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Gene Review

TRIM9  -  tripartite motif containing 9

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase TRIM9, KIAA0282, RING finger protein 91, RNF91, SPRING, ...
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Disease relevance of TRIM9

  • Adenovirus amazes at Cold Spring Harbor [1].
  • For example, none of 31 unique 16S rRNA sequences detected in the Octopus Spring mat, Yellowstone National Park, matches that of any prokaryote previously cultivated from geothermal systems; 11 are contributed by genetically diverse cyanobacteria, even though a single cyanobacterial species was suspected based on morphologic and culture analysis [2].
  • When inherited with other alpha-thalassemia determinants, the Constant Spring gene has the potential to cause severe forms of alpha-thalassemia [3].
  • Other variant erythrocytes (beta-thalassemia/Hb E, homozygous Hb E, homozygous Hb Constant Spring, Hb H, Hb H/Hb Constant Spring) with low deformability showed different degrees of reduction in invasion susceptibility, most of which were less than proportional with deformability decrease [4].
  • Hemoglobin (Hb) Constant Spring is an alpha-thalassemic hemoglobinopathy that is a major cause of severe alpha-thalassemia in Southeast Asians [5].

Psychiatry related information on TRIM9

  • A total of 6,527 subjects in 96 schools in California, Louisiana, Minnesota, and Texas answered questions about behaviors and potential correlates of smoking as part of the CATCH health behavior questionnaire in Spring 1994 [6].
  • (1990) (Cold Spring Harbor Symp. Quant. Biol., 55: 837-8471), proprioception would allow control subjects to learn the inertial properties of the limb [7].
  • METHODS: Adolescent girls (N = 1,038) completed self-report measures of perceived environment, barriers self-efficacy, and physical activity in the Spring semesters of 1999 (baseline) and 2000 (follow-up) when students were in the 8th and 9th grades [8].
  • An update of Australia's and New Zealand's mental health systems: Spring 1985 [9].
  • A survey was undertaken in the Spring of 1994 to understand the types of smoking cessation services offered by HMOs to one state's employees [10].

High impact information on TRIM9

  • The two RNA sequences are 83% homologous to rabbit globin mRNA (Proudfoot, 1976), and a part of the alpha globin mRNA sequence codes for the carboxy terminus of human alpha globin Constant Spring (Clegg, Weatherall, and Milner, 1971) [11].
  • Marine ecology: Spring algal bloom and larval fish survival [12].
  • Genome mappers have a hot time at Cold Spring Harbor [13].
  • A recent Cold Spring Harbour meeting(*) reviewed the latest progress on telomeres (the specialized structures that form the ends of chromosomes) and telomerase (the enzyme primarily responsible for their replication) [14].
  • This year's Cold Spring Harbor meeting on programmed cell death (September 17-21, 2003), organised by Craig Thompson and Junying Yuan, was proof that the 'golden age' of research in this field is far from over [15].

Chemical compound and disease context of TRIM9

  • Gentamicin- and methicillin-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus have been isolated from Spring 1979 to the present from many hospitals in New York City. A large proportion of the strains were resistant to the majority of antistaphylococcal antibiotics [16].
  • MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS: Lactate levels were measured in 17 critically ill patients on whole blood using the new Chiron M865, and on plasma by a stat lactate/glucose analyzer (Yellow Spring Instrument, YSI mode 2300) and a reference lactate/glucose/electrolyte/enzyme analyzer (Hitachi 911) [17].
  • This paper is intended as a succinct review of technology used for clinical hyperthermia therapy for cancer, as culled from a presentation at the special workshop on Thermal Medicine, Heat Shock Proteins, and Cancer at the Society for Thermal Medicine conference in Spring 2005 [18].
  • Fifteen children with hemiplegia, aged between 4 and 10 years, received two types of individually tuned AFOs: common posterior leaf-spring (PLS) and Dual Carbon Fiber Spring AFO (CFO) (with carbon fibre at the dorsal part of the orthosis) [19].
  • We have described a case of Hb H disease with Hb Constant Spring (--/alpha alpha cs) in a Laotian child whose father had alpha-thalassemia trait and whose mother was a carrier of Hb CS, a mutant hemoglobin produced in minimal amounts [20].

Biological context of TRIM9

  • Overexpression of Spring or its SNAP-25-interacting domain reduces Ca(2+)-dependent exocytosis from PC12 cells [21].
  • The 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50) for artesunate in HbH (alpha-thal 1/alpha-thal 2), HbH (alpha-thal 1/Hb Constant Spring), and homozygous Hb Constant Spring erythrocytes were 4.5 +/- 2.8, 8.5 +/- 3.2, and 2.6 +/- 1.6 nM compared with 0.82 +/- 0.35 nM in normal erythrocytes (P less than 0.002 for all three cases) [22].
  • This conclusion, together with the proposal that exons were initially independent "minigenes" [Gilbert, W. (1987) Cold Spring Harbor Symp. Quant. Biol. 52, 901-905], suggests that many introns may have evolved from the 5' noncoding region of one gene and/or the 3' noncoding region of a second gene [23].
  • Comparison of the alpha Wayne sequences with the amino-acid sequences of alpha A and alpha Constant Spring leads to the conclusion that Hb Wayne I is the result of a -1 frameshift mutation in the alpha chain and that Hb Wayne II is formed secondarily by spontaneous deamidation of the new asparagine residue [24].
  • Hemoglobin Constant Spring is an elongation mutation of the alpha 2-globin locus that results in a thalassemic phenotype [3].

Anatomical context of TRIM9


Associations of TRIM9 with chemical compounds

  • RESULTS: BMH took 111 +/- 24 minutes and patients were in postanesthesia care unit (PACU) for 220 +/- 72 minutes before being sent home with a companion and Tylenol with codeine (acetaminophen with codeine; McNeil Pharmaceutical, Spring House, PA) [28].
  • The total volume of centromeres per nucleus varies widely within Triticum aestivum cv. Chinese Spring (7-fold) and between 11 higher plant species (24-fold) [29].
  • Comment on: Gale EAM (2005) Spring harvest? Reflections on the rise of type 1 diabetes. Diabetologia 48:2245-2250; and Walker M, Mari A, Jayapaul MK et al (2005) Impaired beta cell glucose sensitivity and whole-body insulin sensitivity as predictors of hyperglycaemia in non-diabetic subjects. Diabetologia 48:2470-2476 [30].
  • The gene corresponds to polypeptide 12 encoded by chromosome 1D in the variety "Chinese Spring". The coding sequence predicted contains seven cysteine residues six of which flank a central repetitive region comprising more than 70% of the polypeptide [31].
  • Genetics in primary care. Report on workshop of EC Concerted Action on Genetics Services in Europe (CAGSE) in association with the Royal College of GP Spring Meeting, Blackpool, UK, 28 April 1995 [32].

Other interactions of TRIM9

  • Despite extensive molecular analysis of MIC2 (see Darling et al., Cold Spring Harb. Symp. quant. Biol. 51, 205-211, 1986), study of the gene product has been limited (Banting et al., EMBO J. 41, 1967-1972, 1985) [33].
  • Several possible causes giving rise to such a condition were excluded including G6PD deficiency, which is extremely common in Thailand. Subsequent haematological and molecular analyses demonstrated that the patient was homozygous for Hb Constant Spring (Hb CS/CS), an a globin haemoglobinopathy [34].
  • Asymmetrically primed selective amplification/temperature shift fluorescence polymerase chain reaction to detect the hemoglobin Constant Spring mutation [5].
  • The three-dimensional structure of one of these epitopes, recognized by monoclonal antibody NC41, has previously been determined (W. R. Tulip, J. N. Varghese, R. G. Webster, G. M. Air, W. G. Laver, and P. M. Colman, Cold Spring Harbor Symp. Quant. Biol. 54:257-263, 1989) [35].
  • We describe a fixed-time, enzymatic, reaction-rate procedure for determining plasma ammonia with a centrifugal analyzer (Rotochem IIA/36; American Instrument Co., silver Spring, MD 20910), with NADPH as cofactor [36].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of TRIM9


  1. Adenovirus amazes at Cold Spring Harbor. Sambrook, J. Nature (1977) [Pubmed]
  2. A natural view of microbial biodiversity within hot spring cyanobacterial mat communities. Ward, D.M., Ferris, M.J., Nold, S.C., Bateson, M.M. Microbiol. Mol. Biol. Rev. (1998) [Pubmed]
  3. Selective enzymatic amplification of alpha 2-globin DNA for detection of the hemoglobin Constant Spring mutation. Kropp, G.L., Fucharoen, S., Embury, S.H. Blood (1989) [Pubmed]
  4. Reduced deformability of thalassemic erythrocytes and erythrocytes with abnormal hemoglobins and relation with susceptibility to Plasmodium falciparum invasion. Bunyaratvej, A., Butthep, P., Sae-Ung, N., Fucharoen, S., Yuthavong, Y. Blood (1992) [Pubmed]
  5. Asymmetrically primed selective amplification/temperature shift fluorescence polymerase chain reaction to detect the hemoglobin Constant Spring mutation. Kropp, G.L., Fucharoen, S., Embury, S.H. Blood (1991) [Pubmed]
  6. Tobacco use measurement, prediction, and intervention in elementary schools in four states: the CATCH Study. Elder, J.P., Perry, C.L., Stone, E.J., Johnson, C.C., Yang, M., Edmundson, E.W., Smyth, M.H., Galati, T., Feldman, H., Cribb, P., Parcel, G.S. Preventive medicine. (1996) [Pubmed]
  7. Role of sensory information in updating internal models of the effector during arm tracking. Vercher, J.L., Sarès, F., Blouin, J., Bourdin, C., Gauthier, G. Prog. Brain Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  8. Perceived physical environment and physical activity across one year among adolescent girls: self-efficacy as a possible mediator? Motl, R.W., Dishman, R.K., Ward, D.S., Saunders, R.P., Dowda, M., Felton, G., Pate, R.R. The Journal of adolescent health : official publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine. (2005) [Pubmed]
  9. An update of Australia's and New Zealand's mental health systems: Spring 1985. Harper, J.T. Journal of mental health administration. (1985) [Pubmed]
  10. Smoking cessation benefits in HMOs. Zapka, J.G., Merriam, P., Ockene, J. HMO practice / HMO Group. (1997) [Pubmed]
  11. The 3' terminal sequences of human alpha and beta globin messenger RNAs: comparison with rabbit globin messenger RNA. Proudfoot, N.J., Longley, J.I. Cell (1976) [Pubmed]
  12. Marine ecology: Spring algal bloom and larval fish survival. Platt, T., Fuentes-Yaco, C., Frank, K.T. Nature (2003) [Pubmed]
  13. Genome mappers have a hot time at Cold Spring Harbor. Nowak, R. Science (1995) [Pubmed]
  14. All's well that ends well. Stewart, J.L., Baird, K.M., Farr, C.J. Trends Cell Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  15. Programmed cell death: Superman meets Dr Death. Meier, P., Silke, J. Nat. Cell Biol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  16. Emergence of gentamicin- and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains in New York City hospitals. Schaefler, S., Jones, D., Perry, W., Ruvinskaya, L., Baradet, T., Mayr, E., Wilson, M.E. J. Clin. Microbiol. (1981) [Pubmed]
  17. Evaluation of a new, rapid lactate analyzer in critical care. Noordally, O., Vincent, J.L. Intensive care medicine. (1999) [Pubmed]
  18. Evolving technology for thermal therapy of cancer. Stauffer, P.R. International journal of hyperthermia : the official journal of European Society for Hyperthermic Oncology, North American Hyperthermia Group. (2005) [Pubmed]
  19. How can push-off be preserved during use of an ankle foot orthosis in children with hemiplegia? A prospective controlled study. Desloovere, K., Molenaers, G., Van Gestel, L., Huenaerts, C., Van Campenhout, A., Callewaert, B., Van de Walle, P., Seyler, J. Gait & posture. (2006) [Pubmed]
  20. Hemoglobin H disease with hemoglobin Constant Spring in a child of Laotian extraction. Napoli, V.M., Vroon, D.H., Bryan, L., Ross, W. South. Med. J. (1986) [Pubmed]
  21. Spring, a novel RING finger protein that regulates synaptic vesicle exocytosis. Li, Y., Chin, L.S., Weigel, C., Li, L. J. Biol. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  22. Decreased sensitivity of artesunate and chloroquine of Plasmodium falciparum infecting hemoglobin H and/or hemoglobin constant spring erythrocytes. Yuthavong, Y., Butthep, P., Bunyaratvej, A., Fucharoen, S. J. Clin. Invest. (1989) [Pubmed]
  23. Origin of a "bridge" intron in the gene for a two-domain globin. Naito, Y., Riggs, C.K., Vandergon, T.L., Riggs, A.F. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1991) [Pubmed]
  24. Hemoglobin Wayne: a frameshift mutation detected in human hemoglobin alpha chains. Seid-Akhavan, M., Winter, W.P., Abramson, R.K., Rucknagel, D.L. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1976) [Pubmed]
  25. The machine that decodes the genome. Mathews, M.B., Pe'ery, T. Trends Biochem. Sci. (2001) [Pubmed]
  26. Signal transduction through the B cell antigen receptor is normal in ataxia-telangiectasia B lymphocytes. Speck, P., Ikeda, M., Ikeda, A., Lederman, H.M., Longnecker, R. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  27. The magnesium-insertion step of chlorophyll biosynthesis is a two-stage reaction. Walker, C.J., Weinstein, J.D. Biochem. J. (1994) [Pubmed]
  28. Harvesting bone marrow in an outpatient setting using newer anesthetic agents. Thorne, A.C., Stewart, M., Gulati, S.C. J. Clin. Oncol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  29. The relationship between nuclear DNA content and centromere volume in higher plants. Bennett, M.D., Smith, J.B., Ward, J., Jenkins, G. J. Cell. Sci. (1981) [Pubmed]
  30. Comment on: Gale EAM (2005) Spring harvest? Reflections on the rise of type 1 diabetes. Diabetologia 48:2245-2250; and Walker M, Mari A, Jayapaul MK et al (2005) Impaired beta cell glucose sensitivity and whole-body insulin sensitivity as predictors of hyperglycaemia in non-diabetic subjects. Diabetologia 48:2470-2476. Boucher, B.J. Diabetologia (2006) [Pubmed]
  31. Nucleotide sequence of a gene from chromosome 1D of wheat encoding a HMW-glutenin subunit. Thompson, R.D., Bartels, D., Harberd, N.P. Nucleic Acids Res. (1985) [Pubmed]
  32. Genetics in primary care. Report on workshop of EC Concerted Action on Genetics Services in Europe (CAGSE) in association with the Royal College of GP Spring Meeting, Blackpool, UK, 28 April 1995. Harris, R., Harris, H. J. Med. Genet. (1996) [Pubmed]
  33. The MIC2 gene product: epitope mapping and structural prediction analysis define an integral membrane protein. Banting, G.S., Pym, B., Darling, S.M., Goodfellow, P.N. Mol. Immunol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  34. Acute haemolytic crisis in a Thai patient with homozygous haemoglobin Constant Spring (Hb CS/CS): a case report. Viprakasit, V., Veerakul, G., Sanpakit, K., Pongtanakul, B., Chinchang, W., Tanphaichitr, V.S. Annals of tropical paediatrics. (2004) [Pubmed]
  35. Mechanism of antigenic variation in an individual epitope on influenza virus N9 neuraminidase. Air, G.M., Laver, W.G., Webster, R.G. J. Virol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  36. Fixed-time kinetic assay of plasma ammonia, with NADPH as cofactor, with a centrifugal analyzer. Li, P.K., Shull, B.C. Clin. Chem. (1979) [Pubmed]
  37. Making and using DNA microarrays: a short course at Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory. Stewart, D.J. Genome Res. (2000) [Pubmed]
  38. Capillary electrophoresis of proteins 2001-2003. Hutterer, K., Dolník, V. Electrophoresis (2003) [Pubmed]
  39. School-based measles outbreaks: correlation of age at immunization with risk of disease. Judelsohn, R.G., Fleissner, M.L., O'Mara, D.J. American journal of public health. (1980) [Pubmed]
  40. Analyses of alpha/beta-type gliadin genes from diploid and hexaploid wheats. Reeves, C.D., Okita, T.W. Gene (1987) [Pubmed]
  41. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy in The Netherlands. Go, P.M., Schol, F., Gouma, D.J. The British journal of surgery. (1993) [Pubmed]
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