eustache, F., Fiorelli, M., Viader, F., Morin, P. Neuropsychologia. (1992) [Pubmed]
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