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Chemical Compound Review

FEP     [[4-[4-[4-(difluoro- phosphono...

Synonyms: CHEMBL1161222, CHEBI:42527, AC1L9JXY, DB04204
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Disease relevance of FEP

  • Marked elevation of FEP with iron deficiency anemia [1].
  • The FEP combination is as active (OR: 34%) in the treatment of patients with advanced gastric cancer as the EAP regimen, although it leads to fewer complete remissions [2].
  • Individuals with alpha thalassemia trait and normal iron studies had FEP levels in the normal range despite marked degrees of microcytosis [3].
  • In hospitalized patients with overt anemia, the TS, FEP, and MCV are much less helpful because similar changes are seen in the anemia of chronic disease [4].
  • Maintenance of an accurate FEP gain suggests no deficit in oculomotor spatial working memory in Parkinson's disease, at least at delays of up to 5 sec [5].

Psychiatry related information on FEP

  • METHODS: Twenty-five schizophrenia and 8 bipolar disorder FEP patients underwent a structural MRI scan at first presentation and 2 years later [6].
  • However, a thorough initial assessment of patient and family by a specialized team of investigators regarding the kind and duration of patient symptoms may lead to high diagnostic stability, especially in schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder, even in a FEP sample with a relatively short duration of untreated psychosis [7].
  • OBJECTIVES: (1) Assessment of diagnostic stability of psychotic disorders or psychotic mood disorders from 6 weeks to 18 months after initiation of treatment in a representative first-episode psychosis (FEP) sample [7].
  • OBJECTIVE: There has been increased interest in the potential of early intervention to positively influence outcome in first-episode psychosis (FEP) and, consequently, to influence mental health policy and practice [8].
  • CONCLUSIONS: The association between having been a FEP patient and depressive symptoms/depression disappeared when negative social aspects were taken into account [9].

High impact information on FEP

  • The phosphaturic response (fractional excretion of phosphorus, FEP [percent]) was also linearly related to bPTH 1-34 dose, but combined administration of the PTH infusions on one day increased FEP at each dose identically with the effects of separate day administration [10].
  • The present work evaluates the free energy surface for the nucleotide transfer reaction of T7 polymerase by free energy perturbation/empirical valence bond (FEP/EVB) calculations [11].
  • Using a combined QM/MM Monte Carlo/free-energy perturbation (MC/FEP) method, 82% and 100% of chorismate conformers were found to be NAC structures in water and in the CM active site, respectively [12].
  • Down-regulation of the mexXY operon in seven selected strains by the plasmid-borne repressor gene mexZ decreased FEP resistance from two- to eightfold, thereby demonstrating the significant contribution of MexXY-OprM to the FEP(r)/CAZ(s) phenotype [13].
  • Our finding of above-normal values for ZnP and FEP with Pb concentrations less than 300 micrograms/L indicates that iron deficiency constitutes an equally important public-health problem for children in New York City [14].

Chemical compound and disease context of FEP


Biological context of FEP

  • Elevations in FEP values were not related to either blood lead concentration or hematocrit levels in the infants [17].
  • Storage iron depletion is identified by marrow examination or serum ferritin, iron deficient erythropoiesis by TS, FEP, or MCV, and iron deficiency anemia by hemoglobin concentration or therapeutic iron trial [4].
  • Results were analyzed for the gain of the primary saccade and the accuracy of the final eye position (FEP gain) [5].
  • Patients with raised intracranial pressure seem to undergo some characteristic alterations in FEP and far field potential derivations [18].
  • The no-observed-effect-level (NOEL) was 200 ppm, based on increased amplitude of the longer latency potentials of the FEP at 800 ppm [19].

Anatomical context of FEP

  • Growth; feed conversion; total liver, spleen, and femur iron; and hemoglobin concentrations; hematocrit; RBC and WBC volume; FEP concentration; kidney and heart aconitase activities; erythrocyte and liver catalase activities; liver microsomal oxidase activity; and pathological lesions did not differ between control and 54Fe enriched animals [20].
  • We report the first voxel-based morphometric (VBM) study to examine cerebral grey and white matter and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) using computational morphometry in never-medicated, first-episode psychosis (FEP) [21].
  • The right hippocampus of the UHR-non-psychotic group was significantly smaller than the Normal group but not different to the FEP group [22].
  • These findings suggest that elevations in cord blood FEP values may indicate a state of relative iron deficiency present at birth [17].
  • In this study, we investigated the relationship between the anterior limb of the internal capsule, posterior limb of the internal capsule, and thalamus in first-episode psychosis (FEP) [23].

Associations of FEP with other chemical compounds

  • Of the 62 enrolled patients, 30 were randomized to receive epirubicin 35 mg m(-2), etoposide 120 mg m(-2) and cisplatin 45 mg m(-2) (FEP) on days 1 and 2 every 28 days and 32 to receive the same schedule plus subcutaneous GM-CSF (molgramostin) 150 microg day(-1) on days 5-14 every 21 days [2].
  • Moreover, covalent immobilization via an aldehyde plasma interlayer enabled the application of PLL-g-PEG layers onto substrates such as FEP onto which electrostatic binding is not possible [24].
  • The more hydrophobic surfaces having low Lewis acid-base surface tensions, untreated PMMA and FEP, silicone rubber, and even RFGD-treated silicone rubber showed no nucleation [25].
  • Cultured epithelial cells and stromal fibroblasts were seeded onto two oxygen-containing surfaces: 'tissue culture' polystyrene (TCPS) and a polymer film deposited by RF plasma deposition using a methylmethacrylate monomer (MMA/FEP) [26].
  • On day 1, the neutral surface FEP polymer with incorporated amide (NH2) groups showed the greatest inhibition of adhesion, 89% (P < .01), and cytokine production (IL-1 beta with 58%, IL-6 with 70%, and TNF-alpha with 39%) compared to control TCPS [27].

Gene context of FEP

  • FENa was increased 16.9-fold over normal values: UKV/100 GFR and FEP were increased 5.8-fold and 10.9-fold, respectively [28].
  • Lower NGF levels in FEP patients at the onset of psychosis may have implications for the neurodevelopmental abnormalities [29].
  • Infants with elevated FEP values were found to have lower serum iron and transferrin saturation values than did infants with low FEP values [17].
  • Endothelialization of PETP and FEP only occurred after precoating of these materials with Fn [30].
  • However, depletion of fibronectin reduced cell attachment to TCPS by 20%, whilst on MMA/FEP cell attachment was equivalent, or higher, than that for intact serum [26].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of FEP

  • Fe deficiency (combination of Hb less than 120 g/L, ferritin less than 12 micrograms/L, and FEP greater than 1.77 mumol/L) was observed in 15% of the macrobiotic group but not in the control group (p = 0.003) [31].
  • However, recent epidemiological studies have highlighted the occurrence of isolates more resistant to FEP than to CAZ (FEP(r)/CAZ(s) profile) [13].
  • The authors present a case of arterial jump graft using a number 9 Goretex prosthesis (FEP ringed vascular graft; W.I. Gore Associates Inc.-Delaware, Flagstaff, AZ) with an excellent outcome 3 years after the transplant [32].
  • The current study aimed to recombine data of samples from longitudinal studies of first-episode psychosis (FEP) to describe outcome and its predictors.Method [33].
  • CONCLUSION: Preliminary results suggest that placement of this ePTFE/FEP-covered stent is feasible and effective in achieving biliary drainage [34].


  1. Marked elevation of FEP with iron deficiency anemia. Braitman, R. J. Pediatr. (1978) [Pubmed]
  2. FEP regimen (epidoxorubicin, etoposide and cisplatin) in advanced gastric cancer, with or without low-dose GM-CSF: an Italian Trial in Medical Oncology (ITMO) study. Bajetta, E., Di Bartolomeo, M., Carnaghi, C., Buzzoni, R., Mariani, L., Gebbia, V., Comella, G., Pinotti, G., Ianniello, G., Schieppati, G., Bochicchio, A.M., Maiorino, L. Br. J. Cancer (1998) [Pubmed]
  3. The micromeasurement of free erythrocyte protoporphyrin as a means of differentiating alpha thalassemia trait from iron deficiency anemia. Koenig, H.M., Lightsey, A.L., Schanberger, J.E. J. Pediatr. (1975) [Pubmed]
  4. Clinical evaluation of iron deficiency. Cook, J.D. Semin. Hematol. (1982) [Pubmed]
  5. Remembered saccades with variable delay in Parkinson's disease. Shaunak, S., O'Sullivan, E., Blunt, S., Lawden, M., Crawford, T., Henderson, L., Kennard, C. Mov. Disord. (1999) [Pubmed]
  6. Diagnosis-related regional gray matter loss over two years in first episode schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Farrow, T.F., Whitford, T.J., Williams, L.M., Gomes, L., Harris, A.W. Biol. Psychiatry (2005) [Pubmed]
  7. Diagnostic stability 18 months after treatment initiation for first-episode psychosis. Schimmelmann, B.G., Conus, P., Edwards, J., McGorry, P.D., Lambert, M. The Journal of clinical psychiatry. (2005) [Pubmed]
  8. First-episode psychosis, early intervention, and outcome: what have we learned? Malla, A.K., Norman, R.M., Joober, R. Canadian journal of psychiatry. Revue canadienne de psychiatrie. (2005) [Pubmed]
  9. Psychosocial correlates with depressive symptoms six years after a first episode of psychosis as compared with findings from a general population sample. Forsell, Y., Levander, S., Cullberg, J. BMC psychiatry [electronic resource]. (2004) [Pubmed]
  10. Rapid development of renal resistance to low doses of synthetic bovine parathyroid hormone fragment 1-34. Dissociation of urinary cyclic adenosine monophosphate, phosphaturic, and calciuric responses. Law, W.M., Heath, H. J. Clin. Invest. (1983) [Pubmed]
  11. Computer simulation of the chemical catalysis of DNA polymerases: discriminating between alternative nucleotide insertion mechanisms for T7 DNA polymerase. Florián, J., Goodman, M.F., Warshel, A. J. Am. Chem. Soc. (2003) [Pubmed]
  12. Contributions of conformational compression and preferential transition state stabilization to the rate enhancement by chorismate mutase. Guimarães, C.R., Repasky, M.P., Chandrasekhar, J., Tirado-Rives, J., Jorgensen, W.L. J. Am. Chem. Soc. (2003) [Pubmed]
  13. Involvement of the MexXY-OprM Efflux System in Emergence of Cefepime Resistance in Clinical Strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Hocquet, D., Nordmann, P., El Garch, F., Cabanne, L., Plésiat, P. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (2006) [Pubmed]
  14. Free erythrocyte protoporphyrin and zinc protoporphyrin measurements compared as primary screening methods for detection of lead poisoning. Kaul, B., Slavin, G., Davidow, B. Clin. Chem. (1983) [Pubmed]
  15. In vivo selection of Enterobacter aerogenes with reduced susceptibility to cefepime and carbapenems associated with decreased expression of a 40 kDa outer membrane protein and hyperproduction of AmpC beta-lactamase. Fernández-Cuenca, F., Rodríguez-Martínez, J.M., Martínez-Martínez, L., Pascual, A. Int. J. Antimicrob. Agents (2006) [Pubmed]
  16. Infusional fluorouracil, etoposide, and cisplatin (FEP) in advanced and relapsed gastric cancer. Sohn, J.H., Jeung, H.C., Shin, H.J., Rha, S.Y., Roh, J.K., Noh, S.H., Min, J.S., Kim, B.S., Jang, W.I., Chung, H.C. Am. J. Clin. Oncol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  17. Free erythrocyte porphyrins in cord blood. Gottuso, M.A., Oski, B.F., Oski, F.A. J. Pediatr. (1978) [Pubmed]
  18. Multimodality evoked potentials and electroencephalography in severe coma cases. Clinical experiences in a neurosurgical intensive care unit. Nau, H.E., Rimpel, J. Intensive care medicine. (1987) [Pubmed]
  19. Neurotoxicologic examination of rats exposed to 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethylene (perchloroethylene) vapor for 13 weeks. Mattsson, J.L., Albee, R.R., Yano, B.L., Bradley, G., Spencer, P.J. Neurotoxicology and teratology. (1998) [Pubmed]
  20. Biological effects of substituting enriched 54Fe for natural iron in rats. Schricker, B.R., Gilbert, M.D., Miller, D.D., Van Campen, D. J. Nutr. (1982) [Pubmed]
  21. Cerebral grey, white matter and csf in never-medicated, first-episode schizophrenia. Chua, S.E., Cheung, C., Cheung, V., Tsang, J.T., Chen, E.Y., Wong, J.C., Cheung, J.P., Yip, L., Tai, K.S., Suckling, J., McAlonan, G.M. Schizophr. Res. (2007) [Pubmed]
  22. Non-reduction in hippocampal volume is associated with higher risk of psychosis. Phillips, L.J., Velakoulis, D., Pantelis, C., Wood, S., Yuen, H.P., Yung, A.R., Desmond, P., Brewer, W., McGorry, P.D. Schizophr. Res. (2002) [Pubmed]
  23. Reduced anterior internal capsule and thalamic volumes in first-episode psychosis. Lang, D.J., Khorram, B., Goghari, V.M., Kopala, L.C., Vandorpe, R.A., Rui, Q., Smith, G.N., Honer, W.G. Schizophr. Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  24. High salt stability and protein resistance of poly(L-lysine)-g-poly(ethylene glycol) copolymers covalently immobilized via aldehyde plasma polymer interlayers on inorganic and polymeric substrates. Blättler, T.M., Pasche, S., Textor, M., Griesser, H.J. Langmuir : the ACS journal of surfaces and colloids. (2006) [Pubmed]
  25. Heterogeneous nucleation of calcium phosphates on solid surfaces in aqueous solution. Wu, W., Zhuang, H., Nancollas, G.H. J. Biomed. Mater. Res. (1997) [Pubmed]
  26. Mechanism of initial attachment of corneal epithelial cells to polymeric surfaces. Steele, J.G., Johnson, G., Griesser, H.J., Underwood, P.A. Biomaterials (1997) [Pubmed]
  27. Human monocyte/macrophage adhesion and cytokine production on surface-modified poly(tetrafluoroethylene/hexafluoropropylene) polymers with and without protein preadsorption. Yun, J.K., DeFife, K., Colton, E., Stack, S., Azeez, A., Cahalan, L., Verhoeven, M., Cahalan, P., Anderson, J.M. J. Biomed. Mater. Res. (1995) [Pubmed]
  28. Bicarbonate reabsorption in the dog with experimental renal disease. Schmidt, R.W., Bricker, N.S., Gavellas, G. Kidney Int. (1976) [Pubmed]
  29. Nerve growth factor in never-medicated first-episode psychotic and medicated chronic schizophrenic patients: possible implications for treatment outcome. Parikh, V., Evans, D.R., Khan, M.M., Mahadik, S.P. Schizophr. Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  30. The influence of protein adsorption on interactions of cultured human endothelial cells with polymers. van Wachem, P.B., Vreriks, C.M., Beugeling, T., Feijen, J., Bantjes, A., Detmers, J.P., van Aken, W.G. J. Biomed. Mater. Res. (1987) [Pubmed]
  31. Increased risk of vitamin B-12 and iron deficiency in infants on macrobiotic diets. Dagnelie, P.C., van Staveren, W.A., Vergote, F.J., Dingjan, P.G., van den Berg, H., Hautvast, J.G. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (1989) [Pubmed]
  32. Prosthesis jump graft: an unusual arterial reconstruction in liver transplantation. Jovine, E., Mazziotti, A., Ercolani, G., Grazi, G.L., Masetti, M., Pierangeli, F., Cavallari, A. Transplantation (1998) [Pubmed]
  33. A systematic review of longitudinal outcome studies of first-episode psychosis. Menezes, N.M., Arenovich, T., Zipursky, R.B. Psychological medicine. (2006) [Pubmed]
  34. New ePTFE/FEP-covered stent in the palliative treatment of malignant biliary obstruction. Bezzi, M., Zolovkins, A., Cantisani, V., Salvatori, F.M., Rossi, M., Fanelli, F., Rossi, P. Journal of vascular and interventional radiology : JVIR. (2002) [Pubmed]
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