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Gene Review

Lgals1  -  lectin, galactose binding, soluble 1

Mus musculus

Synonyms: 14 kDa lectin, AA410090, Beta-galactoside-binding lectin L-14-I, Gal-1, Galaptin, ...
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Disease relevance of Lgals1

  • Together with data on the heparin-binding lectin, revealing reduced expression to be associated with a positive lymph-node status in the breast cancer group, these results can be interpreted to reflect cell-type-dependent requirements of galectin ligand presentation during the metastatic cascade [1].
  • Histopathological analysis of lymph-node-negative and -positive breast and colorectal carcinomas (n = 180 including 60 metastatic lesions) indicated a correlation of either increased galectin-1 binding and reduced galectin-3 expression or reduced binding of both galectins with the occurrence of lymph node lesions [1].
  • Thus, the coordinate expression of galectin-1 and laminin in the embryonic nerve fibre layer suggests that these molecules support the adhesion and fasciculation of axons en route to their glomerular targets [2].
  • Transcriptional regulation by butyrate of mouse galectin-1 gene in embryonal carcinoma cells [3].
  • These results indicate that galectin-1 expression may be associated with the differentiation of KM12 cells and that several glycoproteins shown to be important in colon carcinoma adhesion and metastasis are capable of functioning as its endogenous ligands [4].

Psychiatry related information on Lgals1

  • The results showed that the administration of oxidized galectin-1 improved the motor activity, delayed the onset of symptoms, and prolonged the survival of the galectin-1-treated mice [5].

High impact information on Lgals1

  • Pre-treatment of wild-type T cells with lactose to compete for galectin binding produced a phenocopy of Mgat5-/- TCR clustering [6].
  • Recombinant galectin-1 and its genetic delivery suppress collagen-induced arthritis via T cell apoptosis [7].
  • Moreover, GAL-1-expressing fibroblasts and recombinant GAL-1 revealed a specific dose-dependent inhibitory effect in vitro in antigen-dependent interleukin 2 production to an A(q)-restricted, collagen type 2-specific T cell hybridoma clone [7].
  • Thus, a correlation between the apoptotic properties of GAL-1 in vitro and its immunomodulatory properties in vivo supports its therapeutic potential in the treatment of T helper cell type 1-mediated autoimmune disorders [7].
  • Galectin-1 suppresses experimental colitis in mice [8].

Chemical compound and disease context of Lgals1


Biological context of Lgals1

  • The structural gene for beta-galactoside-binding protein (Lgals-1), a cell growth regulatory molecule and cystostatic factor, is assigned to the E-region of mouse chromosome 15 and to the region q12-q13.1 of human chromosome 22 [14].
  • Galectin-1beta, a natural monomeric form of galectin-1 lacking its six amino-terminal residues promotes axonal regeneration but not cell death [15].
  • The L14 lectin is a 14 x 10(3) M(r) carbohydrate binding protein belonging to the family of S-type lectins [16].
  • Expression of the L14 lectin during mouse embryogenesis suggests multiple roles during pre- and post-implantation development [17].
  • Dimeric galectin-1 induces surface exposure of phosphatidylserine and phagocytic recognition of leukocytes without inducing apoptosis [18].

Anatomical context of Lgals1


Associations of Lgals1 with chemical compounds

  • The surrogate light chain/GAL1 association is a direct protein-protein interaction (K(a) = 2 x 10(6) M(-1)), and the NH(2) extra loop of lambda-like is the major binding element [23].
  • A cDNA encoding L14, the lactose-binding, soluble lectin of relative molecular mass 14 x 10(3), has been isolated in a differential screen designed to identify genes that are regulated during the differentiation of murine embryonic stem cells in vitro [17].
  • Galectin-1, a bivalent galactose-binding vertebrate lectin, is expressed in the developing rodent olfactory system [24].
  • Affinity-purified human galectin-1 was found to bind to purified polylactosamine-containing glycoproteins and to detergent-solubilized cellular proteins electroblotted onto nitrocellulose membranes [4].
  • Finally, galectin-1 is shown to negatively regulate B cell proliferation and tyrosine phosphorylation upon BCR stimulation [25].

Physical interactions of Lgals1


Regulatory relationships of Lgals1

  • Between E16.5 and birth galectin-1 began to be expressed by olfactory nerve ensheathing cells in the lamina propria of the neuroepithelium and nerve fibre layer [2].
  • These results suggest that the 5' proximal Sp1 site at -57 is crucial for the butyrate-induced expression of the gal-1, and the direct binding of SP1 to this Sp1 site may be involved in this induction [3].

Other interactions of Lgals1

  • In the course of studying mouse colon mRNA for galectin-4, we detected a related mRNA that encodes a new galectin that also has two CRDs in a single peptide chain [28].
  • Embryonic implantation in galectin 1/galectin 3 double mutant mice [20].
  • Role of galectin-1 in the developing mouse olfactory system [24].
  • Gal1(-/-) mice have a significantly reduced proportion of IB4-binding DRG neurons, an increased proportion of NF200-immunoreactive DRG neurons, increased depth of central terminals of IB4-binding and CGRP-immunoreactive axons in the dorsal horn, and a reduced number of Fos-positive second order neurons following thermal (cold or hot) stimulation [29].
  • While there is no difference in the total number of axons in the dorsal root of Gal1(-/-) mice, there are an increased number of myelinated axons, suggesting that in the absence of Gal1, neurons that are normally destined to become IB4-binding instead become NF200-expressing [29].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Lgals1


  1. Galectins-1 and -3 and their ligands in tumor biology. Non-uniform properties in cell-surface presentation and modulation of adhesion to matrix glycoproteins for various tumor cell lines, in biodistribution of free and liposome-bound galectins and in their expression by breast and colorectal carcinomas with/without metastatic propensity. André, S., Kojima, S., Yamazaki, N., Fink, C., Kaltner, H., Kayser, K., Gabius, H.J. J. Cancer Res. Clin. Oncol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  2. Expression of galectin-1 in the mouse olfactory system. Tenne-Brown, J., Puche, A.C., Key, B. Int. J. Dev. Biol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  3. Transcriptional regulation by butyrate of mouse galectin-1 gene in embryonal carcinoma cells. Lu, Y., Lotan, R. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (1999) [Pubmed]
  4. Concomitant increases in galectin-1 and its glycoconjugate ligands (carcinoembryonic antigen, lamp-1, and lamp-2) in cultured human colon carcinoma cells by sodium butyrate. Ohannesian, D.W., Lotan, D., Lotan, R. Cancer Res. (1994) [Pubmed]
  5. Galectin-1 as a potential therapeutic agent for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Kato, T., Ren, C.H., Wada, M., Kawanami, T. Current drug targets. (2005) [Pubmed]
  6. Negative regulation of T-cell activation and autoimmunity by Mgat5 N-glycosylation. Demetriou, M., Granovsky, M., Quaggin, S., Dennis, J.W. Nature (2001) [Pubmed]
  7. Recombinant galectin-1 and its genetic delivery suppress collagen-induced arthritis via T cell apoptosis. Rabinovich, G.A., Daly, G., Dreja, H., Tailor, H., Riera, C.M., Hirabayashi, J., Chernajovsky, Y. J. Exp. Med. (1999) [Pubmed]
  8. Galectin-1 suppresses experimental colitis in mice. Santucci, L., Fiorucci, S., Rubinstein, N., Mencarelli, A., Palazzetti, B., Federici, B., Rabinovich, G.A., Morelli, A. Gastroenterology (2003) [Pubmed]
  9. Expression of two different endogenous galactoside-binding lectins sharing sequence homology. Raz, A., Carmi, P., Pazerini, G. Cancer Res. (1988) [Pubmed]
  10. Biochemical and immunological characterization of K-1735P melanoma galactoside-binding lectins and their modulation by differentiation inducers. Lotan, R., Carralero, D., Lotan, D., Raz, A. Cancer Res. (1989) [Pubmed]
  11. A parallel association between differentiation and induction of galectin-1, and inhibition of galectin-3 by retinoic acid in mouse embryonal carcinoma F9 cells. Lu, Y., Amos, B., Cruise, E., Lotan, D., Lotan, R. Biol. Chem. (1998) [Pubmed]
  12. Galectin-1: a link between tumor hypoxia and tumor immune privilege. Le, Q.T., Shi, G., Cao, H., Nelson, D.W., Wang, Y., Chen, E.Y., Zhao, S., Kong, C., Richardson, D., O'Byrne, K.J., Giaccia, A.J., Koong, A.C. J. Clin. Oncol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  13. Mouse galectin-1 inhibits the toxicity of glutamate by modifying NR1 NMDA receptor expression. Lekishvili, T., Hesketh, S., Brazier, M.W., Brown, D.R. Eur. J. Neurosci. (2006) [Pubmed]
  14. Mapping on human and mouse chromosomes of the gene for the beta-galactoside-binding protein, an autocrine-negative growth factor. Baldini, A., Gress, T., Patel, K., Muresu, R., Chiariotti, L., Williamson, P., Boyd, Y., Casciano, I., Wells, V., Bruni, C.B. Genomics (1993) [Pubmed]
  15. Galectin-1beta, a natural monomeric form of galectin-1 lacking its six amino-terminal residues promotes axonal regeneration but not cell death. Miura, T., Takahashi, M., Horie, H., Kurushima, H., Tsuchimoto, D., Sakumi, K., Nakabeppu, Y. Cell Death Differ. (2004) [Pubmed]
  16. Normal development of mice carrying a null mutation in the gene encoding the L14 S-type lectin. Poirier, F., Robertson, E.J. Development (1993) [Pubmed]
  17. Expression of the L14 lectin during mouse embryogenesis suggests multiple roles during pre- and post-implantation development. Poirier, F., Timmons, P.M., Chan, C.T., Guénet, J.L., Rigby, P.W. Development (1992) [Pubmed]
  18. Dimeric galectin-1 induces surface exposure of phosphatidylserine and phagocytic recognition of leukocytes without inducing apoptosis. Dias-Baruffi, M., Zhu, H., Cho, M., Karmakar, S., McEver, R.P., Cummings, R.D. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  19. The murine seminiferous epithelial cycle is pre-figured in the Sertoli cells of the embryonic testis. Timmons, P.M., Rigby, P.W., Poirier, F. Development (2002) [Pubmed]
  20. Embryonic implantation in galectin 1/galectin 3 double mutant mice. Colnot, C., Fowlis, D., Ripoche, M.A., Bouchaert, I., Poirier, F. Dev. Dyn. (1998) [Pubmed]
  21. Differential expression of two beta-galactoside-binding lectins in the reproductive tracts of pregnant mice. Phillips, B., Knisley, K., Weitlauf, K.D., Dorsett, J., Lee, V., Weitlauf, H. Biol. Reprod. (1996) [Pubmed]
  22. Differential cellular expression of galectin family mRNAs in the epithelial cells of the mouse digestive tract. Nio, J., Kon, Y., Iwanaga, T. J. Histochem. Cytochem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  23. Galectin-1 is a stromal cell ligand of the pre-B cell receptor (BCR) implicated in synapse formation between pre-B and stromal cells and in pre-BCR triggering. Gauthier, L., Rossi, B., Roux, F., Termine, E., Schiff, C. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2002) [Pubmed]
  24. Role of galectin-1 in the developing mouse olfactory system. Puche, A.C., Poirier, F., Hair, M., Bartlett, P.F., Key, B. Dev. Biol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  25. Interaction of the B cell-specific transcriptional coactivator OCA-B and galectin-1 and a possible role in regulating BCR-mediated B cell proliferation. Yu, X., Siegel, R., Roeder, R.G. J. Biol. Chem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  26. Cellular and subcellular distribution of galectin-3 in the epiphyseal cartilage and bone of fetal and neonatal mice. Colnot, C., Sidhu, S.S., Poirier, F., Balmain, N. Cell. Mol. Biol. (Noisy-le-grand) (1999) [Pubmed]
  27. Regulated expression and effect of galectin-1 on Trypanosoma cruzi-infected macrophages: modulation of microbicidal activity and survival. Zúñiga, E., Gruppi, A., Hirabayashi, J., Kasai, K.I., Rabinovich, G.A. Infect. Immun. (2001) [Pubmed]
  28. Galectin-4 and galectin-6 are two closely related lectins expressed in mouse gastrointestinal tract. Gitt, M.A., Colnot, C., Poirier, F., Nani, K.J., Barondes, S.H., Leffler, H. J. Biol. Chem. (1998) [Pubmed]
  29. Altered primary afferent anatomy and reduced thermal sensitivity in mice lacking galectin-1. McGraw, J., Gaudet, A.D., Oschipok, L.W., Steeves, J.D., Poirier, F., Tetzlaff, W., Ramer, M.S. Pain (2005) [Pubmed]
  30. Immunohistochemical and in situ hybridization analysis of galectin-3, a beta-galactoside binding lectin, in the urinary system of adult mice. Nio, J., Takahashi-Iwanaga, H., Morimatsu, M., Kon, Y., Iwanaga, T. Histochem. Cell Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  31. Galectin-1 in regenerating motoneurons. McGraw, J., McPhail, L.T., Oschipok, L.W., Horie, H., Poirier, F., Steeves, J.D., Ramer, M.S., Tetzlaff, W. Eur. J. Neurosci. (2004) [Pubmed]
  32. Galectins are differentially expressed in supratentorial pilocytic astrocytomas, astrocytomas, anaplastic astrocytomas and glioblastomas, and significantly modulate tumor astrocyte migration. Camby, I., Belot, N., Rorive, S., Lefranc, F., Maurage, C.A., Lahm, H., Kaltner, H., Hadari, Y., Ruchoux, M.M., Brotchi, J., Zick, Y., Salmon, I., Gabius, H.J., Kiss, R. Brain Pathol. (2001) [Pubmed]
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