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Chemical Compound Review

galactose     (2R,3R,4S,5R,6R)-6- (hydroxymethyl)oxane-2...

Synonyms: Gal-beta, D-galactose, b-Galactose, beta-Galactose, beta-D-Gal, ...
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Disease relevance of D-galactose

  • The most commonly used enzymatic reporter molecule, Escherichia coli beta-galactosidase (beta-gal; beta-D-galactoside galactohydrolase, EC, fails to readily diffuse into axons; consequently, the morphologies of beta-gal-labeled neurons cannot directly be determined [1].
  • These results suggest that beta-D-galactoside alpha-2-L-fucosyltransferase expression highly correlates with malignant progression of colon adenocarcinoma [2].
  • This level of activity can be greatly enhanced by the cointernalization of the DNA.protein complex with a replication-defective adenovirus, resulting in 100% of the hepatocytes staining blue with 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl beta-D-galactoside [3].
  • These sequences were compared with the published sequences of peptides derived from the beta-D-galactoside binding lectin from human lung and with sequences deduced from cDNAs assigned to the beta-D-galactoside binding lectins from chicken embryo skin and human hepatomas [4].
  • Studies on the distribution of beta-D-galactoside-binding activity in animal tissues reveal particularly high levels in sheletal muscle tissue and in cultures of embryonic skeletal muscle and neuroblastoma cells [5].

High impact information on D-galactose

  • The recent demonstration that activated platelets express CD40 ligand (L) provides a mechanism of interaction with CD40-positive endothelial cells, inducing them to produce proinflammatory mediators [6].
  • No GFP-positive hepatocytes and no gross blue staining of the livers with 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl beta-d-galactoside in any of the 18 recipient mice analyzed were detected [7].
  • Analysis of the mRNA transcript level for the human H gene-encoded beta-D-galactoside alpha-2-L-fucosyltransferase revealed 40- and 340-fold increases in the mRNA levels in all adenocarcinomas and tumor cell lines, respectively, compared to normal colon mucosa where a low level of mRNA transcript was detected [2].
  • Nucleotide sequence analysis of the protein coding region of the cDNAs derived from normal colon, adenoma, and colon adenocarcinoma revealed 100% homology, suggesting that there are no tumor-associated allelic variations within the H beta-D-galactoside alpha-2-L-fucosyltransferase cDNA [2].
  • Using back selection of lacZ-deficient virus in the presence of the chromogenic substrate 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl beta-D-galactoside, we generated random endpoint deletion mutants [8].

Chemical compound and disease context of D-galactose


Biological context of D-galactose


Anatomical context of D-galactose


Associations of D-galactose with other chemical compounds


Gene context of D-galactose


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of D-galactose


  1. Tau-beta-galactosidase, an axon-targeted fusion protein. Callahan, C.A., Thomas, J.B. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1994) [Pubmed]
  2. Elevated expression of H type GDP-L-fucose:beta-D-galactoside alpha-2-L-fucosyltransferase is associated with human colon adenocarcinoma progression. Sun, J., Thurin, J., Cooper, H.S., Wang, P., Mackiewicz, M., Steplewski, Z., Blaszczyk-Thurin, M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1995) [Pubmed]
  3. Hepatic gene therapy: adenovirus enhancement of receptor-mediated gene delivery and expression in primary hepatocytes. Cristiano, R.J., Smith, L.C., Woo, S.L. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1993) [Pubmed]
  4. Extensive amino acid sequence homologies between animal lectins. Paroutaud, P., Levi, G., Teichberg, V.I., Strosberg, A.D. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1987) [Pubmed]
  5. A beta-D-galactoside binding protein from electric organ tissue of Electrophorus electricus. Teichberg, V.I., Silman, I., Beitsch, D.D., Resheff, G. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1975) [Pubmed]
  6. Platelets trigger a CD40-dependent inflammatory response in the microvasculature of inflammatory bowel disease patients. Danese, S., de la Motte, C., Sturm, A., Vogel, J.D., West, G.A., Strong, S.A., Katz, J.A., Fiocchi, C. Gastroenterology (2003) [Pubmed]
  7. Little evidence of bone marrow-derived hepatocytes in the replacement of injured liver. Kanazawa, Y., Verma, I.M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2003) [Pubmed]
  8. Insertion and deletion mutagenesis of the human cytomegalovirus genome. Spaete, R.R., Mocarski, E.S. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1987) [Pubmed]
  9. Use of gene fusions to study outer membrane protein localization in Escherichia coli. Silhavy, T.J., Shuman, H.A., Beckwith, J., Schwartz, M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1977) [Pubmed]
  10. Effect of cycloheximide, beta-D-xylosides and beta-D-galactosides on heparin biosynthesis in mouse mastocytoma. Robinson, H.C., Lindahl, U. Biochem. J. (1981) [Pubmed]
  11. Bone marrow and liver mutagenesis in lacZ transgenic mice treated with hexavalent chromium. Itoh, S., Shimada, H. Mutat. Res. (1998) [Pubmed]
  12. beta-D-Galactoside transport in Escherichia coli. Reversible inhibition by Aprotic Solvents and its Reconstitution in transport-negative membrane vesicles. Altendorf, K., Müller, C.R., Sandermann, H. Eur. J. Biochem. (1977) [Pubmed]
  13. Beta-D-galactoside transport in Escherichia coli. Solubilization in organic solvent and reconstitution of binding. König, B., Sandermann, H. Eur. J. Biochem. (1984) [Pubmed]
  14. Functional properties of beta-galactosidase from mutant strain 13 PO of Escherichia coli. Deschavanne, P.J., Viratelle, O.M., Yon, J.M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1978) [Pubmed]
  15. Antibody-mediated activation of genetically defective Escherichia coli beta-galactosidases by monoclonal antibodies produced by somatic cell hybrids. Accolla, R.S., Cina, R., Montesoro, E., Celada, F. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1981) [Pubmed]
  16. Characterization of a membrane-associated receptor from bovine liver that binds phosphomannosyl residues of bovine testicular beta-galactosidase. Sahagian, G.G., Distler, J., Jourdian, G.W. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1981) [Pubmed]
  17. Specific binding of formylated initiator-tRNA to Escherichia coli RNA polymerase. Pongs, O., Ulbrich, N. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1976) [Pubmed]
  18. Reconstitution of a porcine submaxillary gland beta-D-galactoside alpha 2----3 sialyltransferase into liposomes. Westcott, K.R., Hill, R.L. J. Biol. Chem. (1985) [Pubmed]
  19. Isolation and properties of beta-D-galactoside-specific lectin from chick embryo thigh muscle. Den, H., Malinzak, D.A. J. Biol. Chem. (1977) [Pubmed]
  20. Enzymatic properties of beta-D-galactoside alpha2 leads to 6 sialytransferase from bovine colostrum. Paulson, J.C., Rearick, J.I., Hill, R.L. J. Biol. Chem. (1977) [Pubmed]
  21. Molecular basis of beta-galactosidase alpha-complementation. Langley, K.E., Villarejo, M.R., Fowler, A.V., Zamenhof, P.J., Zabin, I. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1975) [Pubmed]
  22. The purification, composition, and specificity of the anti-T lectin from peanut (Arachis hypogaea). Lotan, R., Skutelsky, E., Danon, D., Sharon, N. J. Biol. Chem. (1975) [Pubmed]
  23. Purification and characterization of a microsomal bile acid beta-glucosidase from human liver. Matern, H., Heinemann, H., Legler, G., Matern, S. J. Biol. Chem. (1997) [Pubmed]
  24. Porcine submaxillary gland GDP-L-fucose: beta-D-galactoside alpha-2-L-fucosyltransferase is likely a counterpart of the human Secretor gene-encoded blood group transferase. Thurin, J., Blaszczyk-Thurin, M. J. Biol. Chem. (1995) [Pubmed]
  25. Beta-galactosidase activity in transfected Ltk- cells is differentially regulated in monolayer and in spheroid cultures. Klünder, I., Hülser, D.F. Exp. Cell Res. (1993) [Pubmed]
  26. Cloning and characterization of human liver cytosolic beta-glycosidase. de Graaf, M., van Veen, I.C., van der Meulen-Muileman, I.H., Gerritsen, W.R., Pinedo, H.M., Haisma, H.J. Biochem. J. (2001) [Pubmed]
  27. Mapping eIF5A binding sites for Dys1 and Lia1: in vivo evidence for regulation of eIF5A hypusination. Thompson, G.M., Cano, V.S., Valentini, S.R. FEBS Lett. (2003) [Pubmed]
  28. Expression of two different endogenous galactoside-binding lectins sharing sequence homology. Raz, A., Carmi, P., Pazerini, G. Cancer Res. (1988) [Pubmed]
  29. Developmental changes in distribution of acidic fibroblast growth factor in rat brain evaluated by a sensitive two-site enzyme immunoassay. Ishikawa, R., Nishikori, K., Furukawa, S. J. Neurochem. (1991) [Pubmed]
  30. The fucosylated histo-blood group antigens H type 2 (blood group O, CD173) and Lewis Y (CD174) are expressed on CD34+ hematopoietic progenitors but absent on mature lymphocytes. Cao, Y., Merling, A., Karsten, U., Schwartz-Albiez, R. Glycobiology (2001) [Pubmed]
  31. Activated rat macrophages produce a galectin-1-like protein that induces apoptosis of T cells: biochemical and functional characterization. Rabinovich, G.A., Iglesias, M.M., Modesti, N.M., Castagna, L.F., Wolfenstein-Todel, C., Riera, C.M., Sotomayor, C.E. J. Immunol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  32. Physical and kinetic properties of a plasma-membrane-bound beta-D-glucosidase (cellobiase) from midgut cells of an insect (Rhynchosciara americana larva). Ferreira, C., Terra, W.R. Biochem. J. (1983) [Pubmed]
  33. A highly sensitive enzyme immunoassay for mouse beta nerve growth factor. Furukawa, S., Kamo, I., Furukawa, Y., Akazawa, S., Satoyoshi, E., Itoh, K., Hayashi, K. J. Neurochem. (1983) [Pubmed]
  34. Antigenic cross-reactivity between electrolectins. Levi, G., Teichberg, V.I. FEBS Lett. (1982) [Pubmed]
  35. Distribution of a galactose-specific lectin in endoderm cells from early chick embryos. Zalik, S.E., Milos, N., Ledsham, I. Cell Tissue Res. (1982) [Pubmed]
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