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Chemical Compound Review

AC1NRC7P     (2R)-2-[(1R)-1-[[(2R)-2- carboxy-2-(4...

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Disease relevance of moxalactam


Psychiatry related information on moxalactam

  • Three Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains which constitutively produced chromosomal (Id, or Sabath and Abraham) beta-lactamase in large amounts were resistant to latamoxef (moxalactam) MICs, 128-256 mg/l) [6].

High impact information on moxalactam


Chemical compound and disease context of moxalactam


Biological context of moxalactam


Anatomical context of moxalactam

  • Except for some severe P aeruginosa infections outside the urinary tract, moxalactam is effective and safe single-agent therapy for infections caused by susceptible organisms and represents a major advancement in beta-lactam antimicrobial therapy [20].
  • The higher incidence of the more active R epimer and the 500% interpatient variation in clearance may indicate a need for monitoring serum and cerebrospinal fluid concentrations in patients with severe unresponsive central nervous system infectious treated with moxalactam [16].
  • An Escherichia coli strain, HKYM68, which showed resistance to broad-spectrum cephalosporins was isolated from a sputum specimen in Japan. The high-level resistance of the strain to ceftazidime, cefpirome, and moxalactam was carried by a self-transferable plasmid [21].
  • Moxalactam showed essentially complete penetration into valve lesions, whereas concentrations in heart muscle were only 20% of those in serum [22].
  • Although moxalactam is eliminated primarily by the kidney a chromatogram of the feces from volunteers who received multiple doses showed that it is also excreted as the parent compound in to the feces via the biliary tract [23].

Associations of moxalactam with other chemical compounds


Gene context of moxalactam

  • The newer cephalosporins or cehalosporin-type antibiotics (cefotaxime, moxalactam), by virtue of their marked activity against gram-negative bacilli and their ability to achieve significant CSF levels, merit serious consideration as therapy for gram-negative bacillary meningitis [29].
  • The affinity of moxalactam for its target penicillin-binding proteins was unchanged, as was the level of beta-lactamase activity [30].
  • These findings suggest that MOX-1 is a plasmid-mediated AmpC-type beta-lactamase that provides enteric bacteria resistance to broad-spectrum beta-lactams, including moxalactam [31].
  • Inactivation of cefoxitin and moxalactam by Bacteroides bivius beta-lactamase [32].
  • Moxalactam demonstrated marked activity against beta-lactamase-positive and -negative Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Neisseria meningitidis by both standard minimal inhibitory concentration testing and growth curve studies [33].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of moxalactam


  1. Moxalactam therapy for neonatal meningitis due to gram-negative enteric bacilli. A prospective controlled evaluation. McCracken, G.H., Threlkeld, N., Mize, S., Baker, C.J., Kaplan, S.L., Faingezicht, I., Feldman, W.E., Schaad, U. JAMA (1984) [Pubmed]
  2. Moxalactam, bleeding, and renal insufficiency. D'Elia, J.A., Kaldany, A., Miller, D.G., Yoburn, D.C., Kaye, W.A. JAMA (1983) [Pubmed]
  3. Enzyme-mediated resistance of Bacteroides fragilis to moxalactam. Maskell, J.P., Nasu, M. Lancet (1981) [Pubmed]
  4. Enterococcal superinfection and colonization after therapy with moxalactam, a new broad-spectrum antibiotic. Yu, V.L. Ann. Intern. Med. (1981) [Pubmed]
  5. Potential for bleeding with the new beta-lactam antibiotics. Sattler, F.R., Weitekamp, M.R., Ballard, J.O. Ann. Intern. Med. (1986) [Pubmed]
  6. 'Covalent trapping' and latamoxef resistance in beta-lactamase-derepressed Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Livermore, D.M. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. (1987) [Pubmed]
  7. Prolonged bleeding time associated with 'low-dose' moxalactam therapy. Bach, M.C. JAMA (1984) [Pubmed]
  8. Prolonged bleeding times and bleeding diathesis associated with moxalactam administration. Weitekamp, M.R., Aber, R.C. JAMA (1983) [Pubmed]
  9. Moxalactam and hemorrhage. Jones, S.R., Kimbrough, R.C. Ann. Intern. Med. (1983) [Pubmed]
  10. Successful treatment of gram-negative bacillary meningitis with moxalactam. Olson, D.A., Hoeprich, P.D., Nolan, S.M., Goldstein, E. Ann. Intern. Med. (1981) [Pubmed]
  11. Host defense and antimicrobial therapy in adult gram-negative bacillary meningitis. Rahal, J.J., Simberkoff, M.S. Ann. Intern. Med. (1982) [Pubmed]
  12. Experience with the use of cefotaxime in the treatment of bacterial meningitis. Cherubin, C.E., Eng, R.H. Am. J. Med. (1986) [Pubmed]
  13. Moxalactam plus piperacillin versus moxalactam plus amikacin in febrile granulocytopenic patients. Winston, D.J., Barnes, R.C., Ho, W.G., Young, L.S., Champlin, R.E., Gale, R.P. Am. J. Med. (1984) [Pubmed]
  14. Ticarcillin plus clavulanic acid versus moxalactam in the treatment of skin and soft tissue infections. Rao, B., See, R.C., Chuah, S.K., Bansal, M.B., Lou, M.A., Thadepalli, H. Am. J. Med. (1985) [Pubmed]
  15. Antibiotic recognition by binuclear metallo-beta-lactamases revealed by X-ray crystallography. Spencer, J., Read, J., Sessions, R.B., Howell, S., Blackburn, G.M., Gamblin, S.J. J. Am. Chem. Soc. (2005) [Pubmed]
  16. Moxalactam epimer kinetics in children. Nahata, M.C., Durrell, D.E., Barson, W.J. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. (1982) [Pubmed]
  17. Pharmacokinetics of moxalactam in elderly subjects. Andritz, M.H., Smith, R.P., Baltch, A.L., Griffin, P.E., Conroy, J.V., Sutphen, N., Hammer, M.C. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1984) [Pubmed]
  18. Double-blind, prospective, multicenter trial comparing ceftazidime with moxalactam in the treatment of serious gram-negative infections. Joshi, M., Anthony, W.C., Tenney, J.H., Drusano, G.L., Caplan, E.S., Standiford, H.C., Henson, A., Warren, J.W. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1986) [Pubmed]
  19. Pharmacokinetics, protein binding, and predicted extravascular distribution of moxalactam in normal and renal failure subjects. Peterson, L.R., Bean, B., Fasching, C.E., Korchik, W.P., Gerding, D.N. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1981) [Pubmed]
  20. Moxalactam therapy for bacterial infections. Winston, D.J., Busuttil, R.W., Kurtz, T.O., Young, L.S. Arch. Intern. Med. (1981) [Pubmed]
  21. Characterization of a novel plasmid-mediated cephalosporinase (CMY-9) and its genetic environment in an Escherichia coli clinical isolate. Doi, Y., Shibata, N., Shibayama, K., Kamachi, K., Kurokawa, H., Yokoyama, K., Yagi, T., Arakawa, Y. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (2002) [Pubmed]
  22. Moxalactam penetration into normal heart valve, cardiac vegetations, and myocardium in relation to protein binding and physiological distribution spaces. Fitzpatrick, B.C., Gengo, F.M., Schentag, J.J. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1984) [Pubmed]
  23. Single- and multiple-dose pharmacokinetics of moxalactam in normal subjects. Israel, K.S., Black, H.R., Brier, G.L., Wolny, J.D., DeSante, K.A. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1982) [Pubmed]
  24. Controlled trials of double beta-lactam therapy with cefoperazone plus piperacillin in febrile granulocytopenic patients. Winston, D.J., Ho, W.G., Bruckner, D.A., Gale, R.P., Champlin, R.E. Am. J. Med. (1988) [Pubmed]
  25. Prospective randomized double-blind comparison of moxalactam and tobramycin in treatment of urinary tract infections. Abbruzzese, J.L., Rocco, L.E., Laskin, O.L., Skubitz, K.M., McGaughey, M.D., Lipsky, J.J. Am. J. Med. (1983) [Pubmed]
  26. Comparative study of ticarcillin plus clavulanate potassium and moxalactam in the treatment of surgical infections of the soft tissue. Timmes, J.J. Am. J. Med. (1985) [Pubmed]
  27. On the disulfiram-like activity of moxalactam. Elenbaas, R.M., Ryan, J.L., Robinson, W.A., Singsank, M.J., Harvey, M.J., Klaassen, C.D. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. (1982) [Pubmed]
  28. Comparison of cefotaxime and moxalactam pharmacokinetics and tissue levels. Wise, R., Baker, S., Livingston, R. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1980) [Pubmed]
  29. Past and current roles for cephalosporin antibiotics in treatment of meningitis. Emphasis on use in gram-negative bacillary meningitis. Landesman, S.H., Corrado, M.L., Shah, P.M., Armengaud, M., Barza, M., Cherubin, C.E. Am. J. Med. (1981) [Pubmed]
  30. Penetration of moxalactam into its target proteins in Escherichia coli K-12: comparison of a highly moxalactam resistant mutant with its parent strain. Komatsu, Y., Murakami, K., Nishikawa, T. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1981) [Pubmed]
  31. Plasmid-mediated AmpC-type beta-lactamase isolated from Klebsiella pneumoniae confers resistance to broad-spectrum beta-lactams, including moxalactam. Horii, T., Arakawa, Y., Ohta, M., Ichiyama, S., Wacharotayankun, R., Kato, N. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1993) [Pubmed]
  32. Inactivation of cefoxitin and moxalactam by Bacteroides bivius beta-lactamase. Malouin, F., Fijalkowski, C., Lamothe, F., Lacroix, J.M. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1986) [Pubmed]
  33. In vitro activity of moxalactam alone and in combination with penicillin against common meningeal pathogens. Azimi, P.H., Dunphy, M.G. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1982) [Pubmed]
  34. Moxalactam kinetics in hemodialysis. Jacobson, E.J., Zahrowski, J.J., Nissenson, A.R. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. (1981) [Pubmed]
  35. Moxalactam epimer disposition in patients undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Morse, G., Janicke, D., Cafarell, R., Piontek, K., Apicella, M., Jusko, W.J., Walshe, J. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. (1985) [Pubmed]
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